BindingFlags BindingFlags BindingFlags BindingFlags Enum

Definición

Especifica las marcas que controlan el enlace y la manera en que la reflexión realiza la búsqueda de miembros y tipos.Specifies flags that control binding and the way in which the search for members and types is conducted by reflection.

Esta enumeración tiene el atributo FlagsAttribute, que permite una combinación bit a bit de sus valores de miembro.

public enum class BindingFlags
[System.Flags]
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)]
[System.Serializable]
public enum BindingFlags
type BindingFlags = 
Public Enum BindingFlags
Herencia
Atributos

Campos

CreateInstance CreateInstance CreateInstance CreateInstance 512

Especifica que la reflexión debe crear una instancia del tipo especificado.Specifies that reflection should create an instance of the specified type. Llama al constructor que coincide con los argumentos especificados.Calls the constructor that matches the given arguments. Se omite el nombre de miembro proporcionado.The supplied member name is ignored. Si no se especifica el tipo de búsqueda, se aplicará (Instance | Public).If the type of lookup is not specified, (Instance | Public) will apply. No es posible llamar a un inicializador de tipo.It is not possible to call a type initializer.

Esta marca se pasa a un método InvokeMember para invocar un constructor.This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to invoke a constructor.

DeclaredOnly DeclaredOnly DeclaredOnly DeclaredOnly 2

Especifica que se deben considerar solo los miembros declarados en el nivel de la jerarquía del tipo proporcionado.Specifies that only members declared at the level of the supplied type's hierarchy should be considered. Los miembros heredados no se tienen en cuenta.Inherited members are not considered.

Default Default Default Default 0

Especifica que no existen marcadores de enlace definidos.Specifies that no binding flags are defined.

DoNotWrapExceptions DoNotWrapExceptions DoNotWrapExceptions DoNotWrapExceptions 33554432
ExactBinding ExactBinding ExactBinding ExactBinding 65536

Especifica que los tipos de argumentos proporcionados deben coincidir exactamente con los tipos de los parámetros formales correspondientes.Specifies that types of the supplied arguments must exactly match the types of the corresponding formal parameters. La reflexión inicia una excepción si el autor de la llamada proporciona un objeto no null Binder no null, ya que implica que el autor de la llamada está proporcionando implementaciones BindToXXX que captarán el método apropiado.Reflection throws an exception if the caller supplies a non-null Binder object, since that implies that the caller is supplying BindToXXX implementations that will pick the appropriate method. El enlazador predeterminado ignora esta marca, mientras que los enlazadores personalizados pueden implementar la semántica de esta marca.The default binder ignores this flag, while custom binders can implement the semantics of this flag.

FlattenHierarchy FlattenHierarchy FlattenHierarchy FlattenHierarchy 64

Especifica que se deben devolver los miembros estáticos públicos y protegidos en la jerarquía.Specifies that public and protected static members up the hierarchy should be returned. No se devuelven los miembros estáticos privados de las clases heredadas.Private static members in inherited classes are not returned. Los miembros estáticos son campos, métodos, eventos y propiedades.Static members include fields, methods, events, and properties. Los tipos anidados no se devuelven.Nested types are not returned.

GetField GetField GetField GetField 1024

Especifica que se debe devolver el valor del campo especificado.Specifies that the value of the specified field should be returned.

Esta marca se pasa a un método InvokeMember para obtener un valor de campo.This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to get a field value.

GetProperty GetProperty GetProperty GetProperty 4096

Especifica que se debe devolver el valor de la propiedad especificada.Specifies that the value of the specified property should be returned.

Esta marca se pasa a un método InvokeMember para invocar un captador de propiedad.This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to invoke a property getter.

IgnoreCase IgnoreCase IgnoreCase IgnoreCase 1

Especifica que no se debe considerar el caso del nombre del miembro al realizar el enlace.Specifies that the case of the member name should not be considered when binding.

IgnoreReturn IgnoreReturn IgnoreReturn IgnoreReturn 16777216

Se usa en la interoperabilidad COM para especificar que se puede omitir el valor devuelto del miembro.Used in COM interop to specify that the return value of the member can be ignored.

Instance Instance Instance Instance 4

Especifica que los miembros de instancia deben incluirse en la búsqueda.Specifies that instance members are to be included in the search.

InvokeMethod InvokeMethod InvokeMethod InvokeMethod 256

Especifica que se debe invocar un método.Specifies that a method is to be invoked. No debe ser un constructor o un inicializador de tipo.This must not be a constructor or a type initializer.

Esta marca se pasa a un método InvokeMember para invocar un método.This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to invoke a method.

NonPublic NonPublic NonPublic NonPublic 32

Especifica que los miembros no públicos deben incluirse en la búsqueda.Specifies that non-public members are to be included in the search.

OptionalParamBinding OptionalParamBinding OptionalParamBinding OptionalParamBinding 262144

Devuelve el conjunto de miembros cuyo recuento de parámetros coincide con el número de argumentos proporcionados.Returns the set of members whose parameter count matches the number of supplied arguments. Esta marca de enlace se utiliza con métodos que tengan parámetros con valores predeterminados y métodos con argumentos variables (varargs).This binding flag is used for methods with parameters that have default values and methods with variable arguments (varargs). Esta marca solo se debe usar con InvokeMember(String, BindingFlags, Binder, Object, Object[], ParameterModifier[], CultureInfo, String[]).This flag should only be used with InvokeMember(String, BindingFlags, Binder, Object, Object[], ParameterModifier[], CultureInfo, String[]).

