Introducción a las colas de Service BusGet started with Service Bus queues

En este tutorial, creará aplicaciones de consola de .NET Core para enviar mensajes a una cola de Service Bus y recibir mensajes desde ella.In this tutorial, you create .NET Core console applications to send messages to and receive messages from a Service Bus queue.

PrerrequisitosPrerequisites

Envío de mensajes a la colaSend messages to the queue

Para enviar mensajes a la cola, escriba una aplicación de consola en C# mediante Visual Studio.To send messages to the queue, write a C# console application using Visual Studio.

Creación de una aplicación de consolaCreate a console application

Inicie Visual Studio y cree otro proyecto Aplicación de consola (.NET Core) para C#.Launch Visual Studio and create a new Console App (.NET Core) project for C#. En este ejemplo se asigna a la aplicación el nombre CoreSenderApp.This example names the app CoreSenderApp.

Agregar el paquete NuGet de Service BusAdd the Service Bus NuGet package

  1. Haga clic con el botón derecho en el proyecto recién creado y seleccione Administrar paquetes NuGet.Right-click the newly created project and select Manage NuGet Packages.

  2. Haga clic en Examinar.Select Browse. Busque y seleccione Microsoft.Azure.ServiceBus .Search for and select Microsoft.Azure.ServiceBus.

  3. Seleccione Instalar para completar la instalación y luego cierre el administrador de paquetes NuGet.Select Install to complete the installation, then close the NuGet Package Manager.

    Seleccionar un paquete NuGet

Escritura del código para enviar mensajes a la colaWrite code to send messages to the queue

  1. En Program.cs, agregue las siguientes instrucciones using en la parte superior de la definición del espacio de nombres, antes de la declaración de clase:In Program.cs, add the following using statements at the top of the namespace definition, before the class declaration:

    using System.Text;
    using System.Threading;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    using Microsoft.Azure.ServiceBus;
    
  2. En la clase Program, declare las variables siguientes:In the Program class, declare the following variables:

    const string ServiceBusConnectionString = "<your_connection_string>";
    const string QueueName = "<your_queue_name>";
    static IQueueClient queueClient;
    

    Escriba la cadena de conexión para el espacio de nombres como la variable ServiceBusConnectionString.Enter your connection string for the namespace as the ServiceBusConnectionString variable. Escriba el nombre de la cola.Enter your queue name.

  3. Reemplace el método Main() por el método Mainasincrónico.Replace the Main() method with the following async Main method. Llama al método SendMessagesAsync() que se agregará en el paso siguiente para enviar mensajes a la cola.It calls the SendMessagesAsync() method that you will add in the next step to send messages to the queue.

    public static async Task Main(string[] args)
    {    
        const int numberOfMessages = 10;
        queueClient = new QueueClient(ServiceBusConnectionString, QueueName);
    
        Console.WriteLine("======================================================");
        Console.WriteLine("Press ENTER key to exit after sending all the messages.");
        Console.WriteLine("======================================================");
    
        // Send messages.
        await SendMessagesAsync(numberOfMessages);
    
        Console.ReadKey();
    
        await queueClient.CloseAsync();
    }
    
  4. Inmediatamente después del método MainAsync(), agregue el método SendMessagesAsync() siguiente, que realiza el trabajo de enviar el número de mensajes especificado por numberOfMessagesToSend (actualmente se establece en 10):Directly after the MainAsync() method, add the following SendMessagesAsync() method that does the work of sending the number of messages specified by numberOfMessagesToSend (currently set to 10):

    static async Task SendMessagesAsync(int numberOfMessagesToSend)
    {
        try
        {
            for (var i = 0; i < numberOfMessagesToSend; i++)
            {
                // Create a new message to send to the queue.
                string messageBody = $"Message {i}";
                var message = new Message(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(messageBody));
    
                // Write the body of the message to the console.
                Console.WriteLine($"Sending message: {messageBody}");
    
                // Send the message to the queue.
                await queueClient.SendAsync(message);
            }
        }
        catch (Exception exception)
        {
            Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.Now} :: Exception: {exception.Message}");
        }
    }
    

