Ejemplos de código de ADO.NETADO.NET code examples

Los listados de código de este tema muestran cómo recuperar datos de una base de datos utilizando las tecnologías ADO.NET siguientes:The code listings in this topic demonstrate how to retrieve data from a database by using the following ADO.NET technologies:

Ejemplos de proveedores de datos ADO.NETADO.NET data provider examples

En los listados de código siguientes se muestra cómo recuperar datos de una base de datos usando proveedores de datos ADO.NET.The following code listings demonstrate how to retrieve data from a database using ADO.NET data providers. Los datos se devuelven en DataReader.The data is returned in a DataReader. Para obtener más información, consulte recuperación de datos mediante DataReader.For more information, see Retrieving Data Using a DataReader.

SqlClientSqlClient

En el código de este ejemplo se da por supuesto que se Northwind puede conectar a la base de datos de ejemplo en Microsoft SQL Server.The code in this example assumes that you can connect to the Northwind sample database on Microsoft SQL Server. El código crea SqlCommand para seleccionar filas de la tabla Products, que añade SqlParameter para limitar los resultados a las filas con un UnitPrice mayor que el valor de parámetro especificado, en este caso 5.The code creates a SqlCommand to select rows from the Products table, adding a SqlParameter to restrict the results to rows with a UnitPrice greater than the specified parameter value, in this case 5. Se abre dentro de un using bloque, lo que garantiza que los recursos se cierran y se eliminan cuando se cierra el código. SqlConnectionThe SqlConnection is opened inside a using block, which ensures that resources are closed and disposed when the code exits. El código ejecuta el comando utilizando SqlDataReader y muestra los resultados en la ventana de la consola.The code executes the command by using a SqlDataReader, and displays the results in the console window.

using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Data.SqlClient;

class Program
{
    static void Main()
    {
        string connectionString =
            "Data Source=(local);Initial Catalog=Northwind;"
            + "Integrated Security=true";

        // Provide the query string with a parameter placeholder.
        string queryString =
            "SELECT ProductID, UnitPrice, ProductName from dbo.products "
                + "WHERE UnitPrice > @pricePoint "
                + "ORDER BY UnitPrice DESC;";

        // Specify the parameter value.
        int paramValue = 5;

        // Create and open the connection in a using block. This
        // ensures that all resources will be closed and disposed
        // when the code exits.
        using (SqlConnection connection =
            new SqlConnection(connectionString))
        {
            // Create the Command and Parameter objects.
            SqlCommand command = new SqlCommand(queryString, connection);
            command.Parameters.AddWithValue("@pricePoint", paramValue);

            // Open the connection in a try/catch block. 
            // Create and execute the DataReader, writing the result
            // set to the console window.
            try
            {
                connection.Open();
                SqlDataReader reader = command.ExecuteReader();
                while (reader.Read())
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("\t{0}\t{1}\t{2}",
                        reader[0], reader[1], reader[2]);
                }
                reader.Close();
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
            }
            Console.ReadLine();
        }
    }
Option Explicit On
Option Strict On

Imports System.Data
Imports System.Data.SqlClient

Public Class Program
    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim connectionString As String = _
            "Data Source=(local);Initial Catalog=Northwind;" _
            & "Integrated Security=true"

        ' Provide the query string with a parameter placeholder.
        Dim queryString As String = _
            "SELECT ProductID, UnitPrice, ProductName from dbo.Products " _
            & "WHERE UnitPrice > @pricePoint " _
            & "ORDER BY UnitPrice DESC;"

        ' Specify the parameter value.
        Dim paramValue As Integer = 5

        ' Create and open the connection in a using block. This
        ' ensures that all resources will be closed and disposed
        ' when the code exits.
        Using connection As New SqlConnection(connectionString)

            ' Create the Command and Parameter objects.
            Dim command As New SqlCommand(queryString, connection)
            command.Parameters.AddWithValue("@pricePoint", paramValue)

            ' Open the connection in a try/catch block. 
            ' Create and execute the DataReader, writing the result
            ' set to the console window.
            Try
                connection.Open()
                Dim dataReader As SqlDataReader = _
                 command.ExecuteReader()
                Do While dataReader.Read()
                    Console.WriteLine( _
                        vbTab & "{0}" & vbTab & "{1}" & vbTab & "{2}", _
                     dataReader(0), dataReader(1), dataReader(2))
                Loop
                dataReader.Close()

            Catch ex As Exception
                Console.WriteLine(ex.Message)
            End Try
            Console.ReadLine()
        End Using
    End Sub
End Class

OleDbOleDb

En el código de este ejemplo se asume que puede conectarse a la base de datos de ejemplo Northwind de Microsoft Access.The code in this example assumes that you can connect to the Microsoft Access Northwind sample database. El código crea OleDbCommand para seleccionar filas de la tabla Products, que añade OleDbParameter para limitar los resultados a las filas con un UnitPrice mayor que el valor de parámetro especificado, en este caso 5.The code creates a OleDbCommand to select rows from the Products table, adding a OleDbParameter to restrict the results to rows with a UnitPrice greater than the specified parameter value, in this case 5. OleDbConnection se abre dentro de un bloque using, que garantiza que los recursos se cierran y se eliminan cuando termina la ejecución del código.The OleDbConnection is opened inside of a using block, which ensures that resources are closed and disposed when the code exits. El código ejecuta el comando utilizando OleDbDataReader y muestra los resultados en la ventana de la consola.The code executes the command by using a OleDbDataReader, and displays the results in the console window.

using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Data.OleDb;

class Program
{
    static void Main()
    {
        // The connection string assumes that the Access 
        // Northwind.mdb is located in the c:\Data folder.
        string connectionString =
        "Provider=Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0;Data Source="
            + "c:\\Data\\Northwind.mdb;User Id=admin;Password=;";

        // Provide the query string with a parameter placeholder.
        string queryString =
            "SELECT ProductID, UnitPrice, ProductName from products "
                + "WHERE UnitPrice > ? "
                + "ORDER BY UnitPrice DESC;";

        // Specify the parameter value.
        int paramValue = 5;

        // Create and open the connection in a using block. This
        // ensures that all resources will be closed and disposed
        // when the code exits.
        using (OleDbConnection connection =
            new OleDbConnection(connectionString))
        {
            // Create the Command and Parameter objects.
            OleDbCommand command = new OleDbCommand(queryString, connection);
            command.Parameters.AddWithValue("@pricePoint", paramValue);

            // Open the connection in a try/catch block. 
            // Create and execute the DataReader, writing the result
            // set to the console window.
            try
            {
                connection.Open();
                OleDbDataReader reader = command.ExecuteReader();
                while (reader.Read())
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("\t{0}\t{1}\t{2}",
                        reader[0], reader[1], reader[2]);
                }
                reader.Close();
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
            }
            Console.ReadLine();
        }
    }
Option Explicit On
Option Strict On

Imports System.Data
Imports System.Data.OleDb

Public Class Program
    Public Shared Sub Main()

        ' The connection string assumes that the Access 
        ' Northwind.mdb is located in the c:\Data folder.
        Dim connectionString As String = _
             "Provider=Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0;Data Source=" _
            & "c:\Data\Northwind.mdb;User Id=admin;Password=;"

        ' Provide the query string with a parameter placeholder.
        Dim queryString As String = _
            "SELECT ProductID, UnitPrice, ProductName from Products " _
            & "WHERE UnitPrice > ? " _
            & "ORDER BY UnitPrice DESC;"

        ' Specify the parameter value.
        Dim paramValue As Integer = 5

        ' Create and open the connection in a using block. This
        ' ensures that all resources will be closed and disposed
        ' when the code exits.
        Using connection As New OleDbConnection(connectionString)

            ' Create the Command and Parameter objects.
            Dim command As New OleDbCommand(queryString, connection)
            command.Parameters.AddWithValue("@pricePoint", paramValue)

            ' Open the connection in a try/catch block. 
            ' Create and execute the DataReader, writing the result
            ' set to the console window.
            Try
                connection.Open()
                Dim dataReader As OleDbDataReader = _
                 command.ExecuteReader()
                Do While dataReader.Read()
                    Console.WriteLine( _
                        vbTab & "{0}" & vbTab & "{1}" & vbTab & "{2}", _
                     dataReader(0), dataReader(1), dataReader(2))
                Loop
                dataReader.Close()

            Catch ex As Exception
                Console.WriteLine(ex.Message)
            End Try
            Console.ReadLine()
        End Using
    End Sub
End Class

OdbcOdbc

En el código de este ejemplo se asume que puede conectarse a la base de datos de ejemplo Northwind de Microsoft Access.The code in this example assumes that you can connect to the Microsoft Access Northwind sample database. El código crea OdbcCommand para seleccionar filas de la tabla Products, que añade OdbcParameter para limitar los resultados a las filas con un UnitPrice mayor que el valor de parámetro especificado, en este caso 5.The code creates a OdbcCommand to select rows from the Products table, adding a OdbcParameter to restrict the results to rows with a UnitPrice greater than the specified parameter value, in this case 5. Se abre dentro de un using bloque, lo que garantiza que los recursos se cierran y se eliminan cuando se cierra el código. OdbcConnectionThe OdbcConnection is opened inside a using block, which ensures that resources are closed and disposed when the code exits. El código ejecuta el comando utilizando OdbcDataReader y muestra los resultados en la ventana de la consola.The code executes the command by using a OdbcDataReader, and displays the results in the console window.

