Mobile manufacturing

After you have a completed the steps covered in the other guides to prepare the device, the focus shifts to preparing the device for the final retail configuration.

During this process, you set the final configuration values, remove debug logging, and optimize the OS for shipment. Next, you determine how the OS will be transferred to the device hardware in the manufacturing line.

Manufacturing acronyms

Here are some common acronyms that might come in handy.


automated test equipment


bit error rate


built-in self-test


cost of test

CIT Testing

computer interactive testing—semi-automated testing of the device. During this stage, the device is connected to a PC or workstation


device interface board


designed for test


device under test


electrostatic discharge


error vector magnitude


final assembly


final quality check


National Institute of Standards and Technology


out-of-the-box test


probe interface board


real-time clock—on-board hardware clock used to track the current time


subcontract manufacturer


system on a chip


units per hour


unit under test

General manufacturing guidance

The goal for Windows 10 Mobile is that partners are successful in establishing efficient and effective processes that span manufacturing, testing, and servicing. To that end, Microsoft will provide guidance on the tools and process that are used for manufacturing and support of a Windows 10 Mobile device. This guidance describes the tools and techniques that are available to OEMs during the manufacturing process.

Manufacturing security requirements

Final retail images must be configured to meet a set of security requirements. To help OEMs ensure that their retail images meet these requirements, Windows 10 Mobile automatically checks for some of these requirements during first boot. Other requirements must be verified by OEMs.

Mobile deployment and imaging

Getting ready to build and test Windows 10 for mobile editions? Here's a lab that walks through building new mobile devices and customizing them to meet your customers' needs.

Manufacturing mode of the full operating system

Manufacturing mode is a mode of the full operating system that can be used for manufacturing-related tasks, such as component and support testing.

Microsoft Manufacturing OS (MMOS)

Microsoft Manufacturing OS (MMOS) is an optimized configuration of the operating system that facilitates efficient manufacturing.

Flashing tools

You can develop a custom flashing tool to address the life cycle needs of the device

Manufacturing workflow

OEMs need to determine the manufacturing process to use to implement MMOS in their manufacturing facilities.

To discuss the manufacturing process, a simplified model of the manufacturing line workflow will be used. Note that each OEM will have a unique process; this simplified model is used as a common reference point.

Simple factory flow


Board tests/SMT – Image is flashed via gang programmer.

Final assembly, Boot – Marry board with plastic; the first time the device is booted on the manufacturing floor.

Manual tests – Line worker runs device tests such as sound, vibration, camera, keyboard, and so on.

RF/Call testing – Automated testing in which the device is tethered to enable power and the recording of test data.

Final provisioning – Automated process where IMEI data is written, customizations are loaded, and labeling is completed.

Final QA/Packaging – Final manual verification of the device, then packaging.

Random sample testing – A specified number of devices are removed from packaging and tested. If failures reach a certain threshold, the entire line may be recalled.

Manufacturing process options

Each manufacturer has different techniques and tooling that they use to manufacture Windows 10 Mobile devices. Two options are described here, but the OEM is encouraged to combine approaches and innovate as needed. The best technical expertise regarding manufacturing resides with those who built the OEM manufacturing line. Select the guidance that works for your manufacturing processes and business.

A summary of two example manufacturing processes is provided here.

Manufacturing process option 1: boot from WIM MMOS image

You can temporarily copy a WIM (Windows Imaging) Microsoft Manufacturing OS (MMOS) image over to a device and then boot to that image that is running in volatile RAM memory. For more information about MMOS, see Microsoft Manufacturing OS.

Because the test WIM MMOS image that will never ship is used on the device, this approach enables the provisioning of additional manufacturing tools (transports, extenders). Also, OEMs can use any functional native APIs in the test image. Additional factory test-only drivers or other software can be included in the WIM MMOS image.

One advantage of using this approach is that booting from a WIM Image in RAM is faster than flashing the image.


For more info, see Working with WIM MMOS images.

Manufacturing process option 2: reflash the device

This process uses two images: one for factory testing, and a final golden image for the final shipping device. Like the MMOS WIM image, the test image that will never ship is used on the device. This mean that additional manufacturing tools (transports, extenders) can be included and manufacturing only native APIs can be called.


This approach makes it possible, if appropriate, to use a different version of the operating system for testing. This may be a useful interim measure as test applications are being migrated to Windows 10 Mobile.

One tradeoff in this approach is that the manufacturing line must be designed to accommodate the reflashing time that occurs near the end of the manufacturing process.

For more info on working with the flashing tools, see Flashing tools.

Example test area by manufacturing phase

Test area by manufacturing phase is provided only as an example; each manufacturer may wish to sequence the tests differently.

Modem testing (RF / cellular testing)

Modem RF calibration

Wi-Fi RX/TX Power

Bluetooth RX/TX Power

Device testing



SIM interface

Storage card





Sensor – ALS

Sensor – Magnetometer

Sensor – Proximity

Sensor – Accelerometer

Handset interface

Power - stand by current

Device provisioning


SIM Lock

Bluetooth MAC

Sensors calibration

Security provisioning

MO provisioning