Comment : personnaliser le tri dans le contrôle DataGridView Windows FormsHow to: Customize Sorting in the Windows Forms DataGridView Control

Le contrôle DataGridView assure le tri automatique mais, selon vos besoins, vous devrez peut-être personnaliser les opérations de tri.The DataGridView control provides automatic sorting but, depending on your needs, you might need to customize sort operations. Par exemple, vous pouvez utiliser le tri par programmation pour créer une autre interface utilisateur.For example, you can use programmatic sorting to create an alternate user interface (UI). Vous pouvez également gérer l'événement SortCompare ou appeler la surcharge Sort(IComparer) de la méthode Sort pour bénéficier d'une plus grande flexibilité de tri, par exemple pour trier plusieurs colonnes.Alternatively, you can handle the SortCompare event or call the Sort(IComparer) overload of the Sort method for greater sorting flexibility, such as sorting multiple columns.

Les exemples de code suivants illustrent ces trois approches de tri personnalisé.The following code examples demonstrate these three approaches to custom sorting. Pour plus d’informations, consultez Modes de tri des colonnes du contrôle DataGridView Windows Forms.For more information, see Column Sort Modes in the Windows Forms DataGridView Control.

Tri par programmationProgrammatic Sorting

L'exemple de code suivant illustre un tri par programmation qui fait appel aux propriétés SortOrder et SortedColumn pour déterminer le sens du tri et à la propriété SortGlyphDirection pour définir manuellement le glyphe de tri.The following code example demonstrates a programmatic sort using the SortOrder and SortedColumn properties to determine the direction of the sort, and the SortGlyphDirection property to manually set the sort glyph. La surcharge Sort(DataGridViewColumn,ListSortDirection) de la méthode Sort sert à trier les données dans une seule colonne.The Sort(DataGridViewColumn,ListSortDirection) overload of the Sort method is used to sort data only in a single column.

using System;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Windows.Forms;

class Form1 : Form
{
    private Button sortButton = new Button();
    private DataGridView dataGridView1 = new DataGridView();

    // Initializes the form.
    // You can replace this code with designer-generated code.
    public Form1()
    {
        dataGridView1.Dock = DockStyle.Fill;
        dataGridView1.AllowUserToAddRows = false;
        dataGridView1.SelectionMode =
            DataGridViewSelectionMode.ColumnHeaderSelect;
        dataGridView1.MultiSelect = false;

        sortButton.Dock = DockStyle.Bottom;
        sortButton.Text = "Sort";

        Controls.Add(dataGridView1);
        Controls.Add(sortButton);
        Text = "DataGridView programmatic sort demo";
    }

    // Establishes the main entry point for the application.
    [STAThreadAttribute()]
    static void Main()
    {
        Application.EnableVisualStyles();
        Application.Run(new Form1());
    }

    // Populates the DataGridView.
    // Replace this with your own code to populate the DataGridView.
    public void PopulateDataGridView()
    {
        // Add columns to the DataGridView.
        dataGridView1.ColumnCount = 2;
        dataGridView1.Columns[0].HeaderText = "Last Name";
        dataGridView1.Columns[1].HeaderText = "City";
        // Put the new columns into programmatic sort mode
        dataGridView1.Columns[0].SortMode = 
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic;
        dataGridView1.Columns[1].SortMode =
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic;

        // Populate the DataGridView.
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Parker", "Seattle" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Watson", "Seattle" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Osborn", "New York" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Jameson", "New York" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Brock", "New Jersey" });
    }

    protected override void OnLoad(EventArgs e)
    {
        sortButton.Click += new EventHandler(sortButton_Click);

        PopulateDataGridView();
        base.OnLoad(e);
    }

    private void sortButton_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
    {
        // Check which column is selected, otherwise set NewColumn to null.
        DataGridViewColumn newColumn =
            dataGridView1.Columns.GetColumnCount(
            DataGridViewElementStates.Selected) == 1 ?
            dataGridView1.SelectedColumns[0] : null;

        DataGridViewColumn oldColumn = dataGridView1.SortedColumn;
        ListSortDirection direction;

        // If oldColumn is null, then the DataGridView is not currently sorted.
        if (oldColumn != null)
        {
            // Sort the same column again, reversing the SortOrder.
            if (oldColumn == newColumn &&
                dataGridView1.SortOrder == SortOrder.Ascending)
            {
                direction = ListSortDirection.Descending;
            }
            else
            {
                // Sort a new column and remove the old SortGlyph.
                direction = ListSortDirection.Ascending;
                oldColumn.HeaderCell.SortGlyphDirection = SortOrder.None;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            direction = ListSortDirection.Ascending;
        }

        // If no column has been selected, display an error dialog  box.
        if (newColumn == null)
        {
            MessageBox.Show("Select a single column and try again.",
                "Error: Invalid Selection", MessageBoxButtons.OK,
                MessageBoxIcon.Error);
        }
        else
        {
            dataGridView1.Sort(newColumn, direction);
            newColumn.HeaderCell.SortGlyphDirection =
                direction == ListSortDirection.Ascending ?
                SortOrder.Ascending : SortOrder.Descending;
        }
    }
}
Imports System.ComponentModel
Imports System.Windows.Forms