using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Data.Odbc;

class Program
{
    static void Main()
    {
        // The connection string assumes that the Access 
        // Northwind.mdb is located in the c:\Data folder.
        string connectionString =
            "Driver={Microsoft Access Driver (*.mdb)};"
            + "Dbq=c:\\Data\\Northwind.mdb;Uid=Admin;Pwd=;";

        // Provide the query string with a parameter placeholder.
        string queryString =
            "SELECT ProductID, UnitPrice, ProductName from products "
                + "WHERE UnitPrice > ? "
                + "ORDER BY UnitPrice DESC;";

        // Specify the parameter value.
        int paramValue = 5;

        // Create and open the connection in a using block. This
        // ensures that all resources will be closed and disposed
        // when the code exits.
        using (OdbcConnection connection =
            new OdbcConnection(connectionString))
        {
            // Create the Command and Parameter objects.
            OdbcCommand command = new OdbcCommand(queryString, connection);
            command.Parameters.AddWithValue("@pricePoint", paramValue);

            // Open the connection in a try/catch block. 
            // Create and execute the DataReader, writing the result
            // set to the console window.
            try
            {
                connection.Open();
                OdbcDataReader reader = command.ExecuteReader();
                while (reader.Read())
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("\t{0}\t{1}\t{2}",
                        reader[0], reader[1], reader[2]);
                }
                reader.Close();
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
            }
            Console.ReadLine();
        }
    }
}
Option Explicit On
Option Strict On

Imports System.Data
Imports System.Data.Odbc

Public Class Program
    Public Shared Sub Main()

        ' The connection string assumes that the Access 
        ' Northwind.mdb is located in the c:\Data folder.
        Dim connectionString As String = _
            "Driver={Microsoft Access Driver (*.mdb)};" _
           & "Dbq=c:\Data\Northwind.mdb;Uid=Admin;Pwd=;"

        ' Provide the query string with a parameter placeholder.
        Dim queryString As String = _
            "SELECT ProductID, UnitPrice, ProductName from Products " _
            & "WHERE UnitPrice > ? " _
            & "ORDER BY UnitPrice DESC;"

        ' Specify the parameter value.
        Dim paramValue As Integer = 5

        ' Create and open the connection in a using block. This
        ' ensures that all resources will be closed and disposed
        ' when the code exits.
        Using connection As New OdbcConnection(connectionString)

            ' Create the Command and Parameter objects.
            Dim command As New OdbcCommand(queryString, connection)
            command.Parameters.AddWithValue("@pricePoint", paramValue)

            ' Open the connection in a try/catch block. 
            ' Create and execute the DataReader, writing the result
            ' set to the console window.
            Try
                connection.Open()
                Dim dataReader As OdbcDataReader = _
                 command.ExecuteReader()
                Do While dataReader.Read()
                    Console.WriteLine( _
                        vbTab & "{0}" & vbTab & "{1}" & vbTab & "{2}", _
                     dataReader(0), dataReader(1), dataReader(2))
                Loop
                dataReader.Close()

            Catch ex As Exception
                Console.WriteLine(ex.Message)
            End Try
            Console.ReadLine()
        End Using
    End Sub
End Class

OracleClientOracleClient

En el código de este ejemplo se presupone una conexión a DEMO.CUSTOMER en un servidor Oracle.The code in this example assumes a connection to DEMO.CUSTOMER on an Oracle server. También debe agregarse una referencia a System.Data.OracleClient.dll.You must also add a reference to the System.Data.OracleClient.dll. El código devuelve los datos en OracleDataReader.The code returns the data in an OracleDataReader.

using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Data.OracleClient;

class Program
{
    static void Main()
    {
        string connectionString = 
            "Data Source=ThisOracleServer;Integrated Security=yes;";
        string queryString =
            "SELECT CUSTOMER_ID, NAME FROM DEMO.CUSTOMER";
        using (OracleConnection connection =
                   new OracleConnection(connectionString))
        {
            OracleCommand command = connection.CreateCommand();
            command.CommandText = queryString;

            try
            {
                connection.Open();

                OracleDataReader reader = command.ExecuteReader();

                while (reader.Read())
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("\t{0}\t{1}",
                        reader[0], reader[1]);
                }
                reader.Close();
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
            }
        }
    }
}
Option Explicit On
Option Strict On

Imports System.Data
Imports System.Data.OracleClient

Public Class Program
    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim connectionString As String = _
            "Data Source=ThisOracleServer;Integrated Security=yes;"

        Dim queryString As String = _
            "SELECT CUSTOMER_ID, NAME FROM DEMO.CUSTOMER"

        Using connection As New OracleConnection(connectionString)
            Dim command As OracleCommand = connection.CreateCommand()
            command.CommandText = queryString
            Try
                connection.Open()
                Dim dataReader As OracleDataReader = _
                 command.ExecuteReader()
                Do While dataReader.Read()
                    Console.WriteLine(vbTab & "{0}" & vbTab & "{1}", _
                     dataReader(0), dataReader(1))
                Loop
                dataReader.Close()

            Catch ex As Exception
                Console.WriteLine(ex.Message)
            End Try
        End Using
    End Sub
End Class

Ejemplos de Entity FrameworkEntity Framework examples

En los listados de código siguientes se muestra cómo recuperar los datos de un origen de datos consultando las entidades de un Entity Data Model (EDM).The following code listings demonstrate how to retrieve data from a data source by querying entities in an Entity Data Model (EDM). En estos ejemplos se usa un modelo basado en la base de datos de ejemplo Northwind.These examples use a model based on the Northwind sample database. Para obtener más información sobre Entity Framework, consulte información general sobre Entity Framework.For more information about Entity Framework, see Entity Framework Overview.

LINQ to EntitiesLINQ to Entities

El código de este ejemplo usa una consulta LINQ para devolver los datos como objetos Categories, que se proyectan como un tipo anónimo que contiene solo las propiedades CategoryID y CategoryName.The code in this example uses a LINQ query to return data as Categories objects, which are projected as an anonymous type that contains only the CategoryID and CategoryName properties. Para obtener más información, vea información general sobre LINQ to Entities.For more information, see LINQ to Entities Overview.

using System;
using System.Linq;
using System.Data.Objects;
using NorthwindModel;

class LinqSample
{
    public static void ExecuteQuery()
    {
        using (NorthwindEntities context = new NorthwindEntities())
        {
            try
            {
                var query = from category in context.Categories
                            select new
                            {
                                categoryID = category.CategoryID,
                                categoryName = category.CategoryName
                            };

                foreach (var categoryInfo in query)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("\t{0}\t{1}",
                        categoryInfo.categoryID, categoryInfo.categoryName);
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
            }
        }
    }
}
Option Explicit On
Option Strict On

Imports System
Imports System.Linq
Imports System.Data.Objects
Imports NorthwindModel

Class LinqSample
    Public Shared Sub ExecuteQuery()
        Using context As NorthwindEntities = New NorthwindEntities()
            Try
                Dim query = From category In context.Categories _
                            Select New With _
                            { _
                                .categoryID = category.CategoryID, _
                                .categoryName = category.CategoryName _
                            }

                For Each categoryInfo In query
                    Console.WriteLine(vbTab & "{0}" & vbTab & "{1}", _
                        categoryInfo.categoryID, categoryInfo.categoryName)
                Next
            Catch ex As Exception
                Console.WriteLine(ex.Message)
            End Try
        End Using
    End Sub
End Class

ObjectQuery con establecimiento de tiposTyped ObjectQuery

En el código de este ejemplo se utiliza ObjectQuery<T> para devolver los datos como objetos Categories.The code in this example uses an ObjectQuery<T> to return data as Categories objects. Para obtener más información, vea consultas de objeto.For more information, see Object Queries.

using System;
using System.Data.Objects;
using NorthwindModel;

class ObjectQuerySample
{
    public static void ExecuteQuery()
    {
        using (NorthwindEntities context = new NorthwindEntities())
        {
            ObjectQuery<Categories> categoryQuery = context.Categories;

            foreach (Categories category in 
                categoryQuery.Execute(MergeOption.AppendOnly))
            {
                Console.WriteLine("\t{0}\t{1}",
                    category.CategoryID, category.CategoryName);
            }
        }
    }
}
Option Explicit On
Option Strict On

Imports System
Imports System.Data.Objects
Imports NorthwindModel

Class ObjectQuerySample
    Public Shared Sub ExecuteQuery()
        Using context As NorthwindEntities = New NorthwindEntities()
            Dim categoryQuery As ObjectQuery(Of Categories) = context.Categories

