Building containerized apps using Visual Studio or the command line

Whether you're building from the Visual Studio IDE, or setting up a command-line build, you need to know how Visual Studio builds uses the Dockerfile to build your projects. For performance reasons, Visual Studio follows a special process for containerized apps. Understanding how Visual Studio builds your projects is especially important when you customize your build process by modifying the Dockerfile.

When Visual Studio builds a project that doesn't use Docker containers, it invokes MSBuild on the local machine and generates the output files in a folder (typically bin) under your local solution folder. For a containerized project, however, the build process takes account of the Dockerfile's instructions for building the containerized app. The Dockerfile that Visual Studio uses is divided into multiple stages. This process relies on Docker's multistage build feature.

Multistage build

The multistage build feature helps make the process of building containers more efficient, and makes containers smaller by allowing them to contain only the bits that your app needs at runtime. Multistage build is used for .NET Core projects, not .NET Framework projects.

The multistage build allows container images to be created in stages that produce intermediate images. As an example, consider a typical Dockerfile generated by Visual Studio - the first stage is base:

FROM AS base

The lines in the Dockerfile begin with the Nanoserver image from Microsoft Container Registry ( and create an intermediate image base that exposes ports 80 and 443, and sets the working directory to /app.

The next stage is build, which appears as follows:

FROM AS build
COPY ["WebApplication43/WebApplication43.csproj", "WebApplication43/"]
RUN dotnet restore "WebApplication43/WebApplication43.csproj"
COPY . .
WORKDIR "/src/WebApplication43"
RUN dotnet build "WebApplication43.csproj" -c Release -o /app

You can see that the build stage starts from a different original image from the registry (sdk rather than aspnet), rather than continuing from base. The sdk image has all the build tools, and for that reason it's a lot bigger than the aspnet image, which only contains runtime components. The reason for using a separate image becomes clear when you look at the rest of the Dockerfile:

FROM build AS publish
RUN dotnet publish "WebApplication43.csproj" -c Release -o /app

FROM base AS final
COPY --from=publish /app .
ENTRYPOINT ["dotnet", "WebApplication43.dll"]

The final stage starts again from base, and includes the COPY --from=publish to copy the published output to the final image. This process makes it possible for the final image to be a lot smaller, since it doesn't need to include all of the build tools that were in the sdk image.

Faster builds for the Debug configuration

There are several optimizations that Visual Studio does that help with the performance of the build process for containerized projects. When you start debugging (F5), a previously built image is reused, if possible. If you don't want to reuse the previous container, you can use Rebuild or Clean commands in Visual Studio to force Visual Studio to use a fresh container.

Also, to improve performance, the build process for containerized apps is not as straightforward as simply following the steps outlined in the Dockerfile. Building in a container is much slower than building on the local machine. So, when you build in the Debug configuration, Visual Studio actually builds your projects on the local machine, and then shares the output folder to the container using volume mounting. A build with this optimization enabled is called a Fast mode build.

In Fast mode, Visual Studio calls docker build with an argument that tells Docker to build only the base stage. Visual Studio handles the rest of the process without regard to the contents of the Dockerfile. So, when you modify your Dockerfile, such as to customize the container environment or install additional dependencies, you should put your modifications in the first stage. Any custom steps placed in the Dockerfile's build, publish, or final stages will not be executed.

This performance optimization only occurs when you build in the Debug configuration. In the Release configuration, the build occurs in the container as specified in the Dockerfile.

If you want to disable the performance optimization and build as the Dockerfile specifies, then set the ContainerDevelopmentMode property to Regular in the project file as follows:


To restore the performance optimization, remove the property from the project file.

Building from the command line

You can use docker build or MSBuild to build from the command line.

docker build

To build a containerized solution from the command line, you can usually use the command docker build <context> for each project in the solution. You provide the build context argument. The build context for a Dockerfile is the folder on the local machine that's used as the working folder to generate the image. For example, it's the folder that you copy files from when you copy to the container. In .NET Core projects, use the folder that contains the solution file (.sln). Expressed as a relative path, this argument is typically ".." for a Dockerfile in a project folder, and the solution file in its parent folder. For .NET Framework projects, the build context is the project folder, not the solution folder.

docker build -f Dockerfile ..


Dockerfiles created by Visual Studio for .NET Framework projects (and for .NET Core projects created with versions of Visual Studio prior to Visual Studio 2017 Update 4) are not multistage Dockerfiles. The steps in these Dockerfiles do not compile your code. Instead, when Visual Studio builds a .NET Framework Dockerfile, it first compiles your project using MSBuild. When that succeeds, Visual Studio then builds the Dockerfile, which simply copies the build output from MSBuild into the resulting Docker image. Because the steps to compile your code aren't included in the Dockerfile, you can't build .NET Framework Dockerfiles using docker build from the command line. You should use MSBuild to build these projects.

To build an image for single docker container project you can use MSBuild with the /t:ContainerBuild command option. For example:

MSBuild MyProject.csproj /t:ContainerBuild /p:Configuration=Release

You'll see output similar to what you see in the Output window when you build your solution from the Visual Studio IDE. Always use /p:Configuration=Release, since in cases where Visual Studio uses the multistage build optimization, results when building the Debug configuration might not be as expected.

If you are using a Docker Compose project, use the command to build images:

msbuild /p:SolutionPath=<solution-name>.sln /p:Configuration=Release docker-compose.dcproj

Next steps

Learn how to further customize your builds by setting additional MSBuild properties in your project files. See MSBuild properties for container projects.

See also

MSBuild Dockerfile on Windows Linux containers on Windows