Effect States (Direct3D 9)

Effect states are used to initialize pipeline states in preparation for vertex and pixel processing.

effect state [ [index] ] = expression;

Where:

  • effect state - Similar to the traditional fixed function pipeline states. A complete list of states is provided below.
  • [ [index] ] - Optional integer index. The index identifies a particular state within an array of effect states. The outer brackets indicate that an index is optional. If an index is used, be sure to use the inner brackets.
  • expression - State assignment expression. See Expressions (Direct3D 9).

Each state has a native data type. This is the data type that the state expects values to be in when the effect assigns them. The data types that each state expects are listed below.

Note that the effect interface will attempt to cast values to the appropriate type as early as possible. Literal values can be cast at compile time. Non-literals (i.e. regular variables) need to be cast when the appropriate Set methods are called. For example, the effect interface will cast values set using SetBool, SetValue, and other similar functions if necessary. For better performance ensure that the values passed to the effect interface are already the correct type and will not need casting. If the runtime is unable to cast a value, an error is returned.

Effect states can be broken up into the following categories:

Light States

To enable the best performance for applying an effect, all components of a light or a material should be specified in the effect file. States that you fail to declare are set to some default value because there is no way for Direct3D to set light states individually.

Light State Type Values
LightAmbient[n] float4 See the Ambient member of D3DLIGHT9.
LightAttenuation0[n] float See the Attenuation0 member of D3DLIGHT9.
LightAttenuation1[n] float See the Attenuation1 member of D3DLIGHT9.
LightAttenuation2[n] float See the Attenuation2 member of D3DLIGHT9.
LightDiffuse[n] float4 See the Diffuse member of D3DLIGHT9.
LightDirection[n] float3 See the Direction member of D3DLIGHT9.
LightEnable[n] bool TRUE or FALSE. See the bEnable argument in LightEnable.
LightFalloff[n] float D3DCOLORVALUE. See the Falloff member of D3DLIGHT9.
LightPhi[n] float See the Phi member of D3DLIGHT9.
LightPosition[n] float3 See the Position member of D3DLIGHT9.
LightRange[n] float See the Range member of D3DLIGHT9.
LightSpecular[n] float4 See the Specular member of D3DLIGHT9.
LightTheta[n] float See the Theta member of D3DLIGHT9.
LightType[n] dword Same value as the array of up to n D3DLIGHTTYPE values without the D3DLIGHT_ prefix.

 

Example:

LightEnable[0] = TRUE;
LightType[0] = POINT;
LightPosition[0] = float3<10.0f, 1.0f, 23.0f>;
LightAmbient[0] = float4<0.7f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f>;

This will enable lighting, make point lighting the type, set the light position to float3<10.0f, 1.0f, 23.0f>, and set the ambient color to float4<0.7f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f>.

Material States

States that you fail to declare are set to some default value because there is no way for Direct3D to set material states individually.

Material State Type Values
MaterialAmbient float4 Same value as Ambient
MaterialDiffuse float4 Same value as Diffuse
MaterialEmissive float4 Same value as Emissive
MaterialPower float Same value as Power
MaterialSpecular float4 Same value as Specular

 

Example:

MaterialDiffuse = float4<0.7f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f>;
MaterialPower = 3.0f;

This will set the diffuse color to float4<0.7f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f> and make the power of the material 3.0f.

Render States

There are two types of render states:

Pixel Pipe Render States

Effect file render states have names similar to the fixed function pipeline states, often with the prefix removed.

