Complementos de SharePointSharePoint Add-ins

There are two basic kinds of SharePoint Add-ins: SharePoint-hosted and provider-hosted. To make the best decision about the right kind to develop for your scenario, start by learning what both types of SharePoint Add-ins have in common.There are two basic kinds of SharePoint Add-ins: SharePoint-hosted and provider-hosted. To make the best decision about the right kind to develop for your scenario, start by learning what both types of SharePoint Add-ins have in common.

Nota

A device app, such as mobile app, isn't really a "SharePoint Add-in" even when it accesses SharePoint. The same is true of a web application that is launched from outside of SharePoint. If you want to develop any of these kinds of apps, see Access SharePoint from mobile and native device apps.A device app, such as mobile app, isn't really a "SharePoint Add-in" even when it accesses SharePoint. The same is true of a web application that is launched from outside of SharePoint. If you want to develop any of these kinds of apps, see Access SharePoint from mobile and native device apps.

  • Un complemento de SharePoint es un elemento independiente de funciones que amplía las funciones de los sitios web de SharePoint para solucionar un problema empresarial bien definido.A SharePoint Add-in is a self-contained piece of functionality that extends the capabilities of SharePoint websites to solve a well-defined business problem.

  • Add-ins don't have custom code that runs on SharePoint servers. Instead, all custom logic moves "up" to the cloud, or "down" to client computers, or "over" to an on-premises server that is outside the SharePoint farm or SharePoint Online subscription. Keeping custom code off SharePoint servers provides reassurance to SharePoint administrators that the add-in can't harm their servers or reduce the performance of their SharePoint Online websites.Add-ins don't have custom code that runs on SharePoint servers. Instead, all custom logic moves "up" to the cloud, or "down" to client computers, or "over" to an on-premises server that is outside the SharePoint farm or SharePoint Online subscription. Keeping custom code off SharePoint servers provides reassurance to SharePoint administrators that the add-in can't harm their servers or reduce the performance of their SharePoint Online websites.

  • La lógica de negocios en un Complemento de SharePoint puede tener acceso a los datos de SharePoint a través de una de las varias API de cliente incluidas en SharePoint. La API que usará para su complemento depende de ciertas otras decisiones de diseño que realice.Business logic in a SharePoint Add-in can access SharePoint data through one of the several client APIs included in SharePoint. Which API you use for your add-in depends on certain other design decisions you make.

  • Casi todos los tipos principales de componentes de SharePoint pueden formar parte de un Complemento de SharePoint, incluidas páginas, listas, flujos de trabajo, tipos de contenido personalizado, plantillas de listas, elementos web y más.Almost all major types of SharePoint components can be part of a SharePoint Add-in, including pages, lists, workflows, custom content types, list templates, web parts, and more.

  • The SharePoint websites where SharePoint Add-ins are installed, and from which users launch them, are called host webs. The SharePoint components, however, are generally in a special child web of the host web called the add-in web.The SharePoint websites where SharePoint Add-ins are installed, and from which users launch them, are called host webs. The SharePoint components, however, are generally in a special child web of the host web called the add-in web.

  • Los complementos de SharePoint se pueden usar en un sitio web de SharePoint de diferentes maneras:SharePoint Add-ins can fit into a SharePoint website in several ways:

    Experiencia envolvente de página completa de la aplicación de SharePoint Como una experiencia envolvente de página completa que puede tener la apariencia de una página de SharePoint.As an immersive full-page experience that can have the look and feel of a SharePoint page.
    Experiencia de elemento de aplicación para una aplicación de SharePoint Como parte de una página web, usando un tipo especial de control llamado elemento de complemento para exponer unAs part of a webpage, using a special kind of control called an add-in part, to surface an
    elemento iframe que contenga el complemento.iframe element that contains the add-in.
    Experiencia de acción personalizada de una aplicación de SharePoint Como comandos de la interfaz de usuario que amplían los menús y las cintas de opciones de listas, documentos y mucho más.As UI commands that extend ribbons and menus for lists, documents, and more.
  • All SharePoint Add-ins that users install get a tile on the Site Contents page of the SharePoint website. Clicking the tile runs the add-in.All SharePoint Add-ins that users install get a tile on the Site Contents page of the SharePoint website. Clicking the tile runs the add-in.

