Example Code for Searching for Users

The following code examples search for users in the domain of the user account under which the calling process is running.

C++ Example

The following C++ code example searches the current domain for all users, or a specific user based on a specified filter.

//  Add msvcrt.dll to the project.
//  Add activeds.lib to the project.

#include "stdafx.h"
#include <objbase.h>
#include <wchar.h>
#include <activeds.h>
//  Define UNICODE.
//  Define version 5 for Windows 2000.
#define _WIN32_WINNT 0x0500
#include <sddl.h>

HRESULT FindUsers(IDirectorySearch *pContainerToSearch,  //  IDirectorySearch pointer to the container to search.
    LPOLESTR szFilter, //  Filter to find specific users.
    //  NULL returns all user objects.
    LPOLESTR *pszPropertiesToReturn, //  Properties to return for user objects found.
    //  NULL returns all set properties.
    BOOL bIsVerbose //  TRUE indicates that display all properties for the found objects.
    //  FALSE indicates that only the RDN.
    );

//  Entry point for the application.
void wmain(int argc, wchar_t *argv[ ])
{
#ifdef _MBCS
    //  Handle the command line arguments.
    DWORD dwLength = MAX_PATH*2;
    LPOLESTR pszBuffer = new OLECHAR[dwLength];
    wcsncpy_s(pszBuffer, L"",dwLength);
    BOOL bReturnVerbose = FALSE;


    for (int i = 1;i<argc;i++)
    {
        if (_wcsicmp(argv[i],L"/V") == 0)
        {
            bReturnVerbose = TRUE;
        }
        else if ((_wcsicmp(argv[i],L"/?") == 0)||
            (_wcsicmp(argv[i],L"-?") == 0))
        {
            wprintf(L"This application queries for users in the current user domain.\n");
            wprintf(L"Syntax: queryusers [/V][querystring]\n");
            wprintf(L"where /V specifies that all properties for the found users should be returned.\n");
            wprintf(L"querystring is the query criteria in ldap query format.\n");
            wprintf(L"Defaults: If no /V is specified, the query returns only the RDN and DN of the items found.\n");
            wprintf(L"If no querystring is specified, the query returns all users.\n");
            wprintf(L"Example: queryusers (sn=Smith)\n");
            wprintf(L"Returns all users with surname Smith.\n");
            return;
        }
        else
        {
            wcsncpy_s(pszBuffer,argv[i],dwLength-wcslen(pszBuffer));
        }
    }
    if (_wcsicmp(pszBuffer,L"") == 0)
        wprintf(L"\nFinding all user objects...\n\n");
    else
        wprintf(L"\nFinding user objects based on query: %s...\n\n", pszBuffer);

    //  Initialize COM.
    CoInitialize(NULL);
    HRESULT hr = S_OK;
    //  Get rootDSE and the current user domain container distinguished name.
    IADs *pObject = NULL;
    IDirectorySearch *pContainerToSearch = NULL;
    LPOLESTR szPath = new OLECHAR[MAX_PATH];
    VARIANT var;
    hr = ADsOpenObject(L"LDAP://rootDSE",
                       NULL,
                       NULL,
                       ADS_SECURE_AUTHENTICATION, // Use Secure Authentication.
                       IID_IADs,
                       (void**)&amp;pObject);
    if (FAILED(hr))
    {
        wprintf(L"Cannot execute query. Cannot bind to LDAP://rootDSE.\n");
        if (pObject)
            pObject->Release();
        return;
    }
    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
    {
        hr = pObject->Get(_bstr_t("defaultNamingContext"),&amp;var);
        if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
        {
            //  Build path to the domain container.
            wcsncpy_s(szPath,L"LDAP://",MAX_PATH);
            wcsncat_s(szPath,var.bstrVal,MAX_PATH-wcslen(szPath));
            hr = ADsOpenObject(szPath,
                               NULL,
                               NULL,
                               ADS_SECURE_AUTHENTICATION, //  Use Secure Authentication.
                               IID_IDirectorySearch,
                               (void**)&amp;pContainerToSearch);

            if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
            {
                hr = FindUsers(pContainerToSearch, //  IDirectorySearch pointer to domainDNS container.
                               pszBuffer,  
                               NULL, //  Return all properties.
                               bReturnVerbose 
                             );
                if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
                {
                    if (S_FALSE==hr)
                        wprintf(L"User object cannot be found.\n");
                }
                else if (E_ADS_INVALID_FILTER==hr)
                    wprintf(L"Cannot execute query. Invalid filter was specified.\n");
                else
                    wprintf(L"Query failed to run. HRESULT: %x\n",hr);
            }
            else
            {
                wprintf(L"Cannot execute query. Cannot bind to the container.\n");
            }
            if (pContainerToSearch)
                pContainerToSearch->Release();
        }
        VariantClear(&amp;var);
    }
    if (pObject)
        pObject->Release();

