Managing the Lifetime of Objects
UMDF 2 is the latest version of UMDF and supersedes UMDF 1. All new UMDF drivers should be written using UMDF 2. No new features are being added to UMDF 1 and there is limited support for UMDF 1 on newer versions of Windows 10. Universal Windows drivers must use UMDF 2.
For more info, see Getting Started with UMDF.
Managing References to Driver-Supplied Callback Objects
In most cases, a driver is not required to keep a reference to a callback object. If methods of the callback object interface are called only by the framework and by objects whose lifetimes depend on the callback object and the callback object's paired framework object, the driver does not have to keep a reference. In other words, the driver or framework can safely call methods of object interfaces that are higher up in the object hierarchy.
Managing References to Framework Objects
In UMDF, general COM lifetime principles and the WDF-specific lifetime model determine the lifetime of framework objects. Your driver must satisfy criteria for both models so that framework objects are freed from memory at appropriate times.
COM Lifetime Management
In COM, a caller typically keeps a reference to the object while the object is in use, and then the caller releases the reference when it no longer requires the object. However, a UMDF driver does not need to keep a reference to a framework object. In fact, the driver can release a framework object reference immediately after the driver creates the framework object.
For example, UMDF samples release the device object after they call IWDFDriver::CreateDevice. Although the reference is released early, the device object continues to exist until device is removed because the WDF object tree keeps a reference to it.
Because UMDF tracks all framework objects in an object tree, the driver does not need to keep a reference to framework objects.
However, if your driver keeps a reference to a framework object, the driver must release the reference when it no longer needs the object. A circular reference remains in place until the driver releases its reference. To avoid circular references, the driver typically should not keep an explicit reference to a framework object.
If the driver must keep a reference to a framework object, the driver's callback object must also implement the IObjectCleanup interface. When the driver calls IWDFObject::DeleteWdfObject on the framework object, the framework object calls its corresponding callback object's IObjectCleanup::OnCleanup method. The implementation of IObjectCleanup::OnCleanup must release the reference to the framework object to enable the framework to complete tear down of the framework object.
WDF Lifetime Management
If you are creating an object of a type that allows you to override the default parent, you should select a parent with a lifetime that matches the lifetime of your object. For more information about default parent objects and if the driver can override the default parent, see the table in Framework Objects.
If you match object lifetimes, the framework deletes your object when the parent object is deleted. If you do not match object lifetimes and you want the object to be deleted before the default parent is deleted, you can explicitly delete the object by calling DeleteWdfObject when the object is no longer needed.
For example, if you create a new request object and then call IWDFDriver::CreateWdfMemory to create a memory object for this request, you can specify the request object as the parent of the new memory object. Because WDF deletes child objects when the parent object is deleted, the driver does not need to call DeleteWdfObject to delete the memory object.
However, if there is no parent whose lifetime closely matches your object's lifetime, and if you want the object to be deleted before the default parent is deleted, you must use explicit deletion. For example, a driver could create several request objects that are used for a short duration. In this case, the driver can conserve memory by explicitly deleting the requests when they are no longer needed.
Similarly, if you are creating an object that does not allow you to override the default parent and if you want the object to be deleted before the default parent is deleted, the driver must explicitly delete the object.