GRANT Object Permissions (Transact-SQL)

THIS TOPIC APPLIES TO: yesSQL Server (starting with 2008)yesAzure SQL DatabaseyesAzure SQL Data Warehouse yesParallel Data Warehouse

Grants permissions on a table, view, table-valued function, stored procedure, extended stored procedure, scalar function, aggregate function, service queue, or synonym.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

Syntax

GRANT <permission> [ ,...n ] ON   
    [ OBJECT :: ][ schema_name ]. object_name [ ( column [ ,...n ] ) ]  
    TO <database_principal> [ ,...n ]   
    [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]  
    [ AS <database_principal> ]  

<permission> ::=  
    ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] | permission [ ( column [ ,...n ] ) ]  

<database_principal> ::=   
        Database_user   
    | Database_role   
    | Application_role   
    | Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_User   
    | Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_Group   
    | Database_user_mapped_to_certificate   
    | Database_user_mapped_to_asymmetric_key   
    | Database_user_with_no_login  

Arguments

permission
Specifies a permission that can be granted on a schema-contained object. For a list of the permissions, see the Remarks section later in this topic.

ALL
Granting ALL does not grant all possible permissions. Granting ALL is equivalent to granting all ANSI-92 permissions applicable to the specified object. The meaning of ALL varies as follows:

  • Scalar function permissions: EXECUTE, REFERENCES.
  • Table-valued function permissions: DELETE, INSERT, REFERENCES, SELECT, UPDATE.
  • Stored procedure permissions: EXECUTE.
  • Table permissions: DELETE, INSERT, REFERENCES, SELECT, UPDATE.
  • View permissions: DELETE, INSERT, REFERENCES, SELECT, UPDATE.

PRIVILEGES
Included for ANSI-92 compliance. Does not change the behavior of ALL.

column
Specifies the name of a column in a table, view, or table-valued function on which the permission is being granted. The parentheses ( ) are required. Only SELECT, REFERENCES, and UPDATE permissions can be granted on a column. column can be specified in the permissions clause or after the securable name.

Caution

A table-level DENY does not take precedence over a column-level GRANT. This inconsistency in the permissions hierarchy has been preserved for backward compatibility.

ON [ OBJECT :: ] [ schema_name ] . object_name
Specifies the object on which the permission is being granted. The OBJECT phrase is optional if schema_name is specified. If the OBJECT phrase is used, the scope qualifier (::) is required. If schema_name is not specified, the default schema is used. If schema_name is specified, the schema scope qualifier (.) is required.

TO <database_principal>
Specifies the principal to which the permission is being granted.

WITH GRANT OPTION
Indicates that the principal will also be given the ability to grant the specified permission to other principals.

AS
Specifies a principal from which the principal executing this query derives its right to grant the permission.

Database_user
Specifies a database user.

Database_role
Specifies a database role.

Application_role
Specifies an application role.

Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_User
Specifies a database user mapped to a Windows user.

Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_Group
Specifies a database user mapped to a Windows group.

Database_user_mapped_to_certificate
Specifies a database user mapped to a certificate.

Database_user_mapped_to_asymmetric_key
Specifies a database user mapped to an asymmetric key.

Database_user_with_no_login
Specifies a database user with no corresponding server-level principal.

Remarks

Important

A combination of ALTER and REFERENCE permissions in some cases could allow the grantee to view data or execute unauthorized functions. For example: A user with ALTER permission on a table and REFERENCE permission on a function can create a computed column over a function and have it be executed. In this case the user would also need SELECT permission on the computed column.

Information about objects is visible in various catalog views. For more information, see Object Catalog Views (Transact-SQL).

An object is a schema-level securable contained by the schema that is its parent in the permissions hierarchy. The most specific and limited permissions that can be granted on an object are listed in the following table, together with the more general permissions that include them by implication.

Object permission Implied by object permission Implied by schema permission
ALTER CONTROL ALTER
CONTROL CONTROL CONTROL
DELETE CONTROL DELETE
EXECUTE CONTROL EXECUTE
INSERT CONTROL INSERT
RECEIVE CONTROL CONTROL
REFERENCES CONTROL REFERENCES
SELECT RECEIVE SELECT
TAKE OWNERSHIP CONTROL CONTROL
UPDATE CONTROL UPDATE
VIEW CHANGE TRACKING CONTROL VIEW CHANGE TRACKING
VIEW DEFINITION CONTROL VIEW DEFINITION

Permissions

The grantor (or the principal specified with the AS option) must have either the permission itself with GRANT OPTION, or a higher permission that implies the permission being granted.

If you are using the AS option, the following additional requirements apply.

AS Additional permission required
Database user IMPERSONATE permission on the user, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.
Database user mapped to a Windows login IMPERSONATE permission on the user, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.
Database user mapped to a Windows Group Membership in the Windows group, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.
Database user mapped to a certificate Membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.
Database user mapped to an asymmetric key Membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.
Database user not mapped to any server principal IMPERSONATE permission on the user, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.
Database role ALTER permission on the role, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.
Application role ALTER permission on the role, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Examples

A. Granting SELECT permission on a table

The following example grants SELECT permission to user RosaQdM on table Person.Address in the AdventureWorks2012 database.

GRANT SELECT ON OBJECT::Person.Address TO RosaQdM;  
GO  

B. Granting EXECUTE permission on a stored procedure

The following example grants EXECUTE permission on stored procedure HumanResources.uspUpdateEmployeeHireInfo to an application role called Recruiting11.

USE AdventureWorks2012;   
GRANT EXECUTE ON OBJECT::HumanResources.uspUpdateEmployeeHireInfo  
    TO Recruiting11;  
GO   

C. Granting REFERENCES permission on a view with GRANT OPTION

The following example grants REFERENCES permission on column BusinessEntityID in view HumanResources.vEmployee to user Wanida with GRANT OPTION.

GRANT REFERENCES (BusinessEntityID) ON OBJECT::HumanResources.vEmployee   
    TO Wanida WITH GRANT OPTION;  
GO  

D. Granting SELECT permission on a table without using the OBJECT phrase

The following example grants SELECT permission to user RosaQdM on table Person.Address in the AdventureWorks2012 database.

GRANT SELECT ON Person.Address TO RosaQdM;  
GO  

E. Granting SELECT permission on a table to a domain account

The following example grants SELECT permission to user AdventureWorks2012\RosaQdM on table Person.Address in the AdventureWorks2012 database.

GRANT SELECT ON Person.Address TO [AdventureWorks2012\RosaQdM];  
GO  

F. Granting EXECUTE permission on a procedure to a role

The following example creates a role and then grants EXECUTE permission to the role on procedure uspGetBillOfMaterials in the AdventureWorks2012 database.

CREATE ROLE newrole ;  
GRANT EXECUTE ON dbo.uspGetBillOfMaterials TO newrole ;  
GO  

See Also

DENY Object Permissions (Transact-SQL)
REVOKE Object Permissions (Transact-SQL)
Object Catalog Views (Transact-SQL)
Permissions (Database Engine)
Principals (Database Engine)
Securables
sys.fn_builtin_permissions (Transact-SQL)
HAS_PERMS_BY_NAME (Transact-SQL)
sys.fn_my_permissions (Transact-SQL)