Cómo obtener el último conjunto de encabezados HTTP recibidos para cada archivo en un trabajo de descarga de BITS

En este ejemplo se muestra cómo usar el nuevo método GetProperty de la interfaz IBackgroundCopyJob5 para obtener los últimos encabezados HTTP establecidos para cada archivo en un trabajo de descarga de Servicio de transferencia inteligente en segundo plano (BITS). La información del encabezado HTTP podría usarse, por ejemplo, para determinar el tipo de archivo o cuándo cambió por última vez en el servidor. Antes de Windows 8 y Windows Server 2012, BITS no proporcionaba un medio por el que la aplicación podía recuperar e inspeccionar los encabezados de respuesta HTTP de una descarga completada. En este ejemplo se muestra cómo usar la API de BITS para crear un trabajo de BITS con varias direcciones URL para descargar, enumerar las direcciones URL de un trabajo y recuperar los encabezados de respuesta HTTP para cada dirección URL.

Lo que necesita saber

Tecnologías

Requisitos previos

  • Microsoft Visual Studio

Instructions

Paso 1: Incluir los archivos de encabezado de BITS necesarios

Inserte las siguientes directivas de encabezado en la parte superior del archivo de origen.

#include <bits.h>

Paso 2: Inicializar COM y crear una instancia de una interfaz de objeto del Administrador de copias en segundo plano de BITS

Antes de crear una instancia de la interfaz IBackgroundCopyManager (que se usa para crear un trabajo de BITS), debe inicializar COM y establecer el modelo de subproceso COM deseado.

// Initialize COM and specify the appropriate COM threading model for your application.
IBackgroundCopyManager* pManager;

HRESULT hr = CoInitializeEx(NULL, COINIT_APARTMENTTHREADED);
if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
{
 hr = CoCreateInstance(__uuidof(BackgroundCopyManager), 
                       NULL,
                       CLSCTX_LOCAL_SERVER,
                       __uuidof(IBackgroundCopyManager),
                       (void**) &pManager);
}

Paso 3: Creación del trabajo de BITS

Solo el usuario que crea el trabajo o un usuario con privilegios de administrador puede agregar archivos al trabajo y cambiar las propiedades del trabajo.

GUID guidJob;
IBackgroundCopyJob* pBackgroundCopyJob;

hr = pManager->CreateJob(L"TransferPolicy",
                         BG_JOB_TYPE_DOWNLOAD,
                         &guidJob,
                         (IBackgroundCopyJob **)&pBackgroundCopyJob);

Paso 4: Agregar los archivos al trabajo de BITS

En el ejemplo siguiente se descargan documentos disponibles públicamente desde el Centro de descarga de Microsoft. Deberá cambiar estos valores para su entorno específico.

// Array that contains multiple DOWNLOAD_FILE data structures that represent the 
// files that will be added to the download job.
DOWNLOAD_FILE FileList[] =
{
 {
  L"https://download.microsoft.com/download/0/2/8/02809141-3329-4412-8AC4-AA41B406055C/WinRT81-HttpClient-BT-Socket-Poster.pdf",
  L"c:\\temp\\data\\WinRT81-HttpClient-BT-Socket-Poster.pdf"
 },
 {
  L"https://download.microsoft.com/download/6/6/2/662DD05E-BAD7-46EF-9431-135F9BAE6332/9781509302963_Microsoft%20Azure%20Essentials%20Fundamentals%20of%20Azure%202nd%20ed%20pdf.pdf",
  L"c:\\temp\\data\\Fundamentals of Azure.pdf"
 },
 {
  L"https://aka.ms/WinServ16/StndPDF",
  L"c:\\temp\\data\\IntroducingWindowsServer2016.pdf"
 }
};

...

// Add the files to the job.
for (int i=0; i < ARRAY_LENGTH(FileList); ++i)
{
 hr = Job->AddFile(FileList[i].RemoteFile,
                   FileList[i].LocalFile);
 ...
}

Paso 5: Iniciar el trabajo de BITS

Después de configurar el trabajo de BITS, llame a la función Resume de la interfaz IBackgroundCopyJob para iniciar o continuar la descarga.

// Start the BITS job. 
hr = pBackgroundJob->Resume();

Paso 6: Supervisar y mostrar el progreso del trabajo de BITS

La MonitorJobProgress función auxiliar toma un objeto IBackgroundCopyJob como único parámetro y sondea el trabajo por un estado cada 500 milisegundos. Esta función no devuelve hasta que el trabajo se haya completado o cancelado.