Render State Type Values
AlphaBlendEnable bool True or False. Same values as D3DRS_ALPHABLENDENABLE in [D3DRENDERSTATETYPE](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/Bb172599(v=VS.85).aspx).
AlphaFunc dword Same values as [D3DCMPFUNC](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/Bb172517(v=VS.85).aspx) without the D3DCMP_ prefix. See D3DRS_ALPHAFUNC.
AlphaRef dword Same values as D3DRS_ALPHAREF.
AlphaTestEnable dword True or False. See D3DRS_ALPHATESTENABLE.
BlendOp dword Same values as [D3DBLENDOP](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/Bb172509(v=VS.85).aspx) without the D3DBLENDOP_ prefix.
ColorWriteEnable dword Bitwise combination of RED|GREEN|BLUE|ALPHA. See D3DRS_COLORWRITEENABLE.
DepthBias float Same values as D3DRS_DEPTHBIAS.
DestBlend dword Same values as [D3DBLEND](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/Bb172508(v=VS.85).aspx) without the D3DBLEND_ prefix.
DitherEnable bool True or False. Same values as D3DRS_DITHERENABLE.
FillMode dword Same values as [D3DFILLMODE](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/Bb172556(v=VS.85).aspx) without the D3DFILL_ prefix.
LastPixel dword True or False. See D3DRS_LASTPIXEL.
ShadeMode dword Same values as [D3DSHADEMODE](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/Bb172605(v=VS.85).aspx) without the D3DSHADE_ prefix.
SlopeScaleDepthBias float Same values as D3DRS_SLOPESCALEDEPTHBIAS.
SrcBlend dword Same values as [D3DBLEND](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/Bb172508(v=VS.85).aspx) without the D3DBLEND_ prefix.
StencilEnable bool True or False. Same values as D3DRS_STENCILENABLE.
StencilFail dword Same values as [D3DSTENCILCAPS](d3dstencilcaps.md) without the D3DSTENCILCAP_ prefix. See D3DRS_STENCILFAIL.
StencilFunc dword Same values as [D3DCMPFUNC](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/Bb172517(v=VS.85).aspx) without the D3DCMP_ prefix. See D3DRS_STENCILFUNC.
StencilMask dword Same values as D3DRS_STENCILMASK.
StencilPass dword Same values as [D3DSTENCILCAPS](d3dstencilcaps.md) without the D3DSTENCILCAP_ prefix. See D3DRS_STENCILPASS.
StencilRef int Same values as D3DRS_STENCILREF.
StencilWriteMask dword Same values as D3DRS_STENCILWRITEMASK.
StencilZFail dword Same values as [D3DSTENCILCAPS](d3dstencilcaps.md) without the D3DSTENCILCAP_ prefix. See D3DRS_STENCILZFAIL.
TextureFactor dword Same values as [D3DCOLOR](d3dcolor.md). Same values as D3DRS_TEXTUREFACTOR.
Wrap0 - Wrap15 dword Values are the same as the values used by D3DRS_WRAP0. Valid values are:
  • COORD0 (which corresponds to D3DWRAPCOORD_0)
  • COORD1 (which corresponds to D3DWRAPCOORD_1)
  • COORD2 (which corresponds to D3DWRAPCOORD_2)
  • COORD3 (which corresponds to D3DWRAPCOORD_3)
  • U (which corresponds to D3DWRAP_U)
  • V (which corresponds to D3DWRAP_V)
  • W (which corresponds to D3DWRAP_W)
ZEnable dword Same values as [D3DZBUFFERTYPE](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/Bb205568(v=VS.85).aspx) without the D3DZB_ prefix.
ZFunc dword Same values as [D3DCMPFUNC](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/Bb172517(v=VS.85).aspx) without the D3DCMP_ prefix. See D3DRS_ZFUNC.
ZWriteEnable bool True or False. See D3DRS_ZWRITEENABLE.

 

Example:

AlphaBlendEnable = TRUE;
FillMode = WIREFRAME;

This will enable alpha blending and make all geometries render in wireframe.

Vertex Pipe Render States

Effect file render states have names similar to the fixed function pipeline states, often with the prefix removed.

Render State Type Values
Ambient float4 Same values as D3DRS_AMBIENT.
AmbientMaterialSource dword Same values as D3DMATERIALCOLORSOURCE without the D3DMCS_ prefix. See D3DRS_AMBIENTMATERIALSOURCE.
Clipping bool True or False. Same values as D3DRS_CLIPPING.
ClipPlaneEnable dword Bitwise combination of D3DCLIPPLANE0 - D3DCLIPPLANE5 macros. See D3DCLIPPLANEn and D3DRS_CLIPPLANEENABLE.
ColorVertex bool True or False. Same values as D3DRS_COLORVERTEX.
CullMode dword Same values as D3DCULL without the D3DCULL_ prefix.
DiffuseMaterialSource dword Same values as D3DMATERIALCOLORSOURCE without the D3DMCS_ prefix. See D3DRS_DIFFUSEMATERIALSOURCE.
EmissiveMaterialSource dword Same values as D3DMATERIALCOLORSOURCE without the D3DMCS_ prefix. See D3DRS_EMISSIVEMATERIALSOURCE.
FogColor dword Same values as D3DCOLOR. See D3DRS_FOGCOLOR.
FogDensity float Same values as D3DRS_FOGDENSITY.
FogEnable bool True or False. Same values as D3DRS_FOGENABLE.
FogEnd float Same values as D3DRS_FOGEND.
FogStart float Same values as D3DRS_FOGSTART.
FogTableMode dword Same values as D3DFOGMODE. See D3DRS_FOGTABLEMODE in D3DRENDERSTATETYPE.
FogVertexMode dword Same values as D3DFOGMODE without the D3DFOG_ prefix.
IndexedVertexBlendEnable bool True or False. Same values as D3DRS_INDEXEDVERTEXBLENDENABLE.
Lighting bool True or False. Same values as D3DRS_LIGHTING.
LocalViewer bool True or False. Same values as D3DRS_LOCALVIEWER.
MultiSampleAntialias bool Same values as D3DRS_MULTISAMPLEANTIALIAS.
MultiSampleMask dword Same values as D3DRS_MULTISAMPLEMASK.
NormalizeNormals bool True or False. Same values as D3DRS_NORMALIZENORMALS.
PatchSegments float Same values as nSegments in SetNPatchMode.
PointScale_A float Same values as D3DRS_POINTSCALE_A.
PointScale_B float Same values as D3DRS_POINTSCALE_B.
PointScale_C float Same values as D3DRS_POINTSCALE_C.
PointScaleEnable bool Same values as D3DRS_POINTSCALEENABLE.
PointSize float Same values as D3DRS_POINTSIZE.
PointSize_Min float Same values as D3DRS_POINTSIZE_MIN.
PointSize_Max float Same values as D3DRS_POINTSIZE_MAX without the D3DRS_ prefix.
PointSpriteEnable bool True or False. Same values as D3DRS_POINTSPRITEENABLE.
RangeFogEnable bool True or False. Same values as D3DRS_RANGEFOGENABLE.
SpecularEnable bool True or False. Same values as D3DRS_SPECULARENABLE.
SpecularMaterialSource dword Same values as D3DMATERIALCOLORSOURCE without the D3DMCS_ prefix. See D3DRS_SPECULARMATERIALSOURCE.
TweenFactor float Same values as D3DRS_TWEENFACTOR.
VertexBlend dword Same values as D3DVERTEXBLENDFLAGS without the D3DVBF_ prefix. See D3DRS_VERTEXBLEND.

 

Example:

Ambient = float4<0.7f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f>;
CullMode = CCW;
FogColor = 0xff0000;

This will make the ambient color float4<0.7f, 0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f>, set the backface culling mode to counter-clockwise, and set the fog color to red.

Sampler States

A sampler state represents a sampler object.

State Type Values
Sampler sampler NULL, or a sampler state block.

 

Sampler Stage States

Sampler stage states are used to sample textures. Sampler state determines filtering types and texture addressing modes.

Sampler State Type Values
AddressU[16] dword Same values as D3DTEXTUREADDRESS without the D3DTADDRESS_ prefix. See D3DSAMP_ADDRESSU.
AddressV[16] dword Same values as D3DTEXTUREADDRESS without the D3DTADDRESS_ prefix. See D3DSAMP_ADDRESSV.
AddressW[16] dword Same values as D3DTEXTUREADDRESS without the D3DTADDRESS_ prefix. See D3DSAMP_ADDRESSW.
BorderColor[16] D3DCOLOR Same values as D3DTEXTUREFILTERTYPE without the D3DTEXF_ prefix. See D3DSAMP_BORDERCOLOR.
MagFilter[16] dword Same values as D3DTEXTUREFILTERTYPE without the D3DTEXF_ prefix. See D3DSAMP_MAGFILTER.
MaxAnisotropy[16] dword Same values as D3DSAMP_MAXANISOTROPY without the D3DSAMP_ prefix.
MaxMipLevel[16] int Same values as D3DSAMP_MAXMIPLEVEL without the D3DSAMP_ prefix.
MinFilter[16] dword Same values as D3DSAMP_MINFILTER without the D3DSAMP_ prefix.
MipFilter[16] dword Same values as D3DSAMP_MIPFILTER without the D3DSAMP_ prefix.
MipMapLodBias[16] float Same values as D3DSAMP_MIPMAPLODBIAS without the D3DSAMP_ prefix.
SRGBTexture float Same value as D3DSAMP_SRGBTEXTURE without the D3DSAMP_ prefix.

 

Example:

AddressU[0] = CLAMP;
AddressV[0] = CLAMP;
AddressW[0] = CLAMP;

This clamps UVW values to be in between 0 and 1.

Shader States

There are only two effect shader states: one associated with a vertex shader object and the other associated with a pixel shader object.

Shader State Type Values
PixelShader pixelshader NULL, an assembly block, a compile target, or a pixel shader parameter.
VertexShader vertexshader NULL, an assembly block, a compile target, or a pixel shader parameter.

