We have had a number of queries on how to enable replication using certificates created from makecert. Though the Understanding and Troubleshooting guide for Hyper-V Replica discusses this aspect, I am posting a separate article on this. The below steps are applicable for a simple lab deployment consisting of two standalone servers – PrimaryServer.domain.com and ReplicaServer.domain.com. This can be easily extended to clustered deployments with the Hyper-V Replica Broker.

Makecert is a certificate creation tool which generates certificates for testing purpose. Information on makecert is available here - https://msdn.microsoft.com/library/bfsktky3.aspx.

1. Copy the makecert.exe tool to your primary server

2. Run the following command from an elevated command prompt , on the primary server. This command creates a self-signed root authority certificate. The command also installs a test certificate in the root store of the local machine and is saved as a file locally

makecert -pe -n "CN=MyTestRootCA" -ss root -sr LocalMachine -sky signature -r "MyTestRootCA.cer" 

3. Run the following command couple of times, from an elevated command prompt to create new certificate(s) signed by the test root authority certificate

makecert -pe -n "CN=<FQDN>" -ss my -sr LocalMachine -sky exchange -eku, -in "MyTestRootCA" -is root -ir LocalMachine -sp "Microsoft RSA SChannel Cryptographic Provider" -sy 12 <MachineName>.cer 

Each time:

  • Replace < FQDN > with FQDN of primary, replica server(s) and Hyper-V Replica broker (if required, in a clustered deployment).

  • Replace .cer with any name

The command installs a test certificate in the Personal store of the local machine and is saved as a file locally. The certificate can be used for both Client and Server authentication

4. The certificates can be viewed by mmc->File->Add/Remove Snap in…->Certificates->Add->”Computer Account”->Next->Finish->Ok

You will find the Personal certificate (with the machine names) and the Root certificate (MyTestRootCA) in the highlighted folders:


5. Export the replica server certificate with the private key.


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6. Copy MyTestRootCA.cer and the above exported certificate (RecoveryServer.pfx) to the Replica server.

7. Run the following command from an elevated prompt in ReplicaServer.domain.com

certutil -addstore -f Root "MyTestRootCA.cer" 

8. Open the certificate mmc in ReplicaServer.domain.com and import the certificate (RecoveryServer.pfx) in the Personal store of the server. Provide the pfx file and password as input:


9. In a clustered deployment, two certificates are required on each server:

  • Certificate with the subject name set to the server’s FQDN
  • Certificate with the subject name set to the Hyper-V Replica Broker’s FQDN. This is required as the Hyper-V Replica Broker is Highly Available and can migrate from one server to another.

10. By default, a certificate revocation check is mandatory and Self-Signed Certificates don’t support Revocation checks. To work around it, modify the following registry key on Primary, Replica Servers

reg add  "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Virtualization\Replication" /v DisableCertRevocationCheck /d 1 /t REG_DWORD /f