  • Un Complemento de SharePoint se configura por medio de un manifiesto del complemento, que es un archivo XML que declara las propiedades básicas del complemento, dónde se ejecuta el complemento y qué debe hacer SharePoint cuando se inicia el complemento. Entre otras cosas, el manifiesto puede especificar qué idiomas admite el complemento, los servicios de SharePoint y la funcionalidad de la cual depende, y los permisos para el web host que necesita el complemento. (Los Complementos de SharePoint tienen control total de su propia web de complemento).A SharePoint Add-in is configured using an add-in manifest—an XML file that declares the add-in's basic properties, where it runs, and what SharePoint should do when the add-in starts. Among other things, the manifest can specify what languages the add-in supports, what SharePoint services and functionality it depends on, and the permissions to the host web that the add-in needs. (SharePoint Add-ins have full control of their own add-in web.)

  • You distribute SharePoint Add-ins in add-in packages that always include at least the add-in manifest. (If there are no SharePoint components, the add-in manifest may be the only thing in the add-in package.) If the add-in has SharePoint components in an add-in web, these are included in the package as a set of XML files. Remote components that are hosted outside of SharePoint, such as a remote web application or database, are not included in the package and are deployed separately from the add-in package. (However, the add-in manifest does specify the URLs of the remote components.)You distribute SharePoint Add-ins in add-in packages that always include at least the add-in manifest. (If there are no SharePoint components, the add-in manifest may be the only thing in the add-in package.) If the add-in has SharePoint components in an add-in web, these are included in the package as a set of XML files. Remote components that are hosted outside of SharePoint, such as a remote web application or database, are not included in the package and are deployed separately from the add-in package. (However, the add-in manifest does specify the URLs of the remote components.)

  • Add-in packages can also include Office Add-ins. When the SharePoint Add-in is installed, the Office Add-in is added to an Office Add-ins catalog in SharePoint. Users can install it from the catalog into Office applications such as Word or Excel.Add-in packages can also include Office Add-ins. When the SharePoint Add-in is installed, the Office Add-in is added to an Office Add-ins catalog in SharePoint. Users can install it from the catalog into Office applications such as Word or Excel.

Sugerencia

Take a look at a few SharePoint Add-ins in the Office Store to get a sense of what you can develop. Or open a SharePoint website and install some of the free SharePoint Add-ins. Just navigate to Site Contents | add an add-in | SharePoint Store.Take a look at a few SharePoint Add-ins in the Office Store to get a sense of what you can develop. Or open a SharePoint website and install some of the free SharePoint Add-ins. Just navigate to Site Contents | add an add-in | SharePoint Store.

Unas notas para los desarrolladores veteranos de SharePointA few points for veteran SharePoint developers

Las soluciones de espacio aislado que contienen código del lado servidor personalizado están en desuso. Aún admitimos las soluciones de espacio aislado “sin código” y las soluciones que solo contienen JavaScript.We've deprecated sandboxed solutions that contain custom server-side code. We still support "No code" sandboxed solutions and sandboxed solutions that contain only JavaScript.

SharePoint Add-ins don't use the server-side SharePoint object model. The client-side object models are greatly expanded in SharePoint. Although some APIs in the SharePoint server object model aren't available in the client object models, these are almost entirely administrative and security-related classes. Custom SharePoint logic that addresses these areas is more appropriate for a Windows PowerShell script or classic SharePoint farm solution. To learn how to choose among SharePoint Add-ins, classic SharePoint farm solutions, and sandboxed solutions, see SharePoint Add-ins compared with SharePoint solutions.SharePoint Add-ins don't use the server-side SharePoint object model. The client-side object models are greatly expanded in SharePoint. Although some APIs in the SharePoint server object model aren't available in the client object models, these are almost entirely administrative and security-related classes. Custom SharePoint logic that addresses these areas is more appropriate for a Windows PowerShell script or classic SharePoint farm solution. To learn how to choose among SharePoint Add-ins, classic SharePoint farm solutions, and sandboxed solutions, see SharePoint Add-ins compared with SharePoint solutions.

Dos formas de distribuir o vender un paquete de complementosTwo ways to distribute or sell an add-in package

Puede distribuir un paquete de complementos de dos maneras:You can distribute an add-in package in two ways:

  • To an organization's add-in catalog, which is a dedicated SharePoint site collection in the SharePoint Online subscription or on-premises farm. This method is used when the add-in is custom-made for a particular organization.To an organization's add-in catalog, which is a dedicated SharePoint site collection in the SharePoint Online subscription or on-premises farm. This method is used when the add-in is custom-made for a particular organization.