Este es el aspecto que debería tener el archivo Program.cs:Here is what your Program.cs file should look like.

namespace CoreSenderApp
{
    using System;
    using System.Text;
    using System.Threading;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    using Microsoft.Azure.ServiceBus;

    class Program
    {
        // Connection String for the namespace can be obtained from the Azure portal under the 
        // 'Shared Access policies' section.
        const string ServiceBusConnectionString = "<your_connection_string>";
        const string QueueName = "<your_queue_name>";
        static IQueueClient queueClient;

        public static async Task Main(string[] args)
        {    
            const int numberOfMessages = 10;
            queueClient = new QueueClient(ServiceBusConnectionString, QueueName);
    
            Console.WriteLine("======================================================");
            Console.WriteLine("Press ENTER key to exit after sending all the messages.");
            Console.WriteLine("======================================================");
    
            // Send messages.
            await SendMessagesAsync(numberOfMessages);
    
            Console.ReadKey();
    
            await queueClient.CloseAsync();
        }

        static async Task SendMessagesAsync(int numberOfMessagesToSend)
        {
            try
            {
                for (var i = 0; i < numberOfMessagesToSend; i++)
                {
                    // Create a new message to send to the queue
                    string messageBody = $"Message {i}";
                    var message = new Message(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(messageBody));

                    // Write the body of the message to the console
                    Console.WriteLine($"Sending message: {messageBody}");

                    // Send the message to the queue
                    await queueClient.SendAsync(message);
                }
            }
            catch (Exception exception)
            {
                Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.Now} :: Exception: {exception.Message}");
            }
        }
    }
}

Ejecute el programa y compruebe Azure Portal.Run the program and check the Azure portal.

Seleccione el nombre de la cola en la ventana Información general del espacio de nombres para mostrar la cola Essentials.Select the name of your queue in the namespace Overview window to display queue Essentials.

Mensajes recibidos con el número y el tamaño

El valor de Recuento de mensajes activos es ahora 10.The Active message count value for the queue is now 10. Cada vez que se ejecuta la aplicación de remitente sin recuperar los mensajes, este valor aumenta en 10.Each time you run this sender app without retrieving the messages, this value increases by 10.

El tamaño actual de la cola aumenta el valor de ACTUAL en la ventana Essentials cada vez que la aplicación agrega mensajes a la cola.The current size of the queue increments the CURRENT value in Essentials each time the app adds messages to the queue.

En la sección siguiente se describe cómo recuperar estos mensajes.The next section describes how to retrieve these messages.

Recepción de mensajes de la colaReceive messages from the queue

Para recibir los mensajes enviados, cree otra aplicación Aplicación de consola (.NET Core) .To receive the messages you sent, create another Console App (.NET Core) application. Instale el paquete NuGet Microsoft.Azure.ServiceBus, como hizo para la aplicación remitente.Install the Microsoft.Azure.ServiceBus NuGet package, as you did for the sender application.

Escritura de código para recibir mensajes de la colaWrite code to receive messages from the queue

  1. En Program.cs, agregue las siguientes instrucciones using en la parte superior de la definición del espacio de nombres, antes de la declaración de clase:In Program.cs, add the following using statements at the top of the namespace definition, before the class declaration:

    using System;
    using System.Text;
    using System.Threading;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    using Microsoft.Azure.ServiceBus;
    
  2. En la clase Program, declare las variables siguientes:In the Program class, declare the following variables:

    const string ServiceBusConnectionString = "<your_connection_string>";
    const string QueueName = "<your_queue_name>";
    static IQueueClient queueClient;
    

    Escriba la cadena de conexión para el espacio de nombres como la variable ServiceBusConnectionString.Enter your connection string for the namespace as the ServiceBusConnectionString variable. Escriba el nombre de la cola.Enter your queue name.