    //  Uninitialize COM.
    CoUninitialize();
    delete [] szPath;
    delete [] pszBuffer;
    return;
#endif _MBCS
}

HRESULT FindUsers(IDirectorySearch *pContainerToSearch,  //  IDirectorySearch pointer to the container to search.
    LPOLESTR szFilter, //  Filter for finding specific users.
    //  NULL returns all user objects.
    LPOLESTR *pszPropertiesToReturn, //  Properties to return for user objects found.
    //  NULL returns all set properties.
    BOOL bIsVerbose    //  TRUE indicates that all properties for the found objects are displayed.
    //  FALSE indicates only the RDN.
    )
{
    if (!pContainerToSearch)
        return E_POINTER;
    DWORD dwLength = MAX_PATH*2;
    // Create search filter.
    LPOLESTR pszSearchFilter = new OLECHAR[dwLength];

    //  Add the filter.
    swprintf_s(pszSearchFilter, dwLength, L"(&amp;(objectClass=user)(objectCategory=person)%s)",szFilter);

    //  Specify subtree search.
    ADS_SEARCHPREF_INFO SearchPrefs;
    SearchPrefs.dwSearchPref = ADS_SEARCHPREF_SEARCH_SCOPE;
    SearchPrefs.vValue.dwType = ADSTYPE_INTEGER;
    SearchPrefs.vValue.Integer = ADS_SCOPE_SUBTREE;
    DWORD dwNumPrefs = 1;

    //  COL for iterations.
    LPOLESTR pszColumn = NULL;  
    ADS_SEARCH_COLUMN col;
    HRESULT hr = S_OK;

    //  Interface Pointers
    IADs  *pObj = NULL;
    IADs  * pIADs = NULL;

    //  Search handle.
    ADS_SEARCH_HANDLE hSearch = NULL;

    //  Set search preference.
    hr = pContainerToSearch->SetSearchPreference(&amp;SearchPrefs, dwNumPrefs);
    if (FAILED(hr))
        return hr;

    LPOLESTR pszBool = NULL;
    DWORD dwBool = 0;
    PSID pObjectSID = NULL;
    LPOLESTR szSID = NULL;
    LPOLESTR szDSGUID = new WCHAR [39];
    LPGUID pObjectGUID = NULL;
    FILETIME filetime;
    SYSTEMTIME systemtime;
    DATE date;
    VARIANT varDate;
    LARGE_INTEGER liValue;
    LPOLESTR *pszPropertyList = NULL;
    LPOLESTR pszNonVerboseList[] = {L"name",L"distinguishedName"};

    LPOLESTR szName = new OLECHAR[MAX_PATH];
    LPOLESTR szDN = new OLECHAR[MAX_PATH];

    VariantInit(&amp;varDate);

    int iCount = 0;
    DWORD x = 0L;



    if (!bIsVerbose)
    {
        //  Return non-verbose list properties only.
        hr = pContainerToSearch->ExecuteSearch(pszSearchFilter,
                                               pszNonVerboseList,
                                               sizeof(pszNonVerboseList)/sizeof(LPOLESTR),
                                               &amp;hSearch
                                             );
    }
    else
    {
        if (!pszPropertiesToReturn)
        {
            //  Return all properties.
            hr = pContainerToSearch->ExecuteSearch(pszSearchFilter,
                                                   NULL,
                                                   (DWORD)-1,
                                                   &amp;hSearch
                                                 );
        }
        else
        {
            //  Specified subset.
            pszPropertyList = pszPropertiesToReturn;
            //  Return specified properties.
            hr = pContainerToSearch->ExecuteSearch(pszSearchFilter,
                                                   pszPropertyList,
                                                   sizeof(pszPropertyList)/sizeof(LPOLESTR),
                                                   &amp;hSearch
                                                 );
        }
    }
    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
    {  
        //  Call IDirectorySearch::GetNextRow() to retrieve the next data row.
        hr = pContainerToSearch->GetFirstRow(hSearch);
        if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
        {
            while(hr != S_ADS_NOMORE_ROWS)
            {
                //  Keep track of count.
                iCount++;
                if (bIsVerbose)
                    wprintf(L"----------------------------------\n");
                //  Loop through the array of passed column names,
                //  print the data for each column.

