Requirements for Poolable Objects

Poolable objects must meet certain requirements to enable a single object instance to be used by multiple clients.


To maintain security, consistency, and isolation, poolable objects should hold no client-specific state from client to client. You can manage any per-client state by using IObjectControl, performing context-specific initialization with IObjectControl::Activate and cleaning up any client state with IObjectControl::Deactivate. For more detail, see Controlling Object Lifetime and State.

No Thread Affinity

Poolable objects cannot be bound to a particular thread; otherwise, performance could be potentially disastrous. For this reason, poolable objects cannot be marked to run in the apartment model; they must run in the multithreaded apartment or the neutral apartment. In addition, poolable objects should not use thread local storage nor should they aggregate the free-threaded marshaler. For more detail about threading in COM+, see COM+ Threading Models.


The Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 and earlier development environments can create only apartment model components. However, in Visual Basic .NET, components can be pooled.



Poolable objects must support aggregation—that is, they must support being created by invoking CoCreateInstance with a non-NULL pUnkOuter argument. When COM+ activates a pooled object, it creates an aggregate to manage the lifetime of the pooled object and to call methods on IObjectControl. For details on writing aggregatable objects, see Aggregation.

Transactional Components

Poolable objects that participate in transactions must manually enlist managed resources. While it is pooled, if your object holds a managed resource such as a database connection, there will be no way for the resource manager to automatically enlist in a transaction when the object is activated in given context. Therefore, the object itself must handle the logic of detecting the transaction, turning off the resource manager's auto-enlistment and manually enlisting any resources that it holds. In addition, a transactional pooled object should reflect the current state of its resources in the parameter values of IObjectControl::CanBePooled. For more detail, see Pooling Transactional Objects.

Implement IObjectControl to Manage the Object Lifetime

Poolable objects should implement IObjectControl, although it is not strictly necessary to do so. Transactional components that are pooled, however, must implement IObjectControl. These components should monitor the state of the resources they hold and indicate when they can't be reused; when IObjectControl::CanBePooled returns false, it will doom a transaction. For more detail, see Controlling Object Lifetime and State.

Language Restrictions

Components developed using Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 and earlier cannot be pooled because these components will be apartment-model threaded. However, in Visual Basic .NET, components can be pooled.

Legacy Components

As long as they are non-transactional and conform to the appropriate preceding requirements, components can be pooled even if they were not specifically written with pooling capability in mind. It is not necessary to implement IObjectControl; a component that does not do so simply won't participate in managing its lifetime. If IObjectControl::CanBePooled is not implemented, the object will continue to be reused until the pool attains maximum size.

COM+ Object Constructor Strings

Controlling Object Lifetime and State

How Object Pooling Works

Improving Performance with Object Pooling

Pooling Transactional Objects