Which graphics virtualization technology is right for you?

You have a range of options when it comes to enabling graphics rendering in Remote Desktop Services. When you are planning your virtualization environment, the following considerations drive which graphics rendering technology you choose:

Graphics rendering considerations - compares user scale and GPU requirements to determine the best GPU technology for your environment

In Windows Server 2016, you have two graphics virtualization technologies available with Hyper-V that let you leverage the GPU hardware:

  • Discrete Device Assignment (DDA) - For the highest performance using one or more GPUs dedicated to a VM providing native GPU driver support inside the VM. The density is low because it is limited by the number of physical GPUs available in the server.
  • Remote FX vGPU - For knowledge worker and high-burst GPU scenarios where multiple VMs leverage one or more GPUs through para-virtualization. This solution provides higher user density per server.

The following illustration shows the graphics virtualization options in Windows Server 2016.

Graphics virtualization options in Windows Server 2016 with RDS - shows the three technologies available and how they differ on scale and performance

Discrete Device Assignment

Discrete Device Assignment (DDA) is a hardware pass-through solution that provides the best performance, given that the VM has full access to the GPU using the native driver. Your VM user can access the full capabilities of their device as well the device's native driver. This means the features and capabilities of running the device in a VM mirror running the same device on bare metal.

For more information about DDA, check out Plan for deploying Discrete Device Assignment.

RemoteFX vGPU

RemoteFX vGPU is a graphics virtualization technology that allows the processing power of a GPU to be split across various guest operating systems to enable knowledge worker scenarios (see first graphic above). Advancements in Windows Server 2016 allow further enhancements for GPU burst scenarios, for example for designer applications and data visualization. Other feature improvements include:

  • Support for Generation 2 guest VMs, Windows Server 2016 guest VMs, and Windows Client Hyper-V host.


    Remote Desktop Session Host is not supported on a Windows Server 2016 guest VM; only 1 session can be hosted per Windows Server 2016 guest VM.

  • Improved application compatibility and stability.

  • VM Connect Enhanced Session Mode, allowing USB and clipboard redirection through VM Connect to a VM that is enabled for RemoteFX vGPU.

For more information, check out Set up and configure RemoteFX vGPU for Remote Desktop Services.

Which should you use?

Key considerations on which virtualization technology might depend on the hardware specifications or application requirements in your environment. Here is a brief table regarding DDA and RemoteFX vGPU capabilities:

Feature RemoteFX vGPU Discrete Device Assignment
Device GPU assignment Para-virtualized (many VMs to one or more GPUs) 1 or more GPU to 1 VM
Scale Best scale / 1 GPU to many VMs Low scale / 1 or more GPUs to 1 VM
App compatibility DX 11.1, OpenGL 4.4, OpenCL 1.1 All GPU capabilities provided by vendor (DX 12, OpenGL, CUDA)
AVC444 Enabled by default (Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016) Available through Group Policy (Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016)
GPU VRAM Up to 1 GB dedicated VRAM Up to VRAM supported by the GPU
Frame rate Up to 30fps Up to 60fps
GPU driver in guest RemoteFX 3D adapter display driver (Microsoft) GPU vendor driver (Nvidia, AMD, Intel)
Guest OS support Windows Server 2012 R2 Windows Server 2016 Windows 7 SP1 Windows 8.1 Windows 10 Windows Server 2012 R2 Windows Server 2016 Windows 10 Linux
Hypervisor Microsoft Hyper-V Microsoft Hyper-V
Host OS availability Windows Server 2012 R2 Windows Server 2016 Windows 10 Windows Server 2016
GPU hardware Enterprise GPUs (such as Nvidia Quadro/GRID or AMD FirePro) Enterprise GPUs (such as Nvidia Quadro/GRID or AMD FirePro)
Server hardware No special requirements Modern server, exposes IOMMU to OS (usually SR-IOV compliant hardware)

A general rule of thumb is to use DDA for the best application compatibility since the virtual machine will have direct access to the GPU. If your applications or workloads do not have as strict GPU requirements and you want to server a wider base of users, RemoteFX vGPU might work best for you.