ListView Performance

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When writing mobile applications, performance matters. Users have come to expect smooth scrolling and fast load times. Failing to meet your users' expectations will cost you ratings in the application store, or in the case of a line-of-business application, cost your organization time and money.

Although ListView is a powerful view for displaying data, it has some limitations. Scrolling performance can suffer when using custom cells, especially when they contain deeply nested view hierarchies or use certain layouts that require a lot of measurement. Fortunately, there are techniques you can use to avoid poor performance.

Caching Strategy

ListViews are often used to display much more data than can fit onscreen. Consider a music app, for example. A library of songs may have thousands of entries. The simple approach, which would be to create a row for every song, would have poor performance. That approach wastes valuable memory and can slow scrolling to a crawl. Another approach is to create and destroy rows as data is scrolled into view. This requires constant instantiation and cleanup of view objects, which can be very slow.

To conserve memory, the native ListView equivalents for each platform have built-in features for re-using rows. Only the cells visible on screen are loaded in memory and the content is loaded into existing cells. This prevents the application from needing to instantiate thousands of objects, saving time and memory.

Xamarin.Forms permits ListView cell re-use through the ListViewCachingStrategy enumeration, which has the following values:

public enum ListViewCachingStrategy
  RetainElement,   // the default value


The Universal Windows Platform (UWP) ignores the RetainElement caching strategy, because it always uses caching to improve performance. Therefore, by default it behaves as if the RecycleElement caching strategy is applied.


The RetainElement caching strategy specifies that the ListView will generate a cell for each item in the list, and is the default ListView behavior. It should generally be used in the following circumstances:

  • When each cell has a large number of bindings (20-30+).
  • When the cell template changes frequently.
  • When testing reveals that the RecycleElement caching strategy results in a reduced execution speed.

It's important to recognize the consequences of the RetainElement caching strategy when working with custom cells. Any cell initialization code will need to run for each cell creation, which may be multiple times per second. In this circumstance, layout techniques that were fine on a page, like using multiple nested StackLayout instances, become performance bottlenecks when they are setup and destroyed in real time as the user scrolls.


The RecycleElement caching strategy specifies that the ListView will attempt to minimize its memory footprint and execution speed by recycling list cells. This mode does not always offer a performance improvement, and testing should be performed to determine any improvements. However, it is generally the preferred choice, and should be used in the following circumstances:

  • When each cell has a small to moderate number of bindings.
  • When each cell's BindingContext defines all of the cell data.
  • When each cell is largely similar, with the cell template unchanging.

During virtualization the cell will have its binding context updated, and so if an application uses this mode it must ensure that binding context updates are handled appropriately. All data about the cell must come from the binding context or consistency errors may occur. This can be accomplished by using data binding to display cell data. Alternatively, cell data should be set in the OnBindingContextChanged override, rather than in the custom cell's constructor, as demonstrated in the following code example:

public class CustomCell : ViewCell
  Image image = null;

  public CustomCell ()
    image = new Image();
    View = image;

  protected override void OnBindingContextChanged ()
    base.OnBindingContextChanged ();

    var item = BindingContext as ImageItem;
    if (item != null) {
      image.Source = item.ImageUrl;

For more information, see Binding Context Changes.

On iOS and Android, if cells use custom renderers, they must ensure that property change notification is correctly implemented. When cells are reused their property values will change when the binding context is updated to that of an available cell, with PropertyChanged events being raised. For more information, see Customizing a ViewCell.

RecycleElement with a DataTemplateSelector

When a ListView uses a DataTemplateSelector to select a DataTemplate, the RecycleElement caching strategy does not cache DataTemplates. Instead, a DataTemplate is selected for each item of data in the list.