Public Class Form1
    Inherits Form

    Private WithEvents sortButton As New Button()
    Private WithEvents dataGridView1 As New DataGridView()

    ' Initializes the form.
    ' You can replace this code with designer-generated code.
    Public Sub New()
        With dataGridView1
            .Dock = DockStyle.Fill
            .AllowUserToAddRows = False
            .SelectionMode = DataGridViewSelectionMode.ColumnHeaderSelect
            .MultiSelect = False
        End With

        sortButton.Dock = DockStyle.Bottom
        sortButton.Text = "Sort"
 
        Controls.Add(dataGridView1)
        Controls.Add(sortButton)
        Text = "DataGridView programmatic sort demo"

        PopulateDataGridView()
    End Sub

    ' Establish the main entry point for the application.
    <STAThreadAttribute()> _
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        Application.Run(New Form1())
    End Sub

    ' Populates the DataGridView.
    ' Replace this with your own code to populate the DataGridView.
    Public Sub PopulateDataGridView()

        ' Add columns to the DataGridView.
        dataGridView1.ColumnCount = 2
        dataGridView1.Columns(0).HeaderText = "Last Name"
        dataGridView1.Columns(1).HeaderText = "City"
        ' Put the new columns into programmatic sort mode
        dataGridView1.Columns(0).SortMode = _
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic
        dataGridView1.Columns(1).SortMode = _
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic


        ' Populate the DataGridView.
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Parker", "Seattle"})
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Watson", "Seattle"})
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Osborn", "New York"})
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Jameson", "New York"})
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Brock", "New Jersey"})
    End Sub

    Private Sub SortButton_Click(ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As EventArgs) Handles sortButton.Click

        ' Check which column is selected, otherwise set NewColumn to Nothing.
        Dim newColumn As DataGridViewColumn
        If dataGridView1.Columns.GetColumnCount(DataGridViewElementStates _
            .Selected) = 1 Then
            newColumn = dataGridView1.SelectedColumns(0)
        Else
            newColumn = Nothing
        End If

        Dim oldColumn As DataGridViewColumn = dataGridView1.SortedColumn
        Dim direction As ListSortDirection

        ' If oldColumn is null, then the DataGridView is not currently sorted.
        If oldColumn IsNot Nothing Then

            ' Sort the same column again, reversing the SortOrder.
            If oldColumn Is newColumn AndAlso dataGridView1.SortOrder = _
                SortOrder.Ascending Then
                direction = ListSortDirection.Descending
            Else

                ' Sort a new column and remove the old SortGlyph.
                direction = ListSortDirection.Ascending
                oldColumn.HeaderCell.SortGlyphDirection = SortOrder.None
            End If
        Else
            direction = ListSortDirection.Ascending
        End If


        ' If no column has been selected, display an error dialog  box.
        If newColumn Is Nothing Then
            MessageBox.Show("Select a single column and try again.", _
                "Error: Invalid Selection", MessageBoxButtons.OK, _
                MessageBoxIcon.Error)
        Else
            dataGridView1.Sort(newColumn, direction)
            If direction = ListSortDirection.Ascending Then
                newColumn.HeaderCell.SortGlyphDirection = SortOrder.Ascending
            Else
                newColumn.HeaderCell.SortGlyphDirection = SortOrder.Descending
            End If
        End If

    End Sub

End Class

Tri personnalisé à l'aide de l'événement SortCompareCustom Sorting Using the SortCompare Event

L'exemple de code suivant illustre un tri personnalisé qui fait appel à un gestionnaire d'événements SortCompare.The following code example demonstrates custom sorting using a SortCompare event handler. Le DataGridViewColumn sélectionné est trié et, si la colonne contient des valeurs en double, l'ID de colonne est utilisé pour déterminer l'ordre final.The selected DataGridViewColumn is sorted and, if there are duplicate values in the column, the ID column is used to determine the final order.

#region Using directives

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Data;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Windows.Forms;

#endregion
class Form1 : Form
{
    private DataGridView dataGridView1 = new DataGridView();

    // Establish the main entry point for the application.
    [STAThreadAttribute()]
    static void Main()
    {
        Application.EnableVisualStyles();
        Application.Run(new Form1());
    }

    public Form1()
    {
        // Initialize the form.
        // This code can be replaced with designer generated code.
        dataGridView1.AllowUserToAddRows = false;
        dataGridView1.Dock = DockStyle.Fill;
        dataGridView1.SortCompare += new DataGridViewSortCompareEventHandler(
            this.dataGridView1_SortCompare);
        Controls.Add(this.dataGridView1);
        this.Text = "DataGridView.SortCompare demo";

        PopulateDataGridView();
    }

    // Replace this with your own population code.
    public void PopulateDataGridView()
    {
        // Add columns to the DataGridView.
        dataGridView1.ColumnCount = 3;