Los parámetros con valores predeterminados se usan solo en las llamadas en las que se omiten los argumentos finales.Parameters with default values are used only in calls where trailing arguments are omitted. Deben ser los últimos argumentos.They must be the last arguments.

Public Public Public Public 16

Especifica que los miembros públicos deben incluirse en la búsqueda.Specifies that public members are to be included in the search.

PutDispProperty PutDispProperty PutDispProperty PutDispProperty 16384

Especifica que se debe invocar el miembro PROPPUT en un objeto COM.Specifies that the PROPPUT member on a COM object should be invoked. PROPPUT especifica una función de establecimiento de propiedades que usa un valor.PROPPUT specifies a property-setting function that uses a value. Use PutDispProperty si una propiedad tiene PROPPUT y PROPPUTREF y necesita distinguir a cuál se llama.Use PutDispProperty if a property has both PROPPUT and PROPPUTREF and you need to distinguish which one is called.

PutRefDispProperty PutRefDispProperty PutRefDispProperty PutRefDispProperty 32768

Especifica que se debe invocar el miembro PROPPUTREF en un objeto COM.Specifies that the PROPPUTREF member on a COM object should be invoked. PROPPUTREF especifica una función de establecimiento de propiedades que usa una referencia en lugar de un valor.PROPPUTREF specifies a property-setting function that uses a reference instead of a value. Use PutRefDispProperty si una propiedad tiene PROPPUT y PROPPUTREF y necesita distinguir a cuál se llama.Use PutRefDispProperty if a property has both PROPPUT and PROPPUTREF and you need to distinguish which one is called.

SetField SetField SetField SetField 2048

Especifica que se debe establecer el valor del campo especificado.Specifies that the value of the specified field should be set.

Esta marca se pasa a un método InvokeMember para establecer un valor de campo.This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to set a field value.

SetProperty SetProperty SetProperty SetProperty 8192

Especifica que se debe establecer el valor de la propiedad especificada.Specifies that the value of the specified property should be set. Para las propiedades COM, especificar esta marca de enlace equivale a especificar PutDispProperty y PutRefDispProperty.For COM properties, specifying this binding flag is equivalent to specifying PutDispProperty and PutRefDispProperty.

Esta marca se pasa a un método InvokeMember para invocar un configurador de propiedad.This flag is passed to an InvokeMember method to invoke a property setter.

Static Static Static Static 8

Especifica que los miembros estáticos deben incluirse en la búsqueda.Specifies that static members are to be included in the search.

SuppressChangeType SuppressChangeType SuppressChangeType SuppressChangeType 131072

Sin implementar.Not implemented.

Ejemplos

En el ejemplo siguiente se muestran muchas de las marcas de enlace.The following example demonstrates many of the binding flags.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;
using namespace System::Reflection;
using namespace System::IO;

//namespace BindingFlagsSnippet {
public ref class TestClass
{
public:
   String^ Name;

private:
   array<Object^>^ values;
   int methodCalled;

public:

   property Object^ Item [int]
   {
      Object^ get( int index )
      {
         return values[ index ];
      }

      void set( int index, Object^ value )
      {
         values[ index ] = value;
      }
   }

   property Object^ Value
   {
      Object^ get()
      {
         return "the value";
      }
   }

   TestClass() 
   {
      Name = "initialName";
      values = gcnew array<Object^> {(int^)0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};
      methodCalled = 0;
   }
   
   TestClass(String^ initName)
   {
      Name = initName;
      values = gcnew array<Object^> {(int^)0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};
      methodCalled = 0;
   }

   static void SayHello()
   {
      Console::WriteLine( "Hello" );
   }

   void AddUp()
   {
      methodCalled++;
      Console::WriteLine( "AddUp Called {0} times", methodCalled );
   }

   static double ComputeSum( double d1, double d2 )
   {
      return d1 + d2;
   }

   static void PrintName( String^ firstName, String^ lastName )
   {
      Console::WriteLine( "{0},{1}", lastName, firstName );
   }

   void PrintTime()
   {
      Console::WriteLine( DateTime::Now );
   }

   void Swap( interior_ptr<int> a, interior_ptr<int> b )
   {
      int x =  *a;
       *a =  *b;
       *b = x;
   }
};


[DefaultMemberAttribute("PrintTime")]
public ref class TestClass2
{
public:
   void PrintTime()
   {
      Console::WriteLine( DateTime::Now );
   }

};

public ref class Base
{
private:
    static int BaseOnlyPrivate = 0;
protected:
    static int BaseOnly = 0;
};

public ref class Derived : Base
{
public:
    static int DerivedOnly = 0;
};

public ref class MostDerived : Derived {};

void main()
{
   array<Object^>^ noArguments;

   // BindingFlags::InvokeMethod
   // Call a static method.
   Type^ t = TestClass::typeid;
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a static method." );
   Console::WriteLine( "-------------------------" );
   t->InvokeMember( "SayHello", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod | BindingFlags::Public | BindingFlags::Static, 
         nullptr, nullptr, noArguments );

   // BindingFlags::InvokeMethod
   // Call an instance method.
   TestClass^ c = gcnew TestClass;
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking an instance method." );
   Console::WriteLine( "----------------------------" );
   c->GetType()->InvokeMember( "AddUp", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod, nullptr, c, noArguments );
   c->GetType()->InvokeMember( "AddUp", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod, nullptr, c, noArguments );

   // BindingFlags::InvokeMethod
   // Call a method with parameters.
   array<Object^>^args = {100.09,184.45};
   Object^ result;
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a method with parameters." );
   Console::WriteLine( "---------------------------------" );
   result = t->InvokeMember( "ComputeSum", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod, nullptr, nullptr, args );
   Console::WriteLine( " {0} + {1} = {2}", args[ 0 ], args[ 1 ], result );

   // BindingFlags::GetField, SetField
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a field (getting and setting.)" );
   Console::WriteLine( "--------------------------------------" );

   // Get a field value.
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Name", BindingFlags::GetField, nullptr, c, noArguments );
   Console::WriteLine( "Name == {0}", result );

   // Set a field.
   array<Object^>^obj2 = {"NewName"};
   t->InvokeMember( "Name", BindingFlags::SetField, nullptr, c, obj2 );
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Name", BindingFlags::GetField, nullptr, c, noArguments );
   Console::WriteLine( "Name == {0}", result );
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)" );
   Console::WriteLine( "--------------------------------------------------" );

   // BindingFlags::GetProperty
   // Get an indexed property value.
   int index = 3;
   array<Object^>^obj3 = {index};
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Item", BindingFlags::GetProperty, nullptr, c, obj3 );
   Console::WriteLine( "Item->Item[ {0}] == {1}", index, result );

   // BindingFlags::SetProperty
   // Set an indexed property value.
   index = 3;
   array<Object^>^obj4 = {index,"NewValue"};
   t->InvokeMember( "Item", BindingFlags::SetProperty, nullptr, c, obj4 );
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Item", BindingFlags::GetProperty, nullptr, c, obj3 );
   Console::WriteLine( "Item->Item[ {0}] == {1}", index, result );
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Getting a field or property." );
   Console::WriteLine( "----------------------------" );

   // BindingFlags::GetField
   // Get a field or property.
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Name", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::GetField | 
       BindingFlags::GetProperty), nullptr, c, noArguments );
   Console::WriteLine( "Name == {0}", result );

   // BindingFlags::GetProperty
   result = t->InvokeMember( "Value", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::GetField | 
       BindingFlags::GetProperty), nullptr, c, noArguments );
   Console::WriteLine( "Value == {0}", result );
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a method with named parameters." );
   Console::WriteLine( "---------------------------------------" );

   // BindingFlags::InvokeMethod
   // Call a method using named parameters.
   array<Object^>^argValues = {"Mouse","Micky"};
   array<String^>^argNames = {"lastName","firstName"};
   t->InvokeMember( "PrintName", BindingFlags::InvokeMethod, nullptr, nullptr, argValues, nullptr, 
       nullptr, argNames );
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a default member of a type." );
   Console::WriteLine( "------------------------------------" );

   // BindingFlags::Default
   // Call the default member of a type.
   Type^ t3 = TestClass2::typeid;
   t3->InvokeMember( "", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::InvokeMethod | BindingFlags::Default), 
        nullptr, gcnew TestClass2, noArguments );

   // BindingFlags::Static, NonPublic, and Public
   // Invoking a member with ref parameters.
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Invoking a method with ref parameters." );
   Console::WriteLine( "--------------------------------------" );
   MethodInfo^ m = t->GetMethod( "Swap" );
   args = gcnew array<Object^>(2);
   args[ 0 ] = 1;
   args[ 1 ] = 2;
   m->Invoke( gcnew TestClass, args );
   Console::WriteLine( "{0}, {1}", args[ 0 ], args[ 1 ] );

   // BindingFlags::CreateInstance
   // Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor.
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor." );
   Console::WriteLine( "------------------------------------------------------" );
   Object^ obj = t->InvokeMember( "TestClass", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::Public | 
       BindingFlags::Instance | BindingFlags::CreateInstance), nullptr, nullptr, noArguments );
   Console::WriteLine("Instance of {0} created.", obj->GetType()->Name);

   // Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters." );
   Console::WriteLine( "------------------------------------------------------------" );
   obj = t->InvokeMember( "TestClass", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::Public | 
       BindingFlags::Instance | BindingFlags::CreateInstance), nullptr, nullptr, 
       gcnew array<Object^> { "Hello, World!" } );
   Console::WriteLine("Instance of {0} created with initial value '{1}'.", obj->GetType()->Name, 
       obj->GetType()->InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags::GetField, nullptr, obj, noArguments));

   // BindingFlags::DeclaredOnly
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "DeclaredOnly instance members." );
   Console::WriteLine( "------------------------------" );
   array<System::Reflection::MemberInfo^>^memInfo = t->GetMembers( BindingFlags::DeclaredOnly | 
       BindingFlags::Instance | BindingFlags::Public);
   for ( int i = 0; i < memInfo->Length; i++ )
   {
      Console::WriteLine( memInfo[ i ]->Name );

   }

   // BindingFlags::IgnoreCase
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method." );
   Console::WriteLine( "---------------------------------------------------" );
   t->InvokeMember( "printname", static_cast<BindingFlags>(BindingFlags::IgnoreCase | 
                BindingFlags::Static | BindingFlags::Public | BindingFlags::InvokeMethod), 
                nullptr, nullptr, gcnew array<Object^> {"Brad","Smith"});

   // BindingFlags::FlattenHierarchy
   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine( "Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members." );
   Console::WriteLine( "----------------------------------------------------------------------------" );
   array<FieldInfo^>^ finfos = MostDerived::typeid->GetFields(BindingFlags::NonPublic | 
         BindingFlags::Public | BindingFlags::Static | BindingFlags::FlattenHierarchy);
   for each (FieldInfo^ finfo in finfos)
   {
       Console::WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo->Name, finfo->DeclaringType->Name);
   }

   Console::WriteLine();
   Console::WriteLine("Without FlattenHierarchy." );
   Console::WriteLine("-------------------------");
   finfos = MostDerived::typeid->GetFields(BindingFlags::NonPublic | BindingFlags::Public |
         BindingFlags::Static);
   for each (FieldInfo^ finfo in finfos)
   {
       Console::WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo->Name, finfo->DeclaringType->Name);
   }
};

/* This example produces output similar to the following:

Invoking a static method.
-------------------------
Hello

Invoking an instance method.
----------------------------
AddUp Called 1 times
AddUp Called 2 times

Invoking a method with parameters.
---------------------------------
 100.09 + 184.45 = 284.54

Invoking a field (getting and setting.)
--------------------------------------
Name == initialName
Name == NewName

Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)
--------------------------------------------------
Item->Item[ 3] == 3
Item->Item[ 3] == NewValue

Getting a field or property.
----------------------------
Name == NewName
Value == the value

Invoking a method with named parameters.
---------------------------------------
Mouse,Micky

Invoking a default member of a type.
------------------------------------
12/23/2009 4:19:06 PM

Invoking a method with ref parameters.
--------------------------------------
2, 1

Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor.
------------------------------------------------------
Instance of TestClass created.

Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.
------------------------------------------------------------
Instance of TestClass created with initial value 'Hello, World!'.

DeclaredOnly instance members.
------------------------------
get_Item
set_Item
get_Value
AddUp
PrintTime
Swap
.ctor
.ctor
Value
Item
Name
methodCalled

Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method.
---------------------------------------------------
Smith,Brad

Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
DerivedOnly defined in Derived.
BaseOnly defined in Base.

Without FlattenHierarchy.
-------------------------

 */
using System;
using System.Reflection;
using System.IO;

namespace BindingFlagsSnippet
{
    class Example
    {
        static void Main()
        {
            // BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
            // Call a static method.
            Type t = typeof (TestClass);

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a static method.");
            Console.WriteLine("-------------------------");
            t.InvokeMember ("SayHello", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod | BindingFlags.Public | 
                BindingFlags.Static, null, null, new object [] {});

            // BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
            // Call an instance method.
            TestClass c = new TestClass ();
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking an instance method.");
            Console.WriteLine("----------------------------");
            c.GetType().InvokeMember ("AddUp", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null, c, new object [] {});
            c.GetType().InvokeMember ("AddUp", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null, c, new object [] {});

            // BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
            // Call a method with parameters.
            object [] args = new object [] {100.09, 184.45};
            object result;
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with parameters.");
            Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------");
            result = t.InvokeMember ("ComputeSum", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null, null, args);
            Console.WriteLine ("{0} + {1} = {2}", args[0], args[1], result);

            // BindingFlags.GetField, SetField
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a field (getting and setting.)");
            Console.WriteLine("--------------------------------------");
            // Get a field value.
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, null, c, new object [] {});
            Console.WriteLine ("Name == {0}", result);
            // Set a field.
            t.InvokeMember ("Name", BindingFlags.SetField, null, c, new object [] {"NewName"});
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, null, c, new object [] {});
            Console.WriteLine ("Name == {0}", result);

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)");
            Console.WriteLine("--------------------------------------------------");
            // BindingFlags.GetProperty
            // Get an indexed property value.
            int  index = 3;
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Item", BindingFlags.GetProperty, null, c, new object [] {index});
            Console.WriteLine ("Item[{0}] == {1}", index, result);
            // BindingFlags.SetProperty
            // Set an indexed property value.
            index = 3;
            t.InvokeMember ("Item", BindingFlags.SetProperty, null, c, new object [] {index, "NewValue"});
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Item", BindingFlags.GetProperty , null, c, new object [] {index});
            Console.WriteLine ("Item[{0}] == {1}", index, result);