                while(pContainerToSearch->GetNextColumnName(hSearch, &amp;pszColumn) != S_ADS_NOMORE_COLUMNS)
                {
                    hr = pContainerToSearch->GetColumn(hSearch, pszColumn, &amp;col);
                    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
                    {
                        //  Print the data for the column and free the column.
                        if(bIsVerbose)
                        {
                            //  Get the data for this column.
                            wprintf(L"%s\n",col.pszAttrName);
                            switch (col.dwADsType)
                            {
                            case ADSTYPE_DN_STRING:
                                for (x = 0; x< col.dwNumValues; x++)
                                {
                                    wprintf(L"  %s\r\n",col.pADsValues[x].DNString);
                                }
                                break;
                            case ADSTYPE_CASE_EXACT_STRING:    
                            case ADSTYPE_CASE_IGNORE_STRING:    
                            case ADSTYPE_PRINTABLE_STRING:    
                            case ADSTYPE_NUMERIC_STRING:      
                            case ADSTYPE_TYPEDNAME:        
                            case ADSTYPE_FAXNUMBER:        
                            case ADSTYPE_PATH:          
                                for (x = 0; x< col.dwNumValues; x++)
                                {
                                    wprintf(L"  %s\r\n",col.pADsValues[x].CaseIgnoreString);
                                }
                                break;
                            case ADSTYPE_BOOLEAN:
                                for (x = 0; x< col.dwNumValues; x++)
                                {
                                    dwBool = col.pADsValues[x].Boolean;
                                    pszBool = dwBool ? L"TRUE" : L"FALSE";
                                    wprintf(L"  %s\r\n",pszBool);
                                }
                                break;
                            case ADSTYPE_INTEGER:
                                for (x = 0; x< col.dwNumValues; x++)
                                {
                                    wprintf(L"  %d\r\n",col.pADsValues[x].Integer);
                                }
                                break;
                            case ADSTYPE_OCTET_STRING:
                                if (_wcsicmp(col.pszAttrName,L"objectSID") == 0)
                                {
                                    for (x = 0; x< col.dwNumValues; x++)
                                    {
                                        pObjectSID = (PSID)(col.pADsValues[x].OctetString.lpValue);
                                        //  Convert SID to string.
                                        ConvertSidToStringSid(pObjectSID, &amp;szSID);
                                        wprintf(L"  %s\r\n",szSID);
                                        LocalFree(szSID);
                                    }
                                }
                                else if ((_wcsicmp(col.pszAttrName,L"objectGUID") == 0))
                                {
                                    for (x = 0; x< col.dwNumValues; x++)
                                    {
                                        //  Cast to LPGUID.
                                        pObjectGUID = (LPGUID)(col.pADsValues[x].OctetString.lpValue);
                                        //  Convert GUID to string.
                                        ::StringFromGUID2(*pObjectGUID, szDSGUID, 39); 
                                        //  Print the GUID.
                                        wprintf(L"  %s\r\n",szDSGUID);
                                    }
                                }
                                else
                                    wprintf(L"  Value of type Octet String. No Conversion.");
                                break;
                            case ADSTYPE_UTC_TIME:
                                for (x = 0; x< col.dwNumValues; x++)
                                {
                                    systemtime = col.pADsValues[x].UTCTime;
                                    if (SystemTimeToVariantTime(&amp;systemtime,
                                        &amp;date) != 0) 
                                    {
                                        //  Pack in variant.vt.
                                        varDate.vt = VT_DATE;
                                        varDate.date = date;
                                        VariantChangeType(&amp;varDate,&amp;varDate,VARIANT_NOVALUEPROP,VT_BSTR);
                                        wprintf(L"  %s\r\n",varDate.bstrVal);
                                        VariantClear(&amp;varDate);
                                    }
                                    else
                                        wprintf(L"  Could not convert UTC-Time.\n",pszColumn);
                                }
                                break;
                            case ADSTYPE_LARGE_INTEGER:
                                for (x = 0; x< col.dwNumValues; x++)
                                {
                                    liValue = col.pADsValues[x].LargeInteger;
                                    filetime.dwLowDateTime = liValue.LowPart;
                                    filetime.dwHighDateTime = liValue.HighPart;
                                    if((filetime.dwHighDateTime==0) &amp;&amp; (filetime.dwLowDateTime==0))
                                    {
                                        wprintf(L"  No value set.\n");
                                    }
                                    else
                                    {
                                        //  Verify properties of type LargeInteger that represent time.
                                        //  If TRUE, then convert to variant time.
                                        if ((0==wcscmp(L"accountExpires", col.pszAttrName))|
                                            (0==wcscmp(L"badPasswordTime", col.pszAttrName))||
                                            (0==wcscmp(L"lastLogon", col.pszAttrName))||
                                            (0==wcscmp(L"lastLogoff", col.pszAttrName))||
                                            (0==wcscmp(L"lockoutTime", col.pszAttrName))||
                                            (0==wcscmp(L"pwdLastSet", col.pszAttrName))
                                            )
                                        {
                                            //  Handle special case for Never Expires where low part is -1.
                                            if (filetime.dwLowDateTime==-1)
                                            {
                                                wprintf(L"  Never Expires.\n");
                                            }
                                            else
                                            {
                                                if (FileTimeToLocalFileTime(&amp;filetime, &amp;filetime) != 0) 
                                                {
                                                    if (FileTimeToSystemTime(&amp;filetime,
                                                        &amp;systemtime) != 0)
                                                    {
                                                        if (SystemTimeToVariantTime(&amp;systemtime,
                                                            &amp;date) != 0) 
                                                        {
                                                            //  Pack in variant.vt.
                                                            varDate.vt = VT_DATE;
                                                            varDate.date = date;
                                                            VariantChangeType(&amp;varDate,&amp;varDate,VARIANT_NOVALUEPROP,VT_BSTR);
                                                            wprintf(L"  %s\r\n",varDate.bstrVal);
                                                            VariantClear(&amp;varDate);
                                                        }
                                                        else
                                                        {
                                                            wprintf(L"  FileTimeToVariantTime failed\n");
                                                        }
                                                    }
                                                    else
                                                    {
                                                        wprintf(L"  FileTimeToSystemTime failed\n");
                                                    }