HRESULT MonitorJobProgress(__in IBackgroundCopyJob* Job)
{ 
 HRESULT hr;
 LPWSTR JobName;
 BG_JOB_STATE State;
 int PreviousState = -1;
 bool Exit = false;
 int ProgressCounter = 0;
 hr = Job->GetDisplayName(&JobName);
 printf("Progress report for download job '%ws'.\n", JobName);
 CoTaskMemFree(JobName);

 // Display the download progress.
 while (!Exit)
 {
  hr = Job->GetState(&State);
  if (State != PreviousState)
  {
   switch(State)
   {
    case BG_JOB_STATE_QUEUED:
     printf("Job is in the queue and waiting to run.\n");
    break;
    case BG_JOB_STATE_CONNECTING:
     printf("BITS is trying to connect to the remote server.\n");    
    break;

    case BG_JOB_STATE_TRANSFERRING:
     printf("BITS has started downloading data.\n");  
     DisplayProgress( Job );
    break;

    case BG_JOB_STATE_ERROR:
     wprintf(L"ERROR: BITS has encountered a non-recoverable error.\n");
     DisplayError(Job);
     wprintf(L"       Exiting job.\n");
     Exit = true;
     break;

    case BG_JOB_STATE_TRANSIENT_ERROR:
     wprintf(L"ERROR: BITS has encountered a recoverable error.\n");
     DisplayError(Job);
     wprintf(L"       Continuing to retry.\n");
     break;

    case BG_JOB_STATE_TRANSFERRED:
     DisplayProgress(Job);
     printf("The job has been successfully completed.\n");
     printf("Finalizing local files.\n");
     Job->Complete();
    break;

    case BG_JOB_STATE_ACKNOWLEDGED:
     printf("Finalization complete.\n");
     Exit = true;
    break;

    case BG_JOB_STATE_CANCELLED:
     printf("WARNING: The job has been cancelled.\n");   
     Exit = true;
    break;

    default:
     printf("WARNING: Unknown BITS state %d.\n", State);    
     Exit = true;
   }

   PreviousState = State;
  }
  else if (State == BG_JOB_STATE_TRANSFERRING)
  {
   // Display job progress every 2 seconds.
   if (++ProgressCounter % TWO_SECOND_LOOP == 0)
   {
    DisplayProgress( Job );
   } 
  }
  Sleep(HALF_SECOND_AS_MILLISECONDS);
 }
 printf("\n");
 return hr;
}

// Display the current progress of the job in terms of the amount of data
// and number of files transferred.
VOID DisplayProgress(__in IBackgroundCopyJob *Job)
{
 HRESULT hr;
 BG_JOB_PROGRESS Progress;
 hr = Job->GetProgress(&Progress);
 if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
 {
  printf("%llu of %llu bytes transferred (%lu of %lu files).\n",
         Progress.BytesTransferred, Progress.BytesTotal,
         Progress.FilesTransferred, Progress.FilesTotal);
 }
}

Paso 7: Mostrar los encabezados de archivo descargados

La DisplayFileHeaders función auxiliar enumera los trabajos definidos para un objeto IBackgroundCopyJob .

// For each file in the job, obtain and display the HTTP header received server.
HRESULT DisplayFileHeaders(__in IBackgroundCopyJob *Job)
{
 HRESULT hr;
 IEnumBackgroundCopyFiles *FileEnumerator;
 
 hr = Job->EnumFiles(&FileEnumerator);
 if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
 {
  ULONG Count;

  hr = FileEnumerator->GetCount(&Count);
  if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
  {
   for (ULONG i=0; i < Count; ++i)
   {
    IBackgroundCopyFile *TempFile;

    hr = FileEnumerator->Next(1, &TempFile, NULL);
    if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
    {
     IBackgroundCopyFile5 *File;
     hr = TempFile->QueryInterface(__uuidof( IBackgroundCopyFile5 ), (void **) &File);
     if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
     {
      LPWSTR RemoteFileName;
      hr = File->GetRemoteName(&RemoteFileName);
      if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
      {
       printf("HTTP headers for remote file '%ws'\n", RemoteFileName );
       CoTaskMemFree( RemoteFileName );
       RemoteFileName = NULL;
      }

      BITS_FILE_PROPERTY_VALUE Value;
      hr = File->GetProperty(BITS_FILE_PROPERTY_ID_HTTP_RESPONSE_HEADERS, &Value);
      if (SUCCEEDED(hr) && Value.String)
      {
       printf("Headers: %ws\n", Headers );

       CoTaskMemFree(Value.String);
       Value.String = NULL;
      }

      File->Release();
      File = NULL;
     }

     TempFile->Release();
     TempFile = NULL;
    }
   }
  }

   FileEnumerator->Release();
   FileEnumerator = NULL;
 }

 return S_OK;
}

Ejemplo

El ejemplo de código siguiente es una aplicación de consola totalmente funcional que muestra cómo usar la API de BITS para crear un trabajo de BITS con varias direcciones URL para descargar, enumerar las direcciones URL de un trabajo y recuperar los encabezados de respuesta HTTP para cada dirección URL.