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Getting a field or property.");
            Console.WriteLine("----------------------------");
            // BindingFlags.GetField
            // Get a field or property.
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Name", BindingFlags.GetField | BindingFlags.GetProperty, null, c, 
                new object [] {});
            Console.WriteLine ("Name == {0}", result);
            // BindingFlags.GetProperty
            result = t.InvokeMember ("Value", BindingFlags.GetField | BindingFlags.GetProperty, null, c, 
                new object [] {});
            Console.WriteLine ("Value == {0}", result);

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with named parameters.");
            Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------");
            // BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
            // Call a method using named parameters.
            object[] argValues = new object [] {"Mouse", "Micky"};
            String [] argNames = new String [] {"lastName", "firstName"};
            t.InvokeMember ("PrintName", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null, null, argValues, null, null, 
                argNames);

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a default member of a type.");
            Console.WriteLine("------------------------------------");
            // BindingFlags.Default
            // Call the default member of a type.
            Type t3 = typeof (TestClass2);
            t3.InvokeMember ("", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod | BindingFlags.Default, null, new TestClass2(), 
                new object [] {});

            // BindingFlags.Static, NonPublic, and Public
            // Invoking a member with ref parameters.
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with ref parameters.");
            Console.WriteLine("--------------------------------------");
            MethodInfo m = t.GetMethod("Swap");
            args = new object[2];
            args[0] = 1;
            args[1] = 2;
            m.Invoke(new TestClass(),args);
            Console.WriteLine ("{0}, {1}", args[0], args[1]);

            // BindingFlags.CreateInstance
            // Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor.
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor.");
            Console.WriteLine("------------------------------------------------------");
            object cobj = t.InvokeMember ("TestClass", BindingFlags.Public |
                BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.CreateInstance,
                null, null, new object [] {});
            Console.WriteLine("Instance of {0} created.", cobj.GetType().Name);

            // Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.");
            Console.WriteLine("------------------------------------------------------------");
            cobj = t.InvokeMember ("TestClass", BindingFlags.Public |
                BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.CreateInstance,
                null, null, new object [] { "Hello, World!" });
            Console.WriteLine("Instance of {0} created with initial value '{1}'.", cobj.GetType().Name,
                cobj.GetType().InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, null, cobj, null));

            // BindingFlags.DeclaredOnly
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("DeclaredOnly instance members.");
            Console.WriteLine("------------------------------");
            System.Reflection.MemberInfo[] memInfo =
                t.GetMembers(BindingFlags.DeclaredOnly | BindingFlags.Instance | 
                BindingFlags.Public);
            for(int i=0;i<memInfo.Length;i++)
            {
                Console.WriteLine(memInfo[i].Name);
            }

            // BindingFlags.IgnoreCase
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method.");
            Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------------------");
            t.InvokeMember("printname", BindingFlags.IgnoreCase | BindingFlags.Static | 
                BindingFlags.Public | BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, null, null, new object[]
                {"Brad","Smith"});

            // BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members." );
            Console.WriteLine("----------------------------------------------------------------------------");
            FieldInfo[] finfos = typeof(MostDerived).GetFields(BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Public |
                  BindingFlags.Static | BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy);
            foreach (FieldInfo finfo in finfos)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo.Name, finfo.DeclaringType.Name);
            }

            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("Without FlattenHierarchy." );
            Console.WriteLine("-------------------------");
            finfos = typeof(MostDerived).GetFields(BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.Public |
                  BindingFlags.Static);
            foreach (FieldInfo finfo in finfos)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo.Name, finfo.DeclaringType.Name);
            }
        }
    }

    public class TestClass
    {
        public String Name;
        private Object [] values = new Object [] {0, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};

        public Object this [int index]
        {
            get
            {
                return values[index];
            }
            set
            {
                values[index] = value;
            }
        }

        public Object Value
        {
            get
            {
                return "the value";
            }
        }

        public TestClass () : this("initialName") {}
        public TestClass (string initName)
        {
            Name = initName;
        }

        int methodCalled = 0;

        public static void SayHello ()
        {
            Console.WriteLine ("Hello");
        }

        public void AddUp ()
        {
            methodCalled++;
            Console.WriteLine ("AddUp Called {0} times", methodCalled);
        }

        public static double ComputeSum (double d1, double d2)
        {
            return d1 + d2;
        }

        public static void PrintName (String firstName, String lastName)
        {
            Console.WriteLine ("{0},{1}", lastName,firstName);
        }

        public void PrintTime ()
        {
            Console.WriteLine (DateTime.Now);
        }

        public void Swap(ref int a, ref int b)
        {
            int x = a;
            a = b;
            b = x;
        }
    }

    [DefaultMemberAttribute ("PrintTime")]
    public class TestClass2
    {
        public void PrintTime ()
        {
            Console.WriteLine (DateTime.Now);
        }
    }

    public class Base
    {
        static int BaseOnlyPrivate = 0;
        protected static int BaseOnly = 0;
    }
    public class Derived : Base
    {
        public static int DerivedOnly = 0;
    }
    public class MostDerived : Derived {}
}

/* This example produces output similar to the following:

Invoking a static method.
-------------------------
Hello

Invoking an instance method.
----------------------------
AddUp Called 1 times
AddUp Called 2 times

Invoking a method with parameters.
---------------------------------
100.09 + 184.45 = 284.54

Invoking a field (getting and setting.)
--------------------------------------
Name == initialName
Name == NewName

Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)
--------------------------------------------------
Item[3] == 3
Item[3] == NewValue

Getting a field or property.
----------------------------
Name == NewName
Value == the value

Invoking a method with named parameters.
---------------------------------------
Mouse,Micky

Invoking a default member of a type.
------------------------------------
12/23/2009 4:29:21 PM

Invoking a method with ref parameters.
--------------------------------------
2, 1

Creating an instance with a parameterless constructor.
------------------------------------------------------
Instance of TestClass created.

Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.
------------------------------------------------------------
Instance of TestClass created with initial value 'Hello, World!'.

DeclaredOnly instance members.
------------------------------
get_Item
set_Item
get_Value
AddUp
PrintTime
Swap
.ctor
.ctor
Item
Value
Name

Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method.
---------------------------------------------------
Smith,Brad

Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
DerivedOnly defined in Derived.
BaseOnly defined in Base.

Without FlattenHierarchy.
-------------------------

 */
Imports System.Reflection
Imports System.IO

Class Invoke

    Public Shared Sub Main()
        ' BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
        ' Call a static method.
        Dim t As Type = GetType(TestClass)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a static method.")
        Console.WriteLine("-------------------------")
        t.InvokeMember("SayHello", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod Or BindingFlags.Public _
            Or BindingFlags.Static, Nothing, Nothing, New Object() {})

        ' BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
        ' Call an instance method.
        Dim c As New TestClass()
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking an instance method.")
        Console.WriteLine("----------------------------")
        c.GetType().InvokeMember("AddUp", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, c, New Object() {})
        c.GetType().InvokeMember("AddUp", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, c, New Object() {})

        ' BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
        ' Call a method with parameters.
        Dim args() As Object = {100.09, 184.45}
        Dim result As Object
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with parameters.")
        Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------")
        result = t.InvokeMember("ComputeSum", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, Nothing, args)
        Console.WriteLine("{0} + {1} = {2}", args(0), args(1), result)

        ' BindingFlags.GetField, SetField
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a field (getting and setting.)")
        Console.WriteLine("--------------------------------------")
        ' Get a field value.
        result = t.InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, Nothing, c, New Object() {})
        Console.WriteLine("Name == {0}", result)
        ' Set a field.
        t.InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.SetField, Nothing, c, New Object() {"NewName"})
        result = t.InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, Nothing, c, New Object() {})
        Console.WriteLine("Name == {0}", result)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)")
        Console.WriteLine("--------------------------------------------------")
        ' BindingFlags.GetProperty 
        ' Get an indexed property value.
        Dim index As Integer = 3
        result = t.InvokeMember("Item", BindingFlags.GetProperty, Nothing, c, New Object() {index})
        Console.WriteLine("Item[{0}] == {1}", index, result)
        ' BindingFlags.SetProperty
        ' Set an indexed property value.
        index = 3
        t.InvokeMember("Item", BindingFlags.SetProperty, Nothing, c, New Object() {index, "NewValue"})
        result = t.InvokeMember("Item", BindingFlags.GetProperty, Nothing, c, New Object() {index})
        Console.WriteLine("Item[{0}] == {1}", index, result)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Getting a field or property.")
        Console.WriteLine("----------------------------")
        ' BindingFlags.GetField
        ' Get a field or property.
        result = t.InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.GetField Or BindingFlags.GetProperty, Nothing, _
            c, New Object() {})
        Console.WriteLine("Name == {0}", result)
        ' BindingFlags.GetProperty
        result = t.InvokeMember("Value", BindingFlags.GetField Or BindingFlags.GetProperty, Nothing, _
            c, New Object() {})
        Console.WriteLine("Value == {0}", result)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with named parameters.")
        Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------")
        ' BindingFlags.InvokeMethod
        ' Call a method using named parameters.
        Dim argValues() As Object = {"Mouse", "Micky"}
        Dim argNames() As [String] = {"lastName", "firstName"}
        t.InvokeMember("PrintName", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, Nothing, argValues, Nothing, _
            Nothing, argNames)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a default member of a type.")
        Console.WriteLine("------------------------------------")
        ' BindingFlags.Default
        ' Call the default member of a type.
        Dim t3 As Type = GetType(TestClass2)
        t3.InvokeMember("", BindingFlags.InvokeMethod Or BindingFlags.Default, Nothing, _
            New TestClass2(), New Object() {})

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Invoking a method with ByRef parameters.")
        Console.WriteLine("----------------------------------------")
        ' BindingFlags.Static, NonPublic, and Public
        ' Invoking a member by reference.
        Dim m As MethodInfo = t.GetMethod("Swap")
        args = New Object(1) {}
        args(0) = 1
        args(1) = 2
        m.Invoke(New TestClass(), args)
        Console.WriteLine("{0}, {1}", args(0), args(1))

        ' BindingFlags.CreateInstance
        ' Creating an instance.
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Creating an instance with parameterless constructor.")
        Console.WriteLine("----------------------------------------------------")
        Dim obj As Object = GetType(TestClass).InvokeMember("TestClass", BindingFlags.CreateInstance, _
            Nothing, Nothing, New Object() {})
        Console.WriteLine("Instance of {0} created.", obj.GetType().Name)