  3. Reemplace el método Main() por el código siguiente:Replace the Main() method with the following code:

    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        MainAsync().GetAwaiter().GetResult();
    }
    
    static async Task MainAsync()
    {
        queueClient = new QueueClient(ServiceBusConnectionString, QueueName);
    
        Console.WriteLine("======================================================");
        Console.WriteLine("Press ENTER key to exit after receiving all the messages.");
        Console.WriteLine("======================================================");
    
        // Register QueueClient's MessageHandler and receive messages in a loop
        RegisterOnMessageHandlerAndReceiveMessages();
    
        Console.ReadKey();
    
        await queueClient.CloseAsync();
    }
    
  4. Inmediatamente después del método MainAsync(), agregue el método siguiente, que registra el controlador de mensajes y recibe los mensajes enviados por la aplicación remitente:Directly after the MainAsync() method, add the following method, which registers the message handler and receives the messages sent by the sender application:

    static void RegisterOnMessageHandlerAndReceiveMessages()
    {
        // Configure the message handler options in terms of exception handling, number of concurrent messages to deliver, etc.
        var messageHandlerOptions = new MessageHandlerOptions(ExceptionReceivedHandler)
        {
            // Maximum number of concurrent calls to the callback ProcessMessagesAsync(), set to 1 for simplicity.
            // Set it according to how many messages the application wants to process in parallel.
            MaxConcurrentCalls = 1,
    
            // Indicates whether the message pump should automatically complete the messages after returning from user callback.
            // False below indicates the complete operation is handled by the user callback as in ProcessMessagesAsync().
            AutoComplete = false
        };
    
        // Register the function that processes messages.
        queueClient.RegisterMessageHandler(ProcessMessagesAsync, messageHandlerOptions);
    }
    
  5. Directamente después del método anterior, agregue el siguiente método ProcessMessagesAsync() para procesar los mensajes recibidos:Directly after the previous method, add the following ProcessMessagesAsync() method to process the received messages:

    static async Task ProcessMessagesAsync(Message message, CancellationToken token)
    {
        // Process the message.
        Console.WriteLine($"Received message: SequenceNumber:{message.SystemProperties.SequenceNumber} Body:{Encoding.UTF8.GetString(message.Body)}");
    
        // Complete the message so that it is not received again.
        // This can be done only if the queue Client is created in ReceiveMode.PeekLock mode (which is the default).
        await queueClient.CompleteAsync(message.SystemProperties.LockToken);
    
        // Note: Use the cancellationToken passed as necessary to determine if the queueClient has already been closed.
        // If queueClient has already been closed, you can choose to not call CompleteAsync() or AbandonAsync() etc.
        // to avoid unnecessary exceptions.
    }
    
  6. Por último, agregue el siguiente método para controlar las excepciones que pueden producirse:Finally, add the following method to handle any exceptions that might occur:

    // Use this handler to examine the exceptions received on the message pump.
    static Task ExceptionReceivedHandler(ExceptionReceivedEventArgs exceptionReceivedEventArgs)
    {
        Console.WriteLine($"Message handler encountered an exception {exceptionReceivedEventArgs.Exception}.");
        var context = exceptionReceivedEventArgs.ExceptionReceivedContext;
        Console.WriteLine("Exception context for troubleshooting:");
        Console.WriteLine($"- Endpoint: {context.Endpoint}");
        Console.WriteLine($"- Entity Path: {context.EntityPath}");
        Console.WriteLine($"- Executing Action: {context.Action}");
        return Task.CompletedTask;
    }
    

Este es el aspecto que debería tener el archivo Program.cs:Here is what your Program.cs file should look like:

namespace CoreReceiverApp
{
    using System;
    using System.Text;
    using System.Threading;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    using Microsoft.Azure.ServiceBus;

    class Program
    {
        // Connection String for the namespace can be obtained from the Azure portal under the 
        // 'Shared Access policies' section.
        const string ServiceBusConnectionString = "<your_connection_string>";
        const string QueueName = "<your_queue_name>";
        static IQueueClient queueClient;

        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            MainAsync().GetAwaiter().GetResult();
        }

        static async Task MainAsync()
        {
            queueClient = new QueueClient(ServiceBusConnectionString, QueueName);