  • To the Office Store. The store handles the marketing process for you, from discovery to purchase to updates. Microsoft has a Seller Dashboard to help you sell add-ins through the Office Store.To the Office Store. The store handles the marketing process for you, from discovery to purchase to updates. Microsoft has a Seller Dashboard to help you sell add-ins through the Office Store.

Después de implementar el complemento de alguna de estas maneras, queda disponible para instalación en la página Agregar un complemento de los sitios web de SharePoint. Si el complemento necesita permisos para su suscripción primaria o para el web host, SharePoint solicita al usuario que instale el complemento para conceder los permisos.After you deploy the add-in in either way, it's available for installation on the add an add-in page of SharePoint websites. If the add-in needs permissions to the host web or its parent subscription, SharePoint prompts the user who installs the add-in to grant those permissions.

Cuando tenga que actualizar un complemento para corregir un error o agregar funcionalidad, realice los cambios y aumente el número de versión del complemento en el manifiesto. A continuación, vuelva a implementar el paquete del complemento en el catálogo de complementos o la tienda. Dentro de las 24 horas, los usuarios obtienen un aviso en la interfaz de usuario de SharePoint que hay una actualización disponible. Pueden instalar la actualización con un solo clic.When you need to update an add-in to fix a bug or to add functionality, make the changes and raise the add-in's version number in the add-in manifest. Then redeploy the add-in package to the store or add-in catalog. Within 24 hours, users get a notice in the SharePoint UI that an update is available. They can install the update with a single click.

Dos tipos de Complementos de SharePoint: hospedado en SharePoint y hospedado en proveedorTwo types of SharePoint Add-ins: SharePoint-hosted and provider-hosted

Comparación de aplicaciones hospedadas en SharePoint y hospedadas por el proveedor

Complementos de SharePoint hospedados en SharePointSharePoint-hosted SharePoint Add-ins

Los complementos hospedados en SharePoint son casi todos componentes de SharePoint en una web de complemento. A veces, se dice que tienen su centro en SharePoint.SharePoint-hosted add-ins consist almost entirely of SharePoint components in an add-in web. They are sometimes said to have their center in SharePoint.

Like all SharePoint Add-ins, a user can run a SharePoint-hosted add-in from a tile on the Site Contents page of the SharePoint website to which it's installed. Optionally, it can also have two other kinds of UI components in the host web: add-in parts and custom actions (that is, custom ribbon buttons or menu items). Everything else in a SharePoint-hosted add-in is deployed to the add-in web. These components are defined declaratively using XML files, and they can include, among others:Like all SharePoint Add-ins, a user can run a SharePoint-hosted add-in from a tile on the Site Contents page of the SharePoint website to which it's installed. Optionally, it can also have two other kinds of UI components in the host web: add-in parts and custom actions (that is, custom ribbon buttons or menu items). Everything else in a SharePoint-hosted add-in is deployed to the add-in web. These components are defined declaratively using XML files, and they can include, among others:

Páginas personalizadasCustom pages Flujos de trabajoWorkflows Módulos (conjuntos de archivos)Modules (sets of files)
Plantillas de listaList templates Instancias de lista y bibliotecaList and library instances Vistas y formularios de lista personalizadosCustom list forms and views
Tipos de contenido personalizadosCustom content types Plantillas webWeb templates Columnas integradas (no columnas personalizadas)Built-in columns (not custom columns)
Elementos web integrados (no elementos web personalizados)Built-in web parts (not custom web parts) Archivos JavaScriptJavaScript files Botones personalizados y elementos de menú para la web de complementoCustom buttons and menu items for the add-in web

All business logic in a SharePoint-hosted add-in uses JavaScript, either directly on a custom page or in a JavaScript file that is referenced from a custom page. A JavaScript version of the SharePoint object model (JSOM) is available to make it simple for the add-in to perform CRUD (create, read, update, and delete) operations on SharePoint data.All business logic in a SharePoint-hosted add-in uses JavaScript, either directly on a custom page or in a JavaScript file that is referenced from a custom page. A JavaScript version of the SharePoint object model (JSOM) is available to make it simple for the add-in to perform CRUD (create, read, update, and delete) operations on SharePoint data.