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.")
        Console.WriteLine("------------------------------------------------------------")
        obj = GetType(TestClass).InvokeMember("TestClass", BindingFlags.CreateInstance, Nothing, _
            Nothing, New Object() { "Hello, World!" })
        Console.WriteLine("Instance of {0} created with initial value '{1}'.", obj.GetType().Name, _
            obj.GetType().InvokeMember("Name", BindingFlags.GetField, Nothing, obj, Nothing))

        ' BindingFlags.DeclaredOnly
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("DeclaredOnly instance members.")
        Console.WriteLine("------------------------------")
        Dim memInfo As System.Reflection.MemberInfo() = t.GetMembers(BindingFlags.DeclaredOnly Or _
            BindingFlags.Public Or BindingFlags.Instance)
        Dim i As Integer
        For i = 0 To memInfo.Length - 1
            Console.WriteLine(memInfo(i).Name)
        Next i

        ' BindingFlags.IgnoreCase
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method.")
        Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------------------")
        t.InvokeMember("printname", BindingFlags.IgnoreCase Or BindingFlags.Public Or _
            BindingFlags.Static Or BindingFlags.InvokeMethod, Nothing, Nothing, _
            New Object() {"Brad", "Smith"})

        ' BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members." )
        Console.WriteLine("----------------------------------------------------------------------------")
        Dim finfos() As FieldInfo = GetType(MostDerived).GetFields(BindingFlags.NonPublic Or _
              BindingFlags.Public Or BindingFlags.Static Or BindingFlags.FlattenHierarchy)
        For Each finfo As FieldInfo In finfos
            Console.WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo.Name, finfo.DeclaringType.Name)
        Next

        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine("Without FlattenHierarchy." )
        Console.WriteLine("-------------------------")
        finfos = GetType(MostDerived).GetFields(BindingFlags.NonPublic Or BindingFlags.Public Or _
              BindingFlags.Static)
        For Each finfo As FieldInfo In finfos
            Console.WriteLine("{0} defined in {1}.", finfo.Name, finfo.DeclaringType.Name)
        Next
    End Sub
End Class

Public Class TestClass
    Public Name As String
    Private values() As [Object] = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

    Default Public Property Item(ByVal index As Integer) As [Object]
        Get
            Return values(index)
        End Get
        Set(ByVal Value As [Object])
            values(index) = Value
        End Set
    End Property

    Public ReadOnly Property Value() As [Object]
        Get
            Return "the value"
        End Get
    End Property

    Public Sub New(ByVal initName As String)
        Name = initName
    End Sub 

    Public Sub New()
        MyClass.New("initialName")
    End Sub 

    Private methodCalled As Integer = 0

    Public Shared Sub SayHello()
        Console.WriteLine("Hello")
    End Sub 

    Public Sub AddUp()
        methodCalled += 1
        Console.WriteLine("AddUp Called {0} times", methodCalled)
    End Sub 

    Public Shared Function ComputeSum(ByVal d1 As Double, ByVal d2 As Double) As Double
        Return d1 + d2
    End Function 

    Public Shared Sub PrintName(ByVal firstName As [String], ByVal lastName As [String])
        Console.WriteLine("{0},{1}", lastName, firstName)
    End Sub 

    Public Sub PrintTime()
        Console.WriteLine(DateTime.Now)
    End Sub 

    Public Sub Swap(ByRef a As Integer, ByRef b As Integer)
        Dim x As Integer = a
        a = b
        b = x
    End Sub
End Class

<DefaultMemberAttribute("PrintTime")> _
Public Class TestClass2

    Public Sub PrintTime()
        Console.WriteLine(DateTime.Now)
    End Sub 
End Class

Public Class Base
    Shared BaseOnlyPrivate As Integer = 0
    Protected Shared BaseOnly As Integer = 0
End Class

Public Class Derived 
    Inherits Base
    Public Shared DerivedOnly As Integer = 0
End Class

Public Class MostDerived 
    Inherits Derived
End Class

' This example produces output similar to the following:
'
'Invoking a static method.
'-------------------------
'Hello
'
'Invoking an instance method.
'----------------------------
'AddUp Called 1 times
'AddUp Called 2 times
'
'Invoking a method with parameters.
'---------------------------------
'100.09 + 184.45 = 284.54
'
'Invoking a field (getting and setting.)
'--------------------------------------
'Name == initialName
'Name == NewName
'
'Invoking an indexed property (getting and setting.)
'--------------------------------------------------
'Item[3] == 3
'Item[3] == NewValue
'
'Getting a field or property.
'----------------------------
'Name == NewName
'Value == the value
'
'Invoking a method with named parameters.
'---------------------------------------
'Mouse,Micky
'
'Invoking a default member of a type.
'------------------------------------
'12/23/2009 4:34:22 PM
'
'Invoking a method with ByRef parameters.
'----------------------------------------
'2, 1
'
'Creating an instance with parameterless constructor.
'----------------------------------------------------
'Instance of TestClass created.
'
'Creating an instance with a constructor that has parameters.
'------------------------------------------------------------
'Instance of TestClass created with initial value 'Hello, World!'.
'
'DeclaredOnly instance members.
'------------------------------
'get_Item
'set_Item
'get_Value
'AddUp
'PrintTime
'Swap
'.ctor
'.ctor
'Item
'Value
'Name
'
'Using IgnoreCase and invoking the PrintName method.
'---------------------------------------------------
'Smith,Brad
'
'Using FlattenHierarchy to get inherited static protected and public members.
'----------------------------------------------------------------------------
'DerivedOnly defined in Derived.
'BaseOnly defined in Base.
'
'Without FlattenHierarchy.
'-------------------------
'

