User-mode and kernel-mode drivers use different routines to break into the debugger.
User-Mode Break Routines
A break routine causes an exception to occur in the current process, so that the calling thread can signal the debugger associated with the calling process.
To break into a debugger from a user-mode program, use the DebugBreak routine. Its prototype is as follows:
This routine can be called by any user-mode driver that includes the windows.h header. For complete documentation of this routine and other user-mode routines useful for debugging, see the Microsoft Windows SDK.
When a user-mode program calls DebugBreak, the following possible actions will occur:
If a user-mode debugger is attached, the program will break into the debugger. This means that the program will pause and the debugger will become active.
If a user-mode debugger is not attached, but kernel-mode debugging was enabled at boot time, the entire computer will break into the kernel debugger. If a kernel debugger is not attached, the computer will freeze and await a kernel debugger.
If a user-mode debugger is not attached, and kernel-mode debugging is not enabled, the program will terminate with an unhandled exception, and the post-mortem (just-in-time) debugger will be activated. By default, the postmortem debugger is Dr. Watson, which will create a crash dump file and then ask you if you want to send this crash dump file to Microsoft.
Kernel-Mode Break Routines
When a kernel-mode program breaks into the debugger, the entire operating system freezes until the kernel debugger allows execution to resume. If a kernel debugger is not present, this is treated as a bug check.
The DbgBreakPoint routine works in kernel-mode code, but is otherwise similar to the DebugBreak user-mode routine.
The DbgBreakPointWithStatus routine also causes a break, but it additionally sends a 32-bit status code to the debugger.
The KdBreakPoint and KdBreakPointWithStatus routines are identical to DbgBreakPoint and DbgBreakPointWithStatus, respectively, when compiled in the checked build environment. When compiled in the free build environment, they have no effect.
Kernel-Mode Conditional Break Macros
Two conditional break macros are available for kernel-mode drivers:
The ASSERT macro tests a logical expression. If the expression is false, execution halts and the debugger becomes active. The failed expression and its location in the program are displayed in the debugger.
The ASSERTMSG macro is identical to ASSERT except that it allows an additional message to be sent to the debugger.
ASSERT and ASSERTMSG are only active when compiled in the checked build environment. When compiled in the free build environment, they have no effect.