An Introduction to Renderscript
This guide introduces Renderscript and explains how to use the intrinsic Renderscript API's in a Xamarin.Android application that targets API level 17 or higher.
Renderscript is a programming framework created by Google for the purpose of improving the performance of Android applications that require extensive computational resources. It is a low level, high performance API based on C99. Because it is a low level API that will run on CPUs, GPUs, or DSPs, Renderscript is well suited for Android apps that may need to perform any of the following:
- Image Processing
- Signal Processing
- Mathematical Routines
Renderscript will use
clang and compile the scripts to LLVM byte code
which is bundled into the APK. When the app is run for the first time,
the LLVM byte code will be compiled into machine code for the
processors on the device. This architecture allows an Android
application to exploit the advantages of machine code without the
developers themselves having to write it for each processor on the
There are two components to a Renderscript routine:
The Renderscript runtime – This is the native APIs that are responsible for executing the Renderscript. This includes any Renderscripts written for the application.
Managed Wrappers from the Android Framework – Managed classes that allow an Android app to control and interact with the Renderscript runtime and scripts. In addition to the framework provided classes for controlling the Renderscript runtime, the Android toolchain will examine the Renderscript source code and generate managed wrapper classes for use by the Android application.
The following diagram illustrates how these components relate:
There are three important concepts for using Renderscripts in an Android application:
A context – A managed API provided by the Android SDK that allocates resources to Renderscript and allows the Android app to pass and receive data from the Renderscript.
A compute kernel – Also known as the root kernel or kernel, this a routine that does the work. The kernel is very similar to a C function; it is a parallelizable routine that will be run over all the data in allocated memory .
Allocated Memory – Data is passed to and from a kernel through an Allocation. A kernel may have one input and/or one output Allocation.
namespace contains the classes for interacting with the Renderscript
runtime. In particular, the
will manage the lifecycle and resources of the Renderscript engine. The
Android app must initialize one or more
objects. An Allocation is a managed API that is responsible for
allocation and accessing the memory that is shared between the Android
app and the Renderscript runtime. Typically, one Allocation is created
for input, and optionally another Allocation is created to hold the
output of the kernel. The Renderscript runtime engine and the
associated managed wrapper classes will manage access to the memory
held by the Allocations, there is no need for an Android app developer
to do any extra work.
An Allocation will contain one or more Android.Renderscripts.Elements. Elements are a specialized type that describe data in each Allocation. The Element types of the output Allocation must match the types of the input Element. When executing, a Renderscript will iterate over each Element in the input Allocation in parallel, and write the results to the output Allocation. There are two types of Elements:
simple type – Conceptually this is the same as a C data type,
complex type – This type is similar to a C
The Renderscript engine will perform a runtime check to ensure that the Elements in each Allocation are compatible with what is required by the kernel. If the data type of the Elements in the Allocation do not match the data type that the kernel is expecting, an exception will be thrown.
All Renderscript kernels will be wrapped by a type that is a descendant
Script class is used to set parameters for a Renderscript,
set the appropriate
Allocations, and run the Renderscript. There are
Script subclasses in the Android SDK:
Android.Renderscripts.ScriptIntrinsic– Some of the more common Renderscript tasks are bundled in the Android SDK and are accessible by a subclass of the ScriptIntrinsic class. There is no need for a developer take any extra steps to use these scripts in their application as they are already provided.
ScriptC_XXXXX– Also known as user scripts, these are scripts that are written by developers and packaged in the APK. At compile time, the Android toolchain will generate managed wrapper classes that will allow the scripts to be used in the Android app. The name of these generated classes is the name of the Renderscript file, prefixed with
ScriptC_. Writing and incorporating user scripts is not officially supported by Xamarin.Android and beyond the scope of this guide.
Of these two types, only the
StringIntrinsic is supported by
Xamarin.Android. This guide will discuss how to use intrinsic scripts
in a Xamarin.Android application.
This guide is for Xamarin.Android applications that target API level 17 or higher. The use of user scripts is not covered in this guide.
The Xamarin.Android V8 Support Library backports the instrinsic Renderscript API's for apps that target older versions of the Android SDK. Adding this package to a Xamarin.Android project should allow apps that target older versions of the Android SDK to leverage the intrinsic scripts.