//*********************************************************
//
//    Copyright (c) Microsoft. All rights reserved.
//    This code is licensed under the Microsoft Public License.
//    THIS CODE IS PROVIDED *AS IS* WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
//    ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY
//    IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
//    PURPOSE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT.
//
//*********************************************************

#define WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN // Exclude rarely-used stuff from Windows headers
#include <windows.h>
#include <bits.h>
#include <stdio.h> // needed for wprintf
#include <strsafe.h>

#define ARRAY_LENGTH(x) (sizeof(x) / sizeof( *(x) ))

// Definition of constants.
static const unsigned int HALF_SECOND_AS_MILLISECONDS = 500;
static const unsigned int TWO_SECOND_LOOP = 2000 / HALF_SECOND_AS_MILLISECONDS;

// Simple data structure that contains the remote and local names for a file.
typedef struct
{
 LPCWSTR RemoteFile;
 LPCWSTR LocalFile;
} DOWNLOAD_FILE;

// Array that contains sample DOWNLOAD_FILE data structures that represent the files
// that will be added to the download job.
DOWNLOAD_FILE FileList[] =
{
 {
  L"https://download.microsoft.com/download/0/2/8/02809141-3329-4412-8AC4-AA41B406055C/WinRT81-HttpClient-BT-Socket-Poster.pdf",
  L"c:\\temp\\data\\WinRT81-HttpClient-BT-Socket-Poster.pdf"
 },
 {
  L"https://download.microsoft.com/download/6/6/2/662DD05E-BAD7-46EF-9431-135F9BAE6332/9781509302963_Microsoft%20Azure%20Essentials%20Fundamentals%20of%20Azure%202nd%20ed%20pdf.pdf",
  L"c:\\temp\\data\\Fundamentals of Azure.pdf"
 },
 {
  L"https://aka.ms/WinServ16/StndPDF",
  L"c:\\temp\\data\\IntroducingWindowsServer2016.pdf"
 }
};

// Forward declaration of functions.
HRESULT GetBackgroundCopyManager(__out IBackgroundCopyManager **Manager);
HRESULT CreateDownloadJob(__in LPCWSTR Name, __in IBackgroundCopyManager *Manager, __out IBackgroundCopyJob **Job);
HRESULT MonitorJobProgress(__in IBackgroundCopyJob *Job);
HRESULT DisplayFileHeaders(__in IBackgroundCopyJob *Job);
VOID    DisplayProgress(__in IBackgroundCopyJob *Job);
VOID    DisplayHeaders(__in LPWSTR Headers);
VOID    DisplayError(__in IBackgroundCopyJob *Job);

// Main program entry point.
int wmain(int argc, wchar_t* argv[])
{
 HRESULT hr;
 IBackgroundCopyManager *Manager;

 // Get the BITS Background Copy Manager.
 hr = GetBackgroundCopyManager(&Manager);
 if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
 {
  IBackgroundCopyJob *Job;

  // Create a new download job.
  hr = CreateDownloadJob(L"MyJob", Manager, &Job);
  if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
  {
   // Add files to the job.
   for (int i = 0; i < ARRAY_LENGTH(FileList); ++i)
   {
    hr = Job->AddFile(FileList[i].RemoteFile, FileList[i].LocalFile);
    if (FAILED(hr))
    {
     wprintf(L"Error: Unable to add remote file '%ws' to the download job (error %08X).\n",
      FileList[i].RemoteFile,
      hr);
    }
    else
    {
     wprintf(L"Downloading remote file '%ws' to local file '%ws'\n",
      FileList[i].RemoteFile, FileList[i].LocalFile);
    }
   }

   // Start the job and display its progress.
   hr = Job->Resume();
   if (FAILED(hr))
   {
    wprintf(L"ERROR: Unable to start the BITS download job (error code %08X).\n", hr);
   }
   else
   {
    MonitorJobProgress(Job);
   }

   // Release the BITS IBackgroundCopyJob interface.
   Job->Release();
   Job = NULL;
  }

