Enumerar y consultar archivos y carpetasEnumerate and query files and folders

Permite tener acceso a los archivos que se encuentran en carpetas, bibliotecas, dispositivos o ubicaciones de red.Access files and folders in either a folder, library, device, or network location. También puedes consultar los archivos y las carpetas que hay en una ubicación si creas consultas de archivos y carpetas.You can also query the files and folders in a location by constructing file and folder queries.

Para obtener información sobre cómo almacenar los datos de la aplicación para la Plataforma universal de Windows, consulta la clase ApplicationData.For guidance on how to store your Universal Windows Platform app's data, see the ApplicationData class.

Nota

 Para obtener un ejemplo completo, consulta el ejemplo de enumeración de carpetas. For a complete sample, see the Folder enumeration sample.

Requisitos previosPrerequisites

Enumerar archivos y carpetas en una ubicaciónEnumerate files and folders in a location

Nota

 Recuerda declarar la funcionalidad picturesLibrary. Remember to declare the picturesLibrary capability.

En este ejemplo, se usa primero el método StorageFolder.GetFilesAsync para obtener todos los archivos en la carpeta raíz de la propiedad KnownFolders.PicturesLibrary (no en las subcarpetas) y se muestra el nombre de cada archivo.In this example we first use the StorageFolder.GetFilesAsync method to get all the files in the root folder of the KnownFolders.PicturesLibrary (not in subfolders) and list the name of each file. Después, se usa el método StorageFolder.GetFoldersAsync para obtener todas las subcarpetas en PicturesLibrary y se muestra el nombre de cada subcarpeta.Next, we use the StorageFolder.GetFoldersAsync method to get all the subfolders in the PicturesLibrary and list the name of each subfolder.

StorageFolder picturesFolder = KnownFolders.PicturesLibrary;
StringBuilder outputText = new StringBuilder();

IReadOnlyList<StorageFile> fileList = await picturesFolder.GetFilesAsync();

outputText.AppendLine("Files:");
foreach (StorageFile file in fileList)
{
    outputText.Append(file.Name + "\n");
}

IReadOnlyList<StorageFolder> folderList = await picturesFolder.GetFoldersAsync();
           
outputText.AppendLine("Folders:");
foreach (StorageFolder folder in folderList)
{
    outputText.Append(folder.DisplayName + "\n");
}
// MainPage.h
// In MainPage.xaml: <TextBlock x:Name="OutputTextBlock"/>
#include <winrt/Windows.Storage.h>
#include <sstream>
...
Windows::Foundation::IAsyncAction ExampleCoroutineAsync()
{
    // Be sure to specify the Pictures Folder capability in your Package.appxmanifest.
    Windows::Storage::StorageFolder picturesFolder{
        Windows::Storage::KnownFolders::PicturesLibrary()
    };

    std::wstringstream outputString;
    outputString << L"Files:" << std::endl;

    for (auto const& file : co_await picturesFolder.GetFilesAsync())
    {
        outputString << file.Name().c_str() << std::endl;
    }

    outputString << L"Folders:" << std::endl;
    for (auto const& folder : co_await picturesFolder.GetFoldersAsync())
    {
        outputString << folder.Name().c_str() << std::endl;
    }

    OutputTextBlock().Text(outputString.str().c_str());
}
#include <ppltasks.h>
#include <string>
#include <memory>

using namespace Windows::Storage;
using namespace Platform::Collections;
using namespace concurrency;
using namespace std;

// Be sure to specify the Pictures Folder capability in the appxmanifext file.
StorageFolder^ picturesFolder = KnownFolders::PicturesLibrary;

// Use a shared_ptr so that the string stays in memory
// until the last task is complete.
auto outputString = make_shared<wstring>();
*outputString += L"Files:\n";

// Get a read-only vector of the file objects
// and pass it to the continuation.
create_task(picturesFolder->GetFilesAsync())        
   // outputString is captured by value, which creates a copy
   // of the shared_ptr and increments its reference count.
   .then ([outputString] (IVectorView\<StorageFile^>^ files)
   {        
       for ( unsigned int i = 0 ; i < files->Size; i++)
       {
           *outputString += files->GetAt(i)->Name->Data();
           *outputString += L"\n";
      }
   })
   // We need to explicitly state the return type
   // here: -IAsyncOperation<...>
   .then([picturesFolder]() -IAsyncOperation\<IVectorView\<StorageFolder^>^>^
   {
       return picturesFolder->GetFoldersAsync();
   })
   // Capture "this" to access m_OutputTextBlock from within the lambda.
   .then([this, outputString](IVectorView/<StorageFolder^>^ folders)
   {        
       *outputString += L"Folders:\n";

       for ( unsigned int i = 0; i < folders->Size; i++)
       {
          *outputString += folders->GetAt(i)->Name->Data();
          *outputString += L"\n";
       }

       // Assume m_OutputTextBlock is a TextBlock defined in the XAML.
       m_OutputTextBlock->Text = ref new String((*outputString).c_str());
    });
Dim picturesFolder As StorageFolder = KnownFolders.PicturesLibrary
Dim outputText As New StringBuilder

Dim fileList As IReadOnlyList(Of StorageFile) =
    Await picturesFolder.GetFilesAsync()

outputText.AppendLine("Files:")
For Each file As StorageFile In fileList

    outputText.Append(file.Name & vbLf)

Next file

Dim folderList As IReadOnlyList(Of StorageFolder) =
    Await picturesFolder.GetFoldersAsync()

outputText.AppendLine("Folders:")
For Each folder As StorageFolder In folderList

    outputText.Append(folder.DisplayName & vbLf)

Next folder

Nota

En C# o Visual Basic, recuerda poner la palabra clave async en la declaración de método de cualquier método en el que uses el operador await.In C# or Visual Basic, remember to put the async keyword in the method declaration of any method in which you use the await operator.

Como alternativa, puedes usar el método StorageFolder.GetItemsAsync para obtener todos los elementos (archivos y subcarpetas) en una ubicación en particular.Alternatively, you can use the StorageFolder.GetItemsAsync method to get all items (both files and subfolders) in a particular location. En el siguiente ejemplo se usa el método GetItemsAsync para obtener todos los archivos y subcarpetas en la carpeta raíz de KnownFolders.PicturesLibrary (no en las subcarpetas).The following example uses the GetItemsAsync method to get all files and subfolders in the root folder of the KnownFolders.PicturesLibrary (not in subfolders). Después, en el ejemplo se muestra el nombre de cada archivo y subcarpeta.Then the example lists the name of each file and subfolder. Si el elemento es una subcarpeta, el ejemplo anexa "folder" al nombre.If the item is a subfolder, the example appends "folder" to the name.

StorageFolder picturesFolder = KnownFolders.PicturesLibrary;
StringBuilder outputText = new StringBuilder();

IReadOnlyList<IStorageItem> itemsList = await picturesFolder.GetItemsAsync();

foreach (var item in itemsList)
{
    if (item is StorageFolder)
    {
        outputText.Append(item.Name + " folder\n");

    }
    else
    {
        outputText.Append(item.Name + "\n");
    }
}
// MainPage.h
// In MainPage.xaml: <TextBlock x:Name="OutputTextBlock"/>
#include <winrt/Windows.Storage.h>
#include <sstream>
...
Windows::Foundation::IAsyncAction ExampleCoroutineAsync()
{
    // Be sure to specify the Pictures Folder capability in your Package.appxmanifest.
    Windows::Storage::StorageFolder picturesFolder{
        Windows::Storage::KnownFolders::PicturesLibrary()
    };

    std::wstringstream outputString;

    for (Windows::Storage::IStorageItem const& item : co_await picturesFolder.GetItemsAsync())
    {
        outputString << item.Name().c_str();

        if (item.IsOfType(Windows::Storage::StorageItemTypes::Folder))
        {
            outputString << L" folder" << std::endl;
        }
        else
        {
            outputString << std::endl;
        }

        OutputTextBlock().Text(outputString.str().c_str());
    }
}
// See previous example for comments, namespace and #include info.
StorageFolder^ picturesFolder = KnownFolders::PicturesLibrary;
auto outputString = make_shared<wstring>();

create_task(picturesFolder->GetItemsAsync())        
    .then ([this, outputString] (IVectorView<IStorageItem^>^ items)
{        
    for ( unsigned int i = 0 ; i < items->Size; i++)
    {
        *outputString += items->GetAt(i)->Name->Data();
        if(items->GetAt(i)->IsOfType(StorageItemTypes::Folder))
        {
            *outputString += L"  folder\n";
        }
        else
        {
            *outputString += L"\n";
        }
        m_OutputTextBlock->Text = ref new String((*outputString).c_str());
    }
});
Dim picturesFolder As StorageFolder = KnownFolders.PicturesLibrary
Dim outputText As New StringBuilder

Dim itemsList As IReadOnlyList(Of IStorageItem) =
    Await picturesFolder.GetItemsAsync()

For Each item In itemsList

    If TypeOf item Is StorageFolder Then

        outputText.Append(item.Name & " folder" & vbLf)

    Else

        outputText.Append(item.Name & vbLf)

    End If

Next item

Consultar archivos en una ubicación y enumerar archivos coincidentesQuery files in a location and enumerate matching files

En este ejemplo, se consultan todos los archivos en KnownFolders.PicturesLibrary agrupados por mes y esta vez el ejemplo recorre las subcarpetas.In this example we query for all the files in the KnownFolders.PicturesLibrary grouped by the month, and this time the example recurses into subfolders. En primer lugar, se llama a StorageFolder.CreateFolderQuery y se pasa el valor CommonFolderQuery.GroupByMonth al método.First, we call StorageFolder.CreateFolderQuery and pass the CommonFolderQuery.GroupByMonth value to the method. Esto nos da un objeto StorageFolderQueryResult.That gives us a StorageFolderQueryResult object.

Después, llamamos a StorageFolderQueryResult.GetFoldersAsync, que devuelve objetos StorageFolder que representan carpetas virtuales.Next we call StorageFolderQueryResult.GetFoldersAsync which returns StorageFolder objects representing virtual folders. En este caso, la agrupación se realiza por mes, por lo que cada carpeta virtual representa un grupo de archivos del mismo mes.In this case we're grouping by month, so the virtual folders each represent a group of files with the same month.

StorageFolder picturesFolder = KnownFolders.PicturesLibrary;

StorageFolderQueryResult queryResult =
    picturesFolder.CreateFolderQuery(CommonFolderQuery.GroupByMonth);
        
IReadOnlyList<StorageFolder> folderList =
    await queryResult.GetFoldersAsync();

StringBuilder outputText = new StringBuilder();

foreach (StorageFolder folder in folderList)
{
    IReadOnlyList<StorageFile> fileList = await folder.GetFilesAsync();

    // Print the month and number of files in this group.
    outputText.AppendLine(folder.Name + " (" + fileList.Count + ")");

    foreach (StorageFile file in fileList)
    {
        // Print the name of the file.
        outputText.AppendLine("   " + file.Name);
    }
}
// MainPage.h
// In MainPage.xaml: <TextBlock x:Name="OutputTextBlock"/>
#include <winrt/Windows.Storage.h>
#include <winrt/Windows.Storage.Search.h>
#include <sstream>
...
Windows::Foundation::IAsyncAction ExampleCoroutineAsync()
{
    // Be sure to specify the Pictures Folder capability in your Package.appxmanifest.
    Windows::Storage::StorageFolder picturesFolder{
        Windows::Storage::KnownFolders::PicturesLibrary()
    };

    Windows::Storage::Search::StorageFolderQueryResult queryResult{
        picturesFolder.CreateFolderQuery(Windows::Storage::Search::CommonFolderQuery::GroupByMonth)
    };

    std::wstringstream outputString;

    for (Windows::Storage::StorageFolder const& folder : co_await queryResult.GetFoldersAsync())
    {
        auto files{ co_await folder.GetFilesAsync() };
        outputString << folder.Name().c_str() << L" (" << files.Size() << L")" << std::endl;

        for (Windows::Storage::StorageFile const& file : files)
        {
            outputString << L"    " << file.Name().c_str() << std::endl;
        }
    }

    OutputTextBlock().Text(outputString.str().c_str());
}
#include <ppltasks.h>
#include <string>
#include <memory>
using namespace Windows::Storage;
using namespace Windows::Storage::Search;
using namespace concurrency;
using namespace Platform::Collections;
using namespace Windows::Foundation::Collections;
using namespace std;

StorageFolder^ picturesFolder = KnownFolders::PicturesLibrary;

StorageFolderQueryResult^ queryResult =
    picturesFolder->CreateFolderQuery(CommonFolderQuery::GroupByMonth);

// Use shared_ptr so that outputString remains in memory
// until the task completes, which is after the function goes out of scope.
auto outputString = std::make_shared<wstring>();

create_task( queryResult->GetFoldersAsync()).then([this, outputString] (IVectorView<StorageFolder^>^ view)
{        
    for ( unsigned int i = 0; i < view->Size; i++)
    {
        create_task(view->GetAt(i)->GetFilesAsync()).then([this, i, view, outputString](IVectorView<StorageFile^>^ files)
        {
            *outputString += view->GetAt(i)->Name->Data();
            *outputString += L" (";
            *outputString += to_wstring(files->Size);
            *outputString += L")\r\n";
            for (unsigned int j = 0; j < files->Size; j++)
            {
                *outputString += L"     ";
                *outputString += files->GetAt(j)->Name->Data();
                *outputString += L"\r\n";
            }
        }).then([this, outputString]()
        {
            m_OutputTextBlock->Text = ref new String((*outputString).c_str());
        });
    }    
});
Dim picturesFolder As StorageFolder = KnownFolders.PicturesLibrary
Dim outputText As New StringBuilder

Dim queryResult As StorageFolderQueryResult =
    picturesFolder.CreateFolderQuery(CommonFolderQuery.GroupByMonth)

Dim folderList As IReadOnlyList(Of StorageFolder) =
    Await queryResult.GetFoldersAsync()

For Each folder As StorageFolder In folderList

    Dim fileList As IReadOnlyList(Of StorageFile) =
        Await folder.GetFilesAsync()

    ' Print the month and number of files in this group.
    outputText.AppendLine(folder.Name & " (" & fileList.Count & ")")

    For Each file As StorageFile In fileList

        ' Print the name of the file.
        outputText.AppendLine("   " & file.Name)

    Next file

Next folder

El resultado del ejemplo tiene un aspecto similar al siguiente.The output of the example looks similar to the following.

July ‎2015 (2)
   MyImage3.png
   MyImage4.png
‎December ‎2014 (2)
   MyImage1.png
   MyImage2.png