The RecycleElement caching strategy has a pre-requisite, introduced in Xamarin.Forms 2.4, that when a DataTemplateSelector is asked to select a DataTemplate that each DataTemplate must return the same ViewCell type. For example, given a ListView with a DataTemplateSelector that can return either MyDataTemplateA (where MyDataTemplateA returns a ViewCell of type MyViewCellA), or MyDataTemplateB (where MyDataTemplateB returns a ViewCell of type MyViewCellB), when MyDataTemplateA is returned it must return MyViewCellA or an exception will be thrown.


The RecycleElementAndDataTemplate caching strategy builds on the RecycleElement caching strategy by additionally ensuring that when a ListView uses a DataTemplateSelector to select a DataTemplate, DataTemplates are cached by the type of item in the list. Therefore, DataTemplates are selected once per item type, instead of once per item instance.


The RecycleElementAndDataTemplate caching strategy has a pre-requisite that the DataTemplates returned by the DataTemplateSelector must use the DataTemplate constructor that takes a Type.

Setting the Caching Strategy

The ListViewCachingStrategy enumeration value is specified with a ListView constructor overload, as shown in the following code example:

var listView = new ListView(ListViewCachingStrategy.RecycleElement);

In XAML, set the CachingStrategy attribute as shown in the code below:

<ListView CachingStrategy="RecycleElement">

This has the same effect as setting the caching strategy argument in the constructor in C#; note that there is no CachingStrategy property on ListView.

Setting the Caching Strategy in a Subclassed ListView

Setting the CachingStrategy attribute from XAML on a subclassed ListView will not produce the desired behavior, because there is no CachingStrategy property on ListView. In addition, if XAMLC is enabled, the following error message will be produced: No property, bindable property, or event found for 'CachingStrategy'

The solution to this issue is to specify a constructor on the subclassed ListView that accepts a ListViewCachingStrategy parameter and passes it into the base class:

public class CustomListView : ListView
  public CustomListView (ListViewCachingStrategy strategy) : base (strategy)

Then the ListViewCachingStrategy enumeration value can be specified from XAML by using the x:Arguments syntax:


Improving ListView Performance

There are many techniques for improving the performance of a ListView:

  • Bind the ItemsSource property to an IList<T> collection instead of an IEnumerable<T> collection, because IEnumerable<T> collections don't support random access.
  • Use the built-in cells (like TextCell / SwitchCell ) instead of ViewCell whenever you can.
  • Use fewer elements. For example consider using a single FormattedString label instead of multiple labels.
  • Replace the ListView with a TableView when displaying non-homogenous data – that is, data of different types.
  • Limit the use of the Cell.ForceUpdateSize method. If overused, it will degrade performance.
  • On Android, avoid setting a ListView's row separator visibility or color after it has been instantiated, as it results in a large performance penalty.
  • Avoid changing the cell layout based on the BindingContext. This incurs large layout and initialization costs.
  • Avoid deeply nested layout hierarchies. Use AbsoluteLayout or Grid to help reduce nesting.
  • Avoid specific LayoutOptions other than Fill (Fill is the cheapest to compute).
  • Avoid placing a ListView inside a ScrollView for the following reasons:
    • The ListView implements its own scrolling.
    • The ListView will not receive any gestures, as they will be handled by the parent ScrollView.
    • The ListView can present a customized header and footer that scrolls with the elements of the list, potentially offering the functionality that the ScrollView was used for. For more information see Headers and Footers.
  • Consider a custom renderer if you need a very specific, complex design presented in your cells.

AbsoluteLayout has the potential to perform layouts without a single measure call. This makes it very powerful for performance. If AbsoluteLayout cannot be used, consider RelativeLayout. If using RelativeLayout, passing Constraints directly will be considerably faster than using the expression API. That is because the expression API uses JIT, and on iOS the tree has to be interpreted, which is slower. The expression API is suitable for page layouts where it only required on initial layout and rotation, but in ListView, where it's run constantly during scrolling, it hurts performance.

Building a custom renderer for a ListView or its cells is one approach to reducing the effect of layout calculations on scrolling performance. For more information, see Customizing a ListView and Customizing a ViewCell.