  // Release the IBackgroundCopyManager interface.
  Manager->Release();
  Manager = NULL;
 }

 return 0;
}

/**
 * Gets a pointer to the BITS Background Copy Manager.
 *
 * If successful, this function returns a success code and sets the
 * referenced IBackgroundCopyFileManager interface pointer to a
 * reference counted instance of the Background Copy Manager interface.
 */
HRESULT GetBackgroundCopyManager(__out IBackgroundCopyManager **Manager)
{
 HRESULT hr;

 //Specify the appropriate COM threading model for your application.
 hr = CoInitializeEx(NULL, COINIT_APARTMENTTHREADED);
 if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
 {
  hr = CoCreateInstance(__uuidof(BackgroundCopyManager),
   NULL,
   CLSCTX_LOCAL_SERVER,
   __uuidof(IBackgroundCopyManager),
   (void**)Manager);
 }
 else
 {
  wprintf(L"ERROR: Unable to initialize COM (error code %08X).\n", hr);
 }

 return hr;
}

/**
 * Creates a new download job with the specified name.
 */
HRESULT CreateDownloadJob(__in LPCWSTR Name, __in IBackgroundCopyManager *Manager, __out IBackgroundCopyJob **Job)
{
 GUID guid;
 return Manager->CreateJob(Name, BG_JOB_TYPE_DOWNLOAD, &guid, Job);
}

/**
 * Monitors and displays the progress of the download job.
 *
 * A new status message is output whenever the job's status changes or,
 * when transferring data, every 2 seconds displays how much data
 * has been transferred.
 */
HRESULT MonitorJobProgress(__in IBackgroundCopyJob *Job)
{
 HRESULT hr;
 LPWSTR JobName;
 BG_JOB_STATE State;
 int PreviousState = -1;
 bool Exit = false;
 int ProgressCounter = 0;

 hr = Job->GetDisplayName(&JobName);
 wprintf(L"Progress report for download job '%ws'.\n", JobName);
 CoTaskMemFree(JobName);

 // Display the download progress.
 while (!Exit)
 {
  hr = Job->GetState(&State);

  if (State != PreviousState)
  {
   switch (State)
   {
   case BG_JOB_STATE_QUEUED:
    wprintf(L"Job is in the queue and waiting to run.\n");
    break;

   case BG_JOB_STATE_CONNECTING:
    wprintf(L"BITS is trying to connect to the remote server.\n");
    break;

   case BG_JOB_STATE_TRANSFERRING:
    wprintf(L"BITS has started downloading data.\n");
    DisplayProgress(Job);
    break;

   case BG_JOB_STATE_ERROR:
    wprintf(L"ERROR: BITS has encountered a non-recoverable error.\n");
    DisplayError(Job);
    wprintf(L"       Exiting job.\n");
    Exit = true;
    break;

   case BG_JOB_STATE_TRANSIENT_ERROR:
    wprintf(L"ERROR: BITS has encountered a recoverable error.\n");
    DisplayError(Job);
    wprintf(L"       Continuing to retry.\n");
    break;

   case BG_JOB_STATE_TRANSFERRED:
    DisplayProgress(Job);
    wprintf(L"The job has been successfully completed.\n");
    wprintf(L"Finalizing local files.\n");
    Job->Complete();
    break;

   case BG_JOB_STATE_ACKNOWLEDGED:
    wprintf(L"Finalization complete.\n");
    Exit = true;
    break;

   case BG_JOB_STATE_CANCELLED:
    wprintf(L"WARNING: The job has been cancelled.\n");
    Exit = true;
    break;

   default:
    wprintf(L"WARNING: Unknown BITS state %d.\n", State);
    Exit = true;
   }

   PreviousState = State;
  }
  else if (State == BG_JOB_STATE_TRANSFERRING)
  {
   // Display job progress every 2 seconds.
   if (++ProgressCounter % TWO_SECOND_LOOP == 0)
   {
    DisplayProgress(Job);
   }
  }
  Sleep(HALF_SECOND_AS_MILLISECONDS);
 }

 wprintf(L"\n");

 if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
 {
  hr = DisplayFileHeaders(Job);
 }

 return hr;
}

/**
 * For each file in the job, obtains the (final) HTTP headers received from the
 * remote server that hosts the files and then displays the HTTP headers.
 */
HRESULT DisplayFileHeaders(__in IBackgroundCopyJob *Job)
{
 HRESULT hr;
 IEnumBackgroundCopyFiles *FileEnumerator;

 wprintf(L"Individual file information.\n");

