Reading and Filtering Debugging Messages
Kernel-mode code can use the DbgPrintEx and KdPrintEx routines to send a messages to the kernel debugger that are only transmitted under certain conditions. This allows you to filter out messages that you are not interested in.
Note In Windows Server 2003 and earlier versions of Windows, DbgPrint and KdPrint send messages to the kernel debugger unconditionally. In Windows Vista and later versions of Windows, these routines send messages conditionally, like DbgPrintEx and KdPrintEx. Whichever version of Windows you are using, it is recommended that you use DbgPrintEx and KdPrintEx, since these allow you to control the conditions under which the message will be sent.
For complete documentation of these routines, see the Windows Driver Kit.
The basic procedure is as follows:
To filter debugging messages
For each message you wish to send to the debugger, use the function DbgPrintEx or KdPrintEx in your driver's code. Pass the appropriate component name to the ComponentId parameter, and pass a value to the Level parameter that reflects the severity or nature of this message. The message itself is passed to the Format and arguments parameters as with printf.
Set the value of the appropriate component filter mask. Each component has a different mask; the mask value indicates which of that component's messages will be displayed. The component filter mask may be set in the registry using a registry editor, or in memory using a kernel debugger.
Attach a kernel debugger to the computer. Each time your driver passes a message to DbgPrintEx or KdPrintEx, the values passed to ComponentId and Level will be compared with the value of the corresponding component filter mask. If these values satisfy certain criteria, the message will be sent to the kernel debugger and displayed. Otherwise, no message will be sent.
Full details follow. All references on this page to DbgPrintEx apply equally to KdPrintEx.
Identifying the Component Name
Each component has a separate filter mask. This allows the debugger to configure the filter for each component separately.
Each component is referred to in different ways, depending on the context. In the ComponentId parameter of DbgPrintEx, the component name is prefixed with "DPFLTR_" and suffixed with "_ID". In the registry, the component filter mask has the same name as the component itself. In the debugger, the component filter mask is prefixed with "Kd_" and suffixed with "_Mask".
There is a complete list of all component names (in DPFLTR_XXXX_ID format) in the Microsoft Windows Driver Kit (WDK) header ntddk.h and the Windows SDK header ntrtl.h. Most of these component names are reserved for Windows and for drivers written by Microsoft.
There are six component names reserved for independent hardware vendors. To avoid mixing your driver's output with the output of Windows components, you should use one of the following component names:
|Component name||Driver type|
Kernel streaming driver
Any other type of driver
For example, if you are writing a video driver, you would use DPFLTR_IHVVIDEO_ID as the ComponentId parameter of DbgPrintEx, use the value name IHVVIDEO in the registry, and refer to Kd_IHVVIDEO_Mask in the debugger.
In Windows Vista and later versions of Windows, all messages sent by DbgPrint and KdPrint are associated with the DEFAULT component.
Choosing the Correct Level
The Level parameter of the DbgPrintEx routine is of type DWORD. It is used to determine the importance bit field. The connection between the Level parameter and this bit field depends on the size of Level:
If Level is equal to a number between 0 and 31, inclusive, it is interpreted as a bit shift. The importance bit field is set to the value 1 << Level. Thus choosing a value between 0 and 31 for Level results in a bit field with exactly one bit set. If Level is 0, the bit field is equivalent to 0x00000001;if Level is 31, the bit field is equivalent to 0x80000000.
If Level is a number between 32 and 0xFFFFFFFF inclusive, the importance bit field is set to the value of Level itself.
Thus, if you wish to set the bit field to 0x00004000, you can specify Level as 0x00004000 or simply as 14. Note that certain bit field values are not possible by this system -- including a bit field which is entirely zero.
The following constants can be useful for setting the value of Level. They are defined in the Microsoft Windows Driver Kit (WDK) header ntddk.h and the Windows SDK header ntrtl.h:
#define DPFLTR_ERROR_LEVEL 0 #define DPFLTR_WARNING_LEVEL 1 #define DPFLTR_TRACE_LEVEL 2 #define DPFLTR_INFO_LEVEL 3 #define DPFLTR_MASK 0x8000000
One easy way to use the Level parameter is to always use values between 0 and 31 -- using the bits 0, 1, 2, 3 with the meaning given by DPFLTR_XXXX_LEVEL, and using the other bits to mean whatever you choose.
Another easy way to use the Level parameter is to always use explicit bit fields. If you choose this method, you may wish to OR the value DPFLTR_MASK with your bit field; this assures that you will not accidentally use a value less than 32.
To make your driver compatible with the way Windows uses message levels, you should only set the lowest bit (0x1) of the importance bit field if a serious error occurs. If you are using Level values less than 32, this corresponds to DPFLTR_ERROR_LEVEL. If this bit is set, your message is going to be viewed any time someone attaches a kernel debugger to a computer on which your driver is running.
The warning, trace, and information levels should be used in the appropriate situations. Other bits can be freely used for any purposes that you find useful. This allows you to have a wide variety of message types that can be selectively seen or hidden.
In Windows Vista and later versions of Windows, all messages sent by DbgPrint and KdPrint behave like DbgPrintEx and KdPrintEx messages with Level equal to DPFLTR_INFO_LEVEL. In other words, these messages have the third bit of their importance bit field set.
Setting the Component Filter Mask
There are two ways to set a component filter mask:
The component filter mask can be accessed in the registry key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Debug Print Filter. Using a registry editor, create or open this key. Under this key, create a value with the name of the desired component, in uppercase. Set it equal to the DWORD value that you wish to use as the component filter mask.
If a kernel debugger is active, it can access the component filter mask value by dereferencing the address stored in the symbol Kd_XXXX_Mask, where XXXX is the desired component name. You can display the value of this mask in WinDbg or KD with the dd (Display DWORD) command, or enter a new component filter mask with the ed (Enter DWORD) command. If there is a danger of symbol ambiguity, you may wish to specify this symbol as nt!Kd_XXXX_Mask.
Filter masks stored in the registry take effect during boot. Filter masks created by the debugger take effect immediately, and persist until Windows is rebooted. A value set in the registry can be overridden by the debugger, but the component filter mask will return to the value specified in the registry if the system is rebooted.
There is also a system-wide mask called WIN2000. This is equal to 0x1 by default, though it can be changed through the registry or the debugger like all other components. When filtering is performed, each component filter mask is first ORed with the WIN2000 mask. In particular, this means that components whose masks have never been specified default to 0x1.
Criteria for Displaying the Message
When DbgPrintEx is called in kernel-mode code, Windows compares the message importance bit field specified by Level with the filter mask of the component specified by ComponentId.
Note Recall that when the Level parameter is between 0 and 31, the importance bit field is equal to 1 << Level, but when the Level parameter is 32 or higher, the importance bit field is simply equal to Level.
Windows performs an AND operation on the importance bit field and the component filter mask. If the result is nonzero, the message is sent to the debugger.
Here is an example.
Suppose that before the last boot, you created the following values in the Debug Print Filter key:
IHVVIDEO, with a value equal to DWORD 0x2
IHVBUS, equal to DWORD 0x7FF
Now you issue the following commands in the kernel debugger:
kd> ed Kd_IHVVIDEO_Mask 0x8 kd> ed Kd_IHVAUDIO_Mask 0x7
At this point, the IHVVIDEO component has a filter mask of 0x8, the IHVAUDIO component has a filter mask of 0x7, and the IHVBUS component has a filter mask of 0x7FF.
However, because these masks are automatically ORed with the WIN2000 system-wide mask (which is usually equal to 0x1), the IHVVIDEO mask is effectively equal to 0x9. Indeed, components whose filter masks have not been set at all (for instance, IHVSTREAMING or DEFAULT) will have a filter mask of 0x1.
Now suppose that the following function calls occur in various drivers:
DbgPrintEx( DPFLTR_IHVVIDEO_ID, DPFLTR_INFO_LEVEL, "First message.\n"); DbgPrintEx( DPFLTR_IHVAUDIO_ID, 7, "Second message.\n"); DbgPrintEx( DPFLTR_IHVBUS_ID, DPFLTR_MASK | 0x10, "Third message.\n"); DbgPrint( "Fourth message.\n");
The first message has its Level parameter equal to DPFLTR_INFO_LEVEL, which is 3. Since this is less than 32, it is treated as a bit shift, resulting in an importance bit field of 0x8. This value is then ANDed with the effective IHVVIDEO component filter mask of 0x9, giving a nonzero result. So the first message is transmitted to the debugger.
The second message has its Level parameter equal to 7. Again, this is treated as a bit shift, resulting in an importance bit field of 0x80. This is then ANDed with the IHVAUDIO component filter mask of 0x7, giving a result of zero. So the second message is not transmitted.
The third message has its Level parameter equal to DPFLTR_MASK | 0x10. This is greater than 31, and therefore the importance bit field is set equal to the value of Level -- in other words, to 0x80000010. This is then ANDed with the IHVBUS component filter mask of 0x7FF, giving a nonzero result. So the third message is transmitted to the debugger.
The fourth message was passed to DbgPrint instead of DbgPrintEx. In Windows Server 2003 and earlier versions of Windows, messages passed to this routine are always transmitted. In Windows Vista and later versions of Windows, messages passed to this routine are always given a default filter. The importance bit field is equal to 1 << DPFLTR_INFO_LEVEL, which is 0x00000008. The component for this routine is DEFAULT. Since you have not set the DEFAULT component filter mask, it has a value of 0x1. When this is ANDed with the importance bit field, the result is zero. So the fourth message is not transmitted.
The DbgPrint Buffer
When DbgPrint, DbgPrintEx, KdPrint, or KdPrintEx transmits a message to the debugger, the formatted string is sent to the DbgPrint buffer. In most cases, the contents of this buffer are displayed immediately in the Debugger Command window. This display can be disabled by using the Buffer DbgPrint Output option of the Global Flags Utility (gflags.exe). This display does not automatically appear during local kernel debugging.
During local kernel debugging, and any other time this display has been disabled, the contents of the DbgPrint buffer can only be viewed by using the !dbgprint extension command.
Any single call to DbgPrint, DbgPrintEx, KdPrint, or KdPrintEx will only transmit 512 bytes of information. Any output longer than this will be lost. The DbgPrint buffer itself can hold up to 4 KB of data on a free build of Windows. On Windows Server 2003 and later versions of Windows, you can use the KDbgCtrl tool to alter the size of the DbgPrint buffer. See Using KDbgCtrl for details.
If a message is filtered out because of its ComponentId and Level values, it is not transmitted across the debugging connection. Therefore there is no way to display this message in the debugger.