 

Example:

VertexShader = compile vs_1_1 VSTexture();
PixelShader  = NULL;

This will compile VSTexture, a vertex shader defined earlier in the .fx file, to the vertex shader version 1.1, and then set that compiled shader as the vertex shader. The pixel shader is assigned to NULL.

Shader Constant States

Shader constant states are used to access shader constant parameters.

Shader Constant State Type Values
PixelShaderConstant float[m[n]] m x n array of floats; m and n are optional.
PixelShaderConstant1 float4 One 4D float.
PixelShaderConstant2 float4x2 Two 4D floats.
PixelShaderConstant3 float4x3 Three 4D floats.
PixelShaderConstant4 float4x4 Four 4D floats.
PixelShaderConstantB bool[m[n]] m x n array of bools; m and n are optional.
PixelShaderConstantI int[m[n]] m x n array of ints. m and n are optional.
PixelShaderConstantF float[m[n]] m x n array of floats. m and n are optional.
VertexShaderConstant float[m[n]] m x n array of floats. m and n are optional.
VertexShaderConstant1 float4 One 4D float.
VertexShaderConstant2 float4x2 Two 4D floats.
VertexShaderConstant3 float4x3 Three 4D floats.
VertexShaderConstant4 float4x4 Four 4D floats.
VertexShaderConstantB bool[m[n]] m x n array of bools. m and n are optional.
VertexShaderConstantI int[m[n]] m x n array of ints. m and n are optional.
VertexShaderConstantF float[m[n]] m x n array of floats. m and n are optional.

 

Texture States

Texture states initialize textures used by the multitexture blender.

Texture State Type Values
Texture[8] texture NULL, or a texture parameter.

 

Texture Stage States

Texture stage states set up textures and the texture stages in the multitexture blender.

Texture Stage State Type Values
AlphaOp[8] dword Same as D3DTEXTUREOP without the D3DTOP_ prefix. See D3DTSS_ALPHAOP.
AlphaArg0[8] dword Same as D3DTA without the D3DTA_ prefix. See D3DTSS_ALPHAARG0.
AlphaArg1[8] dword Same as D3DTA without the D3DTA_ prefix. See D3DTSS_ALPHAARG1.
AlphaArg2[8] dword Same as D3DTA without the D3DTA_ prefix. See D3DTSS_ALPHAARG2.
ColorArg0[8] dword Same as D3DTA without the D3DTA_ prefix. See D3DTSS_COLORARG0.
ColorArg1[8] dword Same as D3DTA without the D3DTA_ prefix. See D3DTSS_COLORARG1.
ColorArg2[8] dword Same as D3DTA without the D3DTA_ prefix. See D3DTSS_COLORARG2.
ColorOp[8] dword Same as D3DTEXTUREOP without the D3DTOP_ prefix. See D3DTSS_COLOROP.
BumpEnvLScale[8] float Same values as D3DTSS_BUMPENVLSCALE without the D3DTSS_TCI prefix.
BumpEnvLOffset[8] float Same values as D3DTSS_BUMPENVLOFFSET without the D3DTSS_TCI prefix.
BumpEnvMat00[8] float Same values as D3DTSS_BUMPENVMAT00.
BumpEnvMat01[8] float Same values as D3DTSS_BUMPENVMAT01.
BumpEnvMat10[8] float Same values as D3DTSS_BUMPENVMAT10.
BumpEnvMat11[8] float Same values as D3DTSS_BUMPENVMAT11.
ResultArg[8] dword Same as D3DTA without the D3DTA_ prefix. See D3DTSS_RESULTARG.
TexCoordIndex[8] dword Same values as D3DTSS_TEXCOORDINDEX without the D3DTSS_TCI prefix.
TextureTransformFlags[8] dword Same values as D3DTEXTURETRANSFORMFLAGS values without the D3DTTFF_ prefix. See D3DTSS_TEXTURETRANSFORMFLAGS.

 

Transform States

Set transform states to initialize transformation matrices. Effects use transposed matrices for efficiency. You can provide transposed matrices to an effect, or an effect will automatically transpose the matrices before using them.

Transform State Type Values
ProjectionTransform float4x4 A 4x4 matrix of floats. Same values as D3DTS_PROJECTION without the D3DTS_ prefix.
TextureTransform[8] float4x4 A 4x4 matrix of floats. Same values as D3DTRANSFORMSTATETYPE without the D3DTS_ prefix.
ViewTransform float4x4 A 4x4 matrix of floats. Same values as D3DTS_VIEW without the D3DTS_ prefix.
WorldTransform float4x4 A 4x4 matrix of floats.

 

Effect Format