 hr = Job->EnumFiles(&FileEnumerator);
 if (FAILED(hr))
 {
  wprintf(L"WARNING: Unable to obtain an IEnumBackgroundCopyFiles interface.\n");
  wprintf(L"         No further information can be provided about the files in the job.\n");
 }
 else
 {
  ULONG Count;

  hr = FileEnumerator->GetCount(&Count);
  if (FAILED(hr))
  {
   wprintf(L"WARNING: Unable to obtain a count of the number of files in the job.\n");
   wprintf(L"        No further information can be provided about the files in the job.\n");
  }
  else
  {
   for (ULONG i = 0; i < Count; ++i)
   {
    IBackgroundCopyFile *TempFile;

    hr = FileEnumerator->Next(1, &TempFile, NULL);
    if (FAILED(hr))
    {
     wprintf(L"WARNING: Unable to obtain an IBackgroundCopyFile interface for the next file in the job.\n");
     wprintf(L"        No further information can be provided about this file.\n");
    }
    else
    {
     IBackgroundCopyFile5 *File;
     hr = TempFile->QueryInterface(__uuidof(IBackgroundCopyFile5), (void **)&File);
     if (FAILED(hr))
     {
      wprintf(L"WARNING: Unable to obtain an IBackgroundCopyFile5 interface for the file.\n");
      wprintf(L"        No further information can be provided about this file.\n");
     }
     else
     {
      LPWSTR RemoteFileName;
      hr = File->GetRemoteName(&RemoteFileName);
      if (FAILED(hr))
      {
       wprintf(L"WARNING: Unable to obtain the remote file name for this file.\n");
      }
      else
      {
       wprintf(L"HTTP headers for remote file '%ws'\n", RemoteFileName);
       CoTaskMemFree(RemoteFileName);
       RemoteFileName = NULL;
      }

      BITS_FILE_PROPERTY_VALUE Value;
      hr = File->GetProperty(BITS_FILE_PROPERTY_ID_HTTP_RESPONSE_HEADERS, &Value);
      if (FAILED(hr))
      {
       wprintf(L"WARNING: Unable to obtain the HTTP headers for this file.\n");
      }
      else
      {
       if (Value.String)
       {
        DisplayHeaders(Value.String);
        CoTaskMemFree(Value.String);
        Value.String = NULL;
       }
      }

      File->Release();
      File = NULL;
     }

     TempFile->Release();
     TempFile = NULL;
    }
   }
  }

  FileEnumerator->Release();
  FileEnumerator = NULL;
 }

 return S_OK;
}


/**
 * Displays the current progress of the job in terms of the amount of data
 * and number of files transferred.
 */
VOID DisplayProgress(__in IBackgroundCopyJob *Job)
{
 HRESULT hr;
 BG_JOB_PROGRESS Progress;

 hr = Job->GetProgress(&Progress);
 if (SUCCEEDED(hr))
 {
  wprintf(L"%llu of %llu bytes transferred (%lu of %lu files).\n",
   Progress.BytesTransferred, Progress.BytesTotal,
   Progress.FilesTransferred, Progress.FilesTotal);
 }
 else
 {
  wprintf(L"ERROR: Unable to get job progress (error code %08X).\n", hr);
 }
}

/**
 * Parses the provided string that contains HTTP headers,
 * splits them apart and displays them to the user.
 */
VOID DisplayHeaders(__in LPWSTR Headers)
{
 wprintf(L"Headers: %ws\n", Headers);
}

VOID DisplayError(__in IBackgroundCopyJob *Job)
{
 HRESULT hr;
 IBackgroundCopyError *Error;
 LPWSTR ErrorDescription;

 hr = Job->GetError(&Error);
 if (FAILED(hr))
 {
  wprintf(L"WARNING: Unable to get job error information (code %08X)\n", hr);
 }
 else
 {
  BG_ERROR_CONTEXT ErrorContext;
  HRESULT ErrorResult;
  hr = Error->GetError(&ErrorContext, &ErrorResult);
  if (FAILED(hr))
  {
   wprintf(L"WARNING: Unable to get job error code information (code %08X)\n", hr);
  }
  else
  {
   hr = Error->GetErrorDescription(LANGIDFROMLCID(GetThreadLocale()), &ErrorDescription);
   if (FAILED(hr))
   {
    wprintf(L"WARNING: Unable to get job error description (code %08X) for %08X\n", hr, ErrorResult);
   }
   else
   {
    wprintf(L"   Error details: code %08X %ws\n", ErrorResult, ErrorDescription);
    CoTaskMemFree(ErrorDescription);
   }
  }

  Error->Release();
 }
}