                                                }
                                                else
                                                {
                                                    wprintf(L"  FileTimeToLocalFileTime failed\n");
                                                }
                                            }
                                        }
                                        else
                                        {
                                            //  Print the LargeInteger.
                                            wprintf(L"  high: %d low: %d\r\n",filetime.dwHighDateTime, filetime.dwLowDateTime);
                                        }
                                    }
                                }
                                break;
                            case ADSTYPE_NT_SECURITY_DESCRIPTOR:
                                for (x = 0; x< col.dwNumValues; x++)
                                {
                                    wprintf(L"  Security descriptor.\n");
                                }
                                break;
                            default:
                                wprintf(L"Unknown type %d.\n",col.dwADsType);
                            }
                        }
                        else
                        {
#ifdef _MBCS
                            //  Verbose handles only the two single-valued attributes: cn and ldapdisplayname,
                            //  so this is a special case.
                            if (0==wcscmp(L"name", pszColumn))
                            {
                                wcscpy_s(szName,col.pADsValues->CaseIgnoreString);
                            }
                            if (0==wcscmp(L"distinguishedName", pszColumn))
                            {
                                wcscpy_s(szDN,col.pADsValues->CaseIgnoreString);
                            }
#endif _MBCS
                        }
                        pContainerToSearch->FreeColumn(&amp;col);
                    }
                    FreeADsMem(pszColumn);
                }
                if (!bIsVerbose)
                    wprintf(L"%s\n  DN: %s\n\n",szName,szDN);
                //  Get the next row.
                hr = pContainerToSearch->GetNextRow(hSearch);
            }

        }
        //  Close the search handle to cleanup.
        pContainerToSearch->CloseSearchHandle(hSearch);
    } 
    if (SUCCEEDED(hr) &amp;&amp; 0==iCount)
        hr = S_FALSE;

    delete [] szName;
    delete [] szDN;
    delete [] szDSGUID;
    delete [] pszSearchFilter;
    return hr;
}

Visual Basic Example

The following Visual Basic code example searches the current domain for users with the specified surname and returns the name and distinguishedName attributes for the objects that are found. The following code example uses ADO to perform the search.