Custom pages in a SharePoint-hosted add-in are generally ASP.NET pages (ASPX), and they can declaratively reference ASP.NET and in-the-box SharePoint controls, but there can be no code behind. However, you can customize the SharePoint controls by using a client-side rendering option and custom JavaScript.Custom pages in a SharePoint-hosted add-in are generally ASP.NET pages (ASPX), and they can declaratively reference ASP.NET and in-the-box SharePoint controls, but there can be no code behind. However, you can customize the SharePoint controls by using a client-side rendering option and custom JavaScript.

The JavaScript in SharePoint-hosted add-ins can access data and resources that are outside of the add-in web by using either of two techniques for safely working around the browser's same origin policy: a special JavaScript cross-domain library or a specific JavaScript WebProxy class. Using these techniques, a SharePoint-hosted add-in can work with data on the host web, its parent subscription, or anywhere on the Internet.The JavaScript in SharePoint-hosted add-ins can access data and resources that are outside of the add-in web by using either of two techniques for safely working around the browser's same origin policy: a special JavaScript cross-domain library or a specific JavaScript WebProxy class. Using these techniques, a SharePoint-hosted add-in can work with data on the host web, its parent subscription, or anywhere on the Internet.

Complementos de SharePoint hospedados por el proveedorProvider-hosted SharePoint Add-ins

Any SharePoint component that can be in a SharePoint-hosted add-in can also be in a provider-hosted add-in. But provider-hosted add-ins are distinguished from SharePoint-hosted add-ins because they include at least one remote component, such as a web application, service, or database, that is hosted externally from the SharePoint farm or SharePoint Online subscription. This could be a server in the same corporate network as a SharePoint farm or a cloud service. The external components can be hosted on any web hosting stack, including the Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP (LAMP) stack.Any SharePoint component that can be in a SharePoint-hosted add-in can also be in a provider-hosted add-in. But provider-hosted add-ins are distinguished from SharePoint-hosted add-ins because they include at least one remote component, such as a web application, service, or database, that is hosted externally from the SharePoint farm or SharePoint Online subscription. This could be a server in the same corporate network as a SharePoint farm or a cloud service. The external components can be hosted on any web hosting stack, including the Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP (LAMP) stack.

Nota

The "provider" is whoever owns the server or cloud account. It can be the same company or organization that owns the SharePoint farm or SharePoint Online tenancy where the add-in is to be installed. But the developer of the add-in can also be the provider. Typically, when an add-in is created for an organization, the organization provides the hosting. However, when an add-in is created for multiple organizations, it's more likely that the developer hosts the remote components. Developer-hosting is mandatory if the SharePoint Add-in is being marketed through the Office Store, because the developer doesn't have any contact information for the add-in purchasers. In this scenario, the various instances of the add-in know the URI of the remote component because it is specified in the add-in manifest.The "provider" is whoever owns the server or cloud account. It can be the same company or organization that owns the SharePoint farm or SharePoint Online tenancy where the add-in is to be installed. But the developer of the add-in can also be the provider. Typically, when an add-in is created for an organization, the organization provides the hosting. However, when an add-in is created for multiple organizations, it's more likely that the developer hosts the remote components. Developer-hosting is mandatory if the SharePoint Add-in is being marketed through the Office Store, because the developer doesn't have any contact information for the add-in purchasers. In this scenario, the various instances of the add-in know the URI of the remote component because it is specified in the add-in manifest.

You have complete flexibility for the hosting framework that you use for the remote components. You don't have to use a Microsoft stack. Any web hosting framework can be used, including LAMP (Linux, Apache server, MySQL, PHP), MEAN (MongoDB, ExpressJS, AngularJS, Nodejs), Java, Python, and others, and you are welcome to use non-Microsoft development tools. In addition, the remote components can be hosted in non-Microsoft cloud services.You have complete flexibility for the hosting framework that you use for the remote components. You don't have to use a Microsoft stack. Any web hosting framework can be used, including LAMP (Linux, Apache server, MySQL, PHP), MEAN (MongoDB, ExpressJS, AngularJS, Nodejs), Java, Python, and others, and you are welcome to use non-Microsoft development tools. In addition, the remote components can be hosted in non-Microsoft cloud services.

Puede darles a las páginas remotas del complemento la apariencia de las páginas de SharePoint con un control de cromo especial.You can give remote pages in the add-in the look and feel of SharePoint pages by using a special chrome control.