            For Each category As Categories In _
                categoryQuery.Execute(MergeOption.AppendOnly)
                Console.WriteLine(vbTab & "{0}" & vbTab & "{1}", _
                    category.CategoryID, category.CategoryName)
            Next
        End Using
    End Sub
End Class

EntityClientEntityClient

El código de este ejemplo usa EntityCommand para ejecutar una consulta Entity SQL.The code in this example uses an EntityCommand to execute an Entity SQL query. Esta consulta devuelve una lista de registros que representan instancias del tipo de entidad Categories.This query returns a list of records that represent instances of the Categories entity type. Se usa EntityDataReader para obtener acceso a los registros de datos del conjunto de resultados.An EntityDataReader is used to access data records in the result set. Para obtener más información, consulte proveedor de EntityClient para el Entity Framework.For more information, see EntityClient Provider for the Entity Framework.

using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Data.Common;
using System.Data.EntityClient;
using NorthwindModel;

class EntityClientSample
{
    public static void ExecuteQuery()
    {
        string queryString =
            @"SELECT c.CategoryID, c.CategoryName 
                FROM NorthwindEntities.Categories AS c";

        using (EntityConnection conn =
            new EntityConnection("name=NorthwindEntities"))
        {
            try
            {
                conn.Open();
                using (EntityCommand query = new EntityCommand(queryString, conn))
                {
                    using (DbDataReader rdr = 
                        query.ExecuteReader(CommandBehavior.SequentialAccess))
                    {
                        while (rdr.Read())
                        {
                            Console.WriteLine("\t{0}\t{1}", rdr[0], rdr[1]);
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
            }
        }
    }
}
Option Explicit On
Option Strict On

Imports System
Imports System.Data
Imports System.Data.Common
Imports System.Data.EntityClient
Imports NorthwindModel

Class EntityClientSample
    Public Shared Sub ExecuteQuery()
        Dim queryString As String = _
            "SELECT c.CategoryID, c.CategoryName " & _
                "FROM NorthwindEntities.Categories AS c"

        Using conn As EntityConnection = _
            New EntityConnection("name=NorthwindEntities")

            Try
                conn.Open()
                Using query As EntityCommand = _
                New EntityCommand(queryString, conn)
                    Using rdr As DbDataReader = _
                        query.ExecuteReader(CommandBehavior.SequentialAccess)
                        While rdr.Read()
                            Console.WriteLine(vbTab & "{0}" & vbTab & "{1}", _
                                              rdr(0), rdr(1))
                        End While
                    End Using
                End Using
            Catch ex As Exception
                Console.WriteLine(ex.Message)
            End Try
        End Using 
    End Sub
End Class

LINQ to SQLLINQ to SQL

El código de este ejemplo usa una consulta LINQ para devolver los datos como objetos Categories, que se proyectan como un tipo anónimo que contiene solo las propiedades CategoryID y CategoryName.The code in this example uses a LINQ query to return data as Categories objects, which are projected as an anonymous type that contains only the CategoryID and CategoryName properties. Este ejemplo se basa en el contexto de datos Northwind.This example is based on the Northwind data context. Para más información, consulte Introducción.For more information, see Getting Started.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using Northwind;

    class LinqSqlSample
    {
        public static void ExecuteQuery()
        {
            using (NorthwindDataContext db = new NorthwindDataContext())
            {
                try
                {
                    var query = from category in db.Categories
                                select new
                                {
                                    categoryID = category.CategoryID,
                                    categoryName = category.CategoryName
                                };

                    foreach (var categoryInfo in query)
                    {
                        Console.WriteLine("vbTab {0} vbTab {1}",
                            categoryInfo.categoryID, categoryInfo.categoryName);
                    }
                }
                catch (Exception ex)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
                }
            }
        }
    }
Option Explicit On
Option Strict On

Imports System
Imports System.Collections.Generic
Imports System.Linq
Imports System.Text
Imports Northwind

Class LinqSqlSample
    Public Shared Sub ExecuteQuery()
        Using db As NorthwindDataContext = New NorthwindDataContext()
            Try
                Dim query = From category In db.Categories _
                                Select New With _
                                { _
                                    .categoryID = category.CategoryID, _
                                    .categoryName = category.CategoryName _
                                }

                For Each categoryInfo In query
                    Console.WriteLine(vbTab & "{0}" & vbTab & "{1}", _
                            categoryInfo.categoryID, categoryInfo.categoryName)
                Next
            Catch ex As Exception
                Console.WriteLine(ex.Message)
            End Try
            End Using 
    End Sub
End Class

Vea tambiénSee also