Dim Con As ADODB.Connection
Dim ocommand As ADODB.Command
Dim gc As IADs
 
On Error Resume Next
' Maximum number of items to list on a msgbox.
MAX_DISPLAY = 5
 
' Prompt for surname to search for.
strName = InputBox("This routine searches in the current domain for users with the specified surname." & vbCrLf & vbCrLf &amp;"Specify the surname:")
 
If strName = "" Then
  msgbox "No surname was specified. The routine will search for all users."
End If
 
 
' Create ADO connection object for Active Directory
Set Con = CreateObject("ADODB.Connection")
  If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
     BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on CreateObject"
  End If
Con.Provider = "ADsDSOObject"
  If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
     BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on Provider"
  End If
Con.Open "Active Directory Provider"
  If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
     BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on Open"
  End If
 
' Create ADO command object for the connection.
Set ocommand = CreateObject("ADODB.Command")
  If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
     BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on CreateObject"
  End If
ocommand.ActiveConnection = Con
  If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
     BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on Active Connection"
  End If
 
' Get the ADsPath for the domain to search. 
Set root = GetObject("LDAP://rootDSE")
  If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
     BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on GetObject for rootDSE"
  End If
sDomain = root.Get("defaultNamingContext")
  If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
     BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on Get on defaultNamingContext"
  End If
Set domain = GetObject("LDAP://" & sDomain)
  If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
     BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on GetObject for domain"
  End If
 
' Build the ADsPath element of the commandtext
sADsPath = "<" & domain.ADsPath & ">"
 
' Build the filter element of the commandtext
If (strName = "") Then
  sFilter = "(&amp;(objectCategory=person)(objectClass=user))"
Else
  sFilter = "(&amp;(objectCategory=person)(objectClass=user)(sn=" & strName & "))"
End If
 
' Build the returned attributes element of the commandtext.
sAttribsToReturn = "name,distinguishedName"
 
' Build the depth element of the commandtext.
sDepth = "subTree"
 
' Assemble the commandtext.
ocommand.CommandText = sADsPath & ";" & sFilter & ";" & sAttribsToReturn & ";" & sDepth
  If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
     BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on CommandText"
  End If
' Display.
show_items "CommandText: " & ocommand.CommandText, ""
 
' Execute the query.
Set rs = ocommand.Execute
  If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
     BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on Execute"
  End If
 
strText = "Found " & rs.RecordCount & " Users in the domain:"
intNumDisplay = 0
intCount = 0
 
' Navigate the record set.
rs.MoveFirst
While Not rs.EOF
    intCount = intCount + 1
    strText = strText & vbCrLf & intCount & ") "
    For i = 0 To rs.Fields.Count - 1
        If rs.Fields(i).Type = adVariant And Not (IsNull(rs.Fields(i).Value)) Then
          strText = strText & rs.Fields(i).Name & " = "
          For j = LBound(rs.Fields(i).Value) To UBound(rs.Fields(i).Value)
             strText = strText & rs.Fields(i).Value(j) & " "
          Next
        Else
          strText = strText & rs.Fields(i).Name & " = " & rs.Fields(i).Value & vbCrLf
        End If
    Next
    intNumDisplay = intNumDisplay + 1
    ' Display in msgbox if there are MAX_DISPLAY items to display.
    If intNumDisplay = MAX_DISPLAY Then
        Call show_items(strText, "Users in domain")
        strText = ""
        intNumDisplay = 0
    End If
    rs.MoveNext
Wend
 
show_items strText, "Users in domain"
''''''''''''''''''''
' Display subroutines
''''''''''''''''''''
Sub show_items(strText, strName)
    MsgBox strText, vbInformation, "Search domain for users with Surname " & strName
End Sub
 
Sub BailOnFailure(ErrNum, ErrText)    strText = "Error 0x" & Hex(ErrNum) & " " & ErrText
    MsgBox strText, vbInformation, "ADSI Error"
    WScript.Quit
End Sub