            Console.WriteLine("======================================================");
            Console.WriteLine("Press ENTER key to exit after receiving all the messages.");
            Console.WriteLine("======================================================");

            // Register QueueClient's MessageHandler and receive messages in a loop
            RegisterOnMessageHandlerAndReceiveMessages();
 
            Console.ReadKey();

            await queueClient.CloseAsync();
        }

        static void RegisterOnMessageHandlerAndReceiveMessages()
        {
            // Configure the MessageHandler Options in terms of exception handling, number of concurrent messages to deliver etc.
            var messageHandlerOptions = new MessageHandlerOptions(ExceptionReceivedHandler)
            {
                // Maximum number of Concurrent calls to the callback `ProcessMessagesAsync`, set to 1 for simplicity.
                // Set it according to how many messages the application wants to process in parallel.
                MaxConcurrentCalls = 1,

                // Indicates whether MessagePump should automatically complete the messages after returning from User Callback.
                // False below indicates the Complete will be handled by the User Callback as in `ProcessMessagesAsync` below.
                AutoComplete = false
            };

            // Register the function that will process messages
            queueClient.RegisterMessageHandler(ProcessMessagesAsync, messageHandlerOptions);
        }

        static async Task ProcessMessagesAsync(Message message, CancellationToken token)
        {
            // Process the message
            Console.WriteLine($"Received message: SequenceNumber:{message.SystemProperties.SequenceNumber} Body:{Encoding.UTF8.GetString(message.Body)}");

            // Complete the message so that it is not received again.
            // This can be done only if the queueClient is created in ReceiveMode.PeekLock mode (which is default).
            await queueClient.CompleteAsync(message.SystemProperties.LockToken);

            // Note: Use the cancellationToken passed as necessary to determine if the queueClient has already been closed.
            // If queueClient has already been Closed, you may chose to not call CompleteAsync() or AbandonAsync() etc. calls 
            // to avoid unnecessary exceptions.
        }

        static Task ExceptionReceivedHandler(ExceptionReceivedEventArgs exceptionReceivedEventArgs)
        {
            Console.WriteLine($"Message handler encountered an exception {exceptionReceivedEventArgs.Exception}.");
            var context = exceptionReceivedEventArgs.ExceptionReceivedContext;
            Console.WriteLine("Exception context for troubleshooting:");
            Console.WriteLine($"- Endpoint: {context.Endpoint}");
            Console.WriteLine($"- Entity Path: {context.EntityPath}");
            Console.WriteLine($"- Executing Action: {context.Action}");
            return Task.CompletedTask;
        }
    }
}

Ejecute el programa y vuelva a comprobar el portal.Run the program, and check the portal again. Los valores de Recuento de mensajes activos y ACTUAL ahora son 0.The Active message count and CURRENT values are now 0.

Cola tras recibir los mensajes

Felicidades.Congratulations! Ahora ha creado una cola, ha enviado un mensaje a dicha cola y ha recibido esos mensajes de la misma cola.You've now created a queue, sent a set of messages to that queue, and received those messages from the same queue.

Nota

Puede administrar los recursos de Service Bus con el Explorador de Service Bus.You can manage Service Bus resources with Service Bus Explorer. El Explorador de Service Bus permite a los usuarios conectarse fácilmente a un espacio de nombres de Service Bus y administrar las entidades de mensajería.The Service Bus Explorer allows users to easily connect to a Service Bus namespace and administer messaging entities. La herramienta dispone de características avanzadas, como la funcionalidad de importación y exportación o la capacidad de probar temas, colas, suscripciones, servicios de retransmisión, centros de notificaciones y centros de eventos.The tool provides advanced features like import/export functionality or the ability to test topics, queues, subscriptions, relay services, notification hubs, and event hubs.

Pasos siguientesNext steps

Consulte nuestro repositorio de GitHub con ejemplos, donde se muestran algunas de las características más avanzadas de la mensajería de Service Bus.Check out our GitHub repository with samples that demonstrate some of the more advanced features of Service Bus messaging.