Comentarios

Estos BindingFlags enlaces de control para una gran cantidad de clases Systemen System.Reflectionlos espacios System.Runtime de nombres, y que invocan, crean, obtienen, establecen y buscan miembros y tipos.These BindingFlags control binding for a great many classes in the System, System.Reflection, and System.Runtime namespaces that invoke, create, get, set, and find members and types.

BindingFlagsse usan en los siguientes Type métodos y otros lugares MethodBase.Invokecomo:BindingFlags are used in the following Type methods and other places such as MethodBase.Invoke:

InvokeMembery GetMethod son especialmente importantes.InvokeMember and GetMethod are especially important.

Las marcas de enlace se pueden categorizar según cómo identifican un miembro de tipo, tal como se muestra en la tabla siguiente.The binding flags can be categorized by how they identify a type member, as listed in the following table.

Identificado por accesibilidadIdentified by Accessibility Identificado por el argumento de enlaceIdentified by Binding Argument Identificada por la operaciónIdentified by Operation
DeclaredOnlyDeclaredOnly

FlattenHierarchyFlattenHierarchy

IgnoreCaseIgnoreCase

IgnoreReturnIgnoreReturn

InstanciaInstance

NonPublicNonPublic

PublicPublic

EstáticoStatic
ExactBindingExactBinding

OptionalParamBindingOptionalParamBinding
CreateInstanceCreateInstance

GetFieldGetField

SetFieldSetField

GetPropertyGetProperty

SetPropertySetProperty

InvokeMethodInvokeMethod

PutDispPropertyPutDispProperty

PutRefDispPropertyPutRefDispProperty

Nota

Debe especificar Instance o Static junto con Public o NonPublic o no se devolverá ningún miembro.You must specify Instance or Static along with Public or NonPublic or no members will be returned.

En la tabla siguiente se enumeran las conversiones realizadas Binder.ChangeTypepor el valor predeterminado.The following table lists the coercions performed by the default Binder.ChangeType. Esta tabla se aplica especialmente a BindingFlags.ExactBinding la marca de enlace.This table applies especially to the BindingFlags.ExactBinding binding flag. El principio general es que ChangeType debe realizar solo las conversiones de ampliación, que nunca pierden los datos.The general principle is that ChangeType should perform only widening coercions, which never lose data. Un ejemplo de una conversión de ampliación es la conversión de un valor que es un entero con signo de 32 bits en un valor que es un entero de 64 bits con signo.An example of a widening coercion is coercing a value that is a 32-bit signed integer to a value that is a 64-bit signed integer. Esto se distingue de una conversión de restricción, que puede perder datos.This is distinguished from a narrowing coercion, which may lose data. Un ejemplo de una conversión de restricción consiste en convertir un entero con signo de 64 bits en un entero de 32 bits con signo.An example of a narrowing coercion is coercing a 64-bit signed integer to a 32-bit signed integer.

Tipo de origenSource Type Tipo de destinoTarget Type
Cualquier tipoAny type Su tipo base.Its base type.
Cualquier tipoAny type La interfaz que implementa.The interface it implements.
Char UInt16, UInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, DoubleUInt16, UInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, Double
Byte Char, UInt16, Int16, UInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, DoubleChar, UInt16, Int16, UInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, Double
SByte Int16, Int32, Int64, Single, DoubleInt16, Int32, Int64, Single, Double
UInt16 UInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, DoubleUInt32, Int32, UInt64, Int64, Single, Double
Int16 Int32, Int64, Single, DoubleInt32, Int64, Single, Double
UInt32 UInt64, Int64, Single, DoubleUInt64, Int64, Single, Double
Int32 Int64, Single, DoubleInt64, Single, Double
UInt64 Single, DoubleSingle, Double
Int64 Single, DoubleSingle, Double
Single Double
No referenciaNon-reference Por referencia.By-reference.

Cuando se BindingFlags.ExactBinding usa la marca de enlace, la reflexión modela las reglas de accesibilidad del sistema de tipos comunes.When the BindingFlags.ExactBinding binding flag is used, reflection models the accessibility rules of the common type system. Por ejemplo, si el llamador está en el mismo ensamblado, el autor de la llamada no necesita permisos especiales para los miembros internos.For example, if the caller is in the same assembly, the caller does not need special permissions for internal members. De lo contrario, el autor ReflectionPermissionde la llamada necesita.Otherwise, the caller needs ReflectionPermission. Esto es coherente con la búsqueda de miembros protegidos, privados, etc.This is consistent with the lookup of members that are protected, private, and so on.

Se aplica a