Transact-SQL statements

Applies to: yesSQL Server (all supported versions) YesAzure SQL Database YesAzure SQL Managed Instance yesAzure Synapse Analytics yesParallel Data Warehouse

A SQL statement is an atomic unit of work and either completely succeeds or completely fails. A SQL statement is a set of instruction that consists of identifiers, parameters, variables, names, data types, and SQL reserved words that compiles successfully. Analysis Services creates an implicit transaction for a SQL statement if a BeginTransaction command does not specify the start of a transaction. Analysis Services always commits an implicit transaction if the statement succeeds, and rolls back an implicit transaction if the command fails.

There are many types of statements. Perhaps the most important is the SELECT that retrieves rows from the database and enables the selection of one or many rows or columns from one or many tables in SQL Server. This article summarizes the categories of statements for use with Transact-SQL (T-SQL) in addition to the SELECT statement. You can find all of the statements listed in the left-hand navigation.

Backup and restore

The backup and restore statements provide ways to create backups and restore from backups. For more information, see the Backup and restore overview.

Data Definition Language

Data Definition Language (DDL) statements defines data structures. Use these statements to create, alter, or drop data structures in a database. These statements include:

  • ALTER
  • Collations
  • CREATE
  • DROP
  • DISABLE TRIGGER
  • ENABLE TRIGGER
  • RENAME
  • UPDATE STATISTICS

Data Manipulation Language

Data Manipulation Language (DML) affect the information stored in the database. Use these statements to insert, update, and change the rows in the database.

  • BULK INSERT
  • DELETE
  • INSERT
  • SELECT
  • UPDATE
  • MERGE
  • TRUNCATE TABLE

Permissions statements

Permissions statements determine which users and logins can access data and perform operations. For more information about authentication and access, see the Security center.

Service Broker statements

Service Broker is a feature that provides native support for messaging and queuing applications. For more information, see Service Broker.

Session settings

SET statements determine how the current session handles run time settings. For an overview, see SET statements.