Los datos remotos pueden ser blobs, memorias caché, colas de mensajes, redes de entrega de contenido (CDN), y bases de datos, entre otras cosas. Además, las bases de datos pueden ser cualquier de tipo, incluidas las relacionales y las orientadas a objetos. Se puede tener acceso a datos remotos de diversas maneras. Por ejemplo, puede usar Servicios de conectividad empresarial (BCS) para explicitar los datos en una lista de SharePoint. Otra opción es exponer los datos en una cuadrícula en una página de una aplicación web remota.Remote data can be blobs, caches, message queues, content delivery networks (CDN), and databases, among others. And databases can be any type including relational and object-oriented. The remote data can be accessed in a variety of ways. For example, you can use Business Connectivity Services (BCS) to surface the data in a SharePoint list. Another option is to expose data in a grid on a page of a remote web application.

Los Complementos de SharePoint usan las API de SharePoint para conectarse e integrarse con las características de SharePoint: búsqueda, flujo de trabajo, redes sociales, taxonomía, perfiles de usuario, BCS y mucho más. Esto les permite leer documentos, hacer búsquedas, conectar personas y realizar operaciones CRUD. Existe más de un conjunto de API:SharePoint Add-ins use SharePoint APIs to connect and integrate with SharePoint features—search, workflow, social networking, taxonomy, user profiles, BCS, and more. This lets them read documents, do searches, connect people, and perform CRUD operations. There is more than one set of the APIs:

  • Cuando se implementan los componentes remotos con .NET, queda disponible la biblioteca del modelo de objetos del lado cliente (CSOM) de SharePoint del código administrado.When the remote components are implemented with .NET, the managed code SharePoint Client-Side Object Model (CSOM) library is available.

  • For remote components that are not based on .NET, a set of REST/OData APIs can be used to access SharePoint data. These can also be used from a .NET client if you prefer working with an OData interface.For remote components that are not based on .NET, a set of REST/OData APIs can be used to access SharePoint data. These can also be used from a .NET client if you prefer working with an OData interface.

  • La biblioteca JSOM, mencionada anteriormente, no se puede usar en una página remota, pero los complementos hospedados por el proveedor pueden tener páginas de SharePoint personalizadas en una web de complemento. En estas páginas, JavaScript puede usar la biblioteca JSOM.The JSOM library, mentioned earlier, cannot be used on a remote page, but provider-hosted add-ins can have custom SharePoint pages in an add-in web, and JavaScript on these pages can use the JSOM library.

Los complementos hospedados por el proveedor que tienen acceso a SharePoint son entidades de seguridad tal como los usuarios y grupos. La entidad de complemento se debe autenticar y autorizar, tal como lo hace el usuario. El complemento necesita permisos para realizar operaciones en datos de SharePoint en el web de host. En la mayoría de los escenarios, los permisos efectivos de un usuario que trabaja con SharePoint mediante un Complemento de SharePoint son la intersección de los permisos del usuario y del complemento, aunque existen algunos escenarios en los cuales un usuario puede hacer cosas con un complemento para las que no tendría permiso de otra manera.Provider-hosted add-ins that access SharePoint are security principals just as users and groups are. The add-in principal has to be authenticated and authorized, just as the user does. The add-in needs permissions to perform operations on SharePoint data in the host web. In most scenarios, the effective permissions of a user working with SharePoint through a SharePoint Add-in are the intersection of the user's and the add-in's permissions, although there are some scenarios in which a user can do things with an add-in that she wouldn't otherwise have permission to do.

Los complementos hospedados por el proveedor pueden conectarse a cualquier servicio web público o interno y, a diferencia de los componentes hospedados por SharePoint, pueden controlar los eventos de elemento de lista y lista de SharePoint, como agregar un elemento a una biblioteca de documentos.Provider-hosted add-ins can connect to any internal or public web service and, unlike SharePoint-hosted add-ins, they can handle SharePoint list and list item events, such as adding an item to a document library.

Seleccionar la ruta de desarrollo de SharePointChoose your SharePoint development path

¿Está listo para empezar?Ready to get started?

Nota

Si es nuevo en el entorno de SharePoint y del desarrollo web, sacará más partido si empieza con el curso gratuito de Microsoft Virtual Academy o si trabaja con un manual sobre desarrollo de SharePoint.If you're a beginner at both SharePoint and web development, you'd benefit most by starting with the free course at Microsoft's Virtual Academy, or working through a book about SharePoint development.

Vea tambiénSee also