Agile objects in C++/WinRT

In the vast majority of cases, an instance of a Windows Runtime class can be accessed from any thread (just like most standard C++ objects can). Such a Windows Runtime class is agile. Only a small number of Windows Runtime classes that ship with Windows are non-agile, but when you consume them you need to take into consideration their threading model and marshaling behavior (marshaling is passing data across an apartment boundary). It's a good default for every Windows Runtime object to be agile, so your own C++/WinRT types are agile by default.

But you can opt out. You might have a compelling reason to require an object of your type to reside, for example, in a given single-threaded apartment. This typically has to do with reentrancy requirements. But increasingly, even user interface (UI) APIs offer agile objects. In general, agility is the simplest and most performant option. Also, when you implement an activation factory, it must be agile even if your corresponding runtime class isn't.


The Windows Runtime is based on COM. In COM terms, an agile class is registered with ThreadingModel = Both. For more info about COM threading models, and apartments, see Understanding and Using COM Threading Models.

Code examples

Let's use an example implementation of a runtime class to illustrate how C++/WinRT supports agility.

#include <winrt/Windows.Foundation.h>

using namespace winrt;
using namespace Windows::Foundation;

struct MyType : winrt::implements<MyType, IStringable>
    winrt::hstring ToString(){ ... }

Because we haven't opted out, this implementation is agile. The winrt::implements base struct implements IAgileObject and IMarshal. The IMarshal implementation uses CoCreateFreeThreadedMarshaler to do the right thing for legacy code that doesn't know about IAgileObject.

This code checks an object for agility. The call to IUnknown::as throws an exception if myimpl is not agile.

winrt::com_ptr<MyType> myimpl{ winrt::make_self<MyType>() };
winrt::com_ptr<IAgileObject> iagileobject{<IAgileObject>() };

Rather than handle an exception, you can call IUnknown::try_as instead.

winrt::com_ptr<IAgileObject> iagileobject{ myimpl.try_as<IAgileObject>() };
if (iagileobject) { /* myimpl is agile. */ }

IAgileObject has no methods of its own, so you can't do much with it. This next variant, then, is more typical.

if (myimpl.try_as<IAgileObject>()) { /* myimpl is agile. */ }

IAgileObject is a marker interface. The mere success or failure of querying for IAgileObject is the extent of the information and utility you get from it.

Opting out of agile object support

You can choose explicitly to opt out of agile object support by passing the winrt::non_agile marker struct as a template argument to your base class.

If you derive directly from winrt::implements.

struct MyImplementation: implements<MyImplementation, IStringable, winrt::non_agile>

If you're authoring a runtime class.

struct MyRuntimeClass: MyRuntimeClassT<MyRuntimeClass, winrt::non_agile>

It doesn't matter where in the variadic parameter pack the marker struct appears.

Whether or not you opt out of agility, you can implement IMarshal yourself. For example, you can use the winrt::non_agile marker to avoid the default agility implementation, and implement IMarshal yourself—perhaps to support marshal-by-value semantics.

Agile references (winrt::agile_ref)

If you're consuming an object that isn't agile, but you need to pass it around in some potentially agile context, then one option is to use the winrt::agile_ref struct template to get an agile reference to an instance of a non-agile type, or to an interface of a non-agile object.

NonAgileType nonagile_obj;
winrt::agile_ref<NonAgileType> agile{ nonagile_obj };

Or, you can use the use the winrt::make_agile helper function.

NonAgileType nonagile_obj;
auto agile{ winrt::make_agile(nonagile_obj) };

In either case, agile may now be freely passed to a thread in a different apartment, and used there.

co_await resume_background();
NonAgileType nonagile_obj_again{ agile.get() };
winrt::hstring message{ nonagile_obj_again.Message() };

The agile_ref::get call returns a proxy that may safely be used within the thread context in which get is called.

Important APIs