Using Intrinsic Renderscripts in Xamarin.Android
The intrinsic scripts are a great way to perform intensive computing tasks with a minimal amount of additional code. They have been hand tuned to offer optimal performance on a large cross section of devices. It is not uncommon for an intrinsic script to run 10x faster than managed code and 2-3x times after than a custom C implementation. Many of the typical processing scenarios are covered by the intrinsic scripts. This list of the intrinsic scripts describes the current scripts in Xamarin.Android:
ScriptIntrinsic3DLUT – Converts RGB to RGBA using a 3D lookup table.
ScriptIntrinsicBLAS – Provideshigh performance Renderscript APIs to BLAS. The BLAS (Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms) are routines that provide standard building blocks for performing basic vector and matrix operations.
ScriptIntrinsicBlend – Blends two Allocations together.
ScriptIntrinsicBlur – Applies a Gaussian blur to an Allocation.
ScriptIntrinsicColorMatrix – Applies a color matrix to an Allocation (i.e. change colours, adjust hue).
ScriptIntrinsicConvolve3x3 – Applies a 3x3 color matrix to an Allocation.
ScriptIntrinsicConvolve5x5 – Applies a 5x5 color matrix to an Allocation.
ScriptIntrinsicHistogram – An intrinsic histogram filter.
ScriptIntrinsicLUT – Applies a per-channel lookup table to a buffer.
ScriptIntrinsicResize – Script for performing the resize of a 2D allocation.
ScriptIntrinsicYuvToRGB – Converts a YUV buffer to RGB.
Please consult the API documentation for details on each of the intrinsic scripts.
The basic steps for using Renderscript in an Android application are described next.
Create a Renderscript Context – The
class is a managed wrapper around the Renderscript context and will
control initialization, resource management, and clean up. The
Renderscript object is created using the
factory method, which takes an Android Context (such as an
Activity) as a parameter. The following line of code demonstrates
how to initialize the Renderscript context:
Android.Renderscripts.RenderScript renderScript = RenderScript.Create(this);
Create Allocations – Depending on the intrinsic script,
it may be necessary to create one or two
class has several factory methods to help with instantiating an
allocation for an intrinsic. As an example, the following code
snippet demonstrates how to create Allocation for Bitmaps.
Android.Graphics.Bitmap originalBitmap; Android.Renderscripts.Allocation inputAllocation = Allocation.CreateFromBitmap(renderScript, originalBitmap, Allocation.MipmapControl.MipmapFull, AllocationUsage.Script);
Often, it will be necessary to create an
Allocation to hold the
output data of a script. This following snippet shows how to use
Allocation.CreateTyped helper to instantiate a second
Allocation that the same type as the original:
Android.Renderscripts.Allocation outputAllocation = Allocation.CreateTyped(renderScript, inputAllocation.Type);
Instantiate the Script wrapper – Each of the intrinsic
script wrapper classes should have helper methods (typically called
Create)for instantiating a wrapper object for that script. The
following code snippet is an example of how to instantiate a
ScriptIntrinsicBlur blur object. The
Element.U8_4 helper method
will create an Element that describes a data type that is 4 fields
of 8-bit, unsigned integer values, suitable for holding the data of
Android.Renderscripts.ScriptIntrinsicBlur blurScript = ScriptIntrinsicBlur.Create(renderScript, Element.U8_4(renderScript));
Assign Allocation(s), Set Parameters, & Run Script – The
Script class provides a
ForEach method to actually run the
Renderscript. This method will iterate over each
Element in the
Allocation holding the input data. In some cases, it may be
necessary to provide an
Allocation that holds the output.
ForEach will overwrite the contents of the output Allocation. To
carry on with the code snippets from the previous steps, this
example shows how to assign an input Allocation, set a parameter,
and then finally run the script (copying the results to the output
blurScript.SetInput(inputAllocation); blurScript.SetRadius(25); // Set a pamaeter blurScript.ForEach(outputAllocation);
You may wish to check out the Blur an Image with Renderscript recipe, it is a complete example of how to use an intrinsic script in Xamarin.Android.
This guide introduced Renderscript and how to use it in a Xamarin.Android application. It briefly discussed what Renderscript is and how it works in an Android application. It described some of the key components in Renderscript and the difference between user scripts and instrinsic scripts. Finally, this guide discussed the steps in using an intrinsic script in a Xamarin.Android application.