        // Set the properties of the DataGridView columns.
        dataGridView1.Columns[0].Name = "ID";
        dataGridView1.Columns[1].Name = "Name";
        dataGridView1.Columns[2].Name = "City";
        dataGridView1.Columns["ID"].HeaderText = "ID";
        dataGridView1.Columns["Name"].HeaderText = "Name";
        dataGridView1.Columns["City"].HeaderText = "City";

        // Add rows of data to the DataGridView.
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "1", "Parker", "Seattle" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "2", "Parker", "New York" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "3", "Watson", "Seattle" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "4", "Jameson", "New Jersey" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "5", "Brock", "New York" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "6", "Conner", "Portland" });

        // Autosize the columns.
        dataGridView1.AutoResizeColumns();
    }

    private void dataGridView1_SortCompare(object sender,
        DataGridViewSortCompareEventArgs e)
    {
        // Try to sort based on the cells in the current column.
        e.SortResult = System.String.Compare(
            e.CellValue1.ToString(), e.CellValue2.ToString());

        // If the cells are equal, sort based on the ID column.
        if (e.SortResult == 0 && e.Column.Name != "ID")
        {
            e.SortResult = System.String.Compare(
                dataGridView1.Rows[e.RowIndex1].Cells["ID"].Value.ToString(),
                dataGridView1.Rows[e.RowIndex2].Cells["ID"].Value.ToString());
        }
        e.Handled = true;
    }
}
Imports System.Windows.Forms

Public Class Form1
    Inherits Form

    Private WithEvents DataGridView1 As New DataGridView()

    ' Establish the main entry point for the application.
    <STAThreadAttribute()> _
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        Application.Run(New Form1())
    End Sub

    Public Sub New()
        ' Initialize the form.
        ' This code can be replaced with designer generated code.
        Me.DataGridView1.AllowUserToAddRows = False
        Me.DataGridView1.Dock = DockStyle.Fill
        Me.Controls.Add(Me.DataGridView1)
        Me.Text = "DataGridView.SortCompare demo"

        Me.PopulateDataGridView()
    End Sub

    '<snippet20>'
    ' Replace this with your own population code.
    Private Sub PopulateDataGridView()
        With Me.DataGridView1
            ' Add columns to the DataGridView.
            .ColumnCount = 3

            ' Set the properties of the DataGridView columns.
            .Columns(0).Name = "ID"
            .Columns(1).Name = "Name"
            .Columns(2).Name = "City"
            .Columns("ID").HeaderText = "ID"
            .Columns("Name").HeaderText = "Name"
            .Columns("City").HeaderText = "City"
        End With

        ' Add rows of data to the DataGridView.
        With Me.DataGridView1.Rows
            .Add(New String() {"1", "Parker", "Seattle"})
            .Add(New String() {"2", "Parker", "New York"})
            .Add(New String() {"3", "Watson", "Seattle"})
            .Add(New String() {"4", "Jameson", "New Jersey"})
            .Add(New String() {"5", "Brock", "New York"})
            .Add(New String() {"6", "Conner", "Portland"})
        End With

        ' Autosize the columns.
        Me.DataGridView1.AutoResizeColumns()
 
    End Sub

    Private Sub DataGridView1_SortCompare( _
        ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As DataGridViewSortCompareEventArgs) _
        Handles DataGridView1.SortCompare

        ' Try to sort based on the contents of the cell in the current column.
        e.SortResult = System.String.Compare(e.CellValue1.ToString(), _
            e.CellValue2.ToString())

        ' If the cells are equal, sort based on the ID column.
        If (e.SortResult = 0) AndAlso Not (e.Column.Name = "ID") Then
            e.SortResult = System.String.Compare( _
                DataGridView1.Rows(e.RowIndex1).Cells("ID").Value.ToString(), _
                DataGridView1.Rows(e.RowIndex2).Cells("ID").Value.ToString())
        End If

        e.Handled = True

    End Sub
End Class

Tri personnalisé à l'aide de l'interface IComparerCustom Sorting Using the IComparer Interface

L'exemple de code suivant illustre un tri personnalisé qui fait appel à la surcharge Sort(IComparer) de la méthode Sort, qui prend une implémentation de l'interface IComparer pour effectuer un tri sur plusieurs colonnes.The following code example demonstrates custom sorting using the Sort(IComparer) overload of the Sort method, which takes an implementation of the IComparer interface to perform a multiple-column sort.

#region Using directives

using System;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Windows.Forms;

#endregion

class Form1 : Form
{
    private DataGridView DataGridView1 = new DataGridView();
    private FlowLayoutPanel FlowLayoutPanel1 = new FlowLayoutPanel();
    private Button Button1 = new Button();
    private RadioButton RadioButton1 = new RadioButton();
    private RadioButton RadioButton2 = new RadioButton();

    // Establish the main entry point for the application.
    [STAThreadAttribute()]
    public static void Main()
    {
        Application.Run(new Form1());
    }

    public Form1()
    {
        // Initialize the form.
        // This code can be replaced with designer generated code.
        AutoSize = true;
        Text = "DataGridView IComparer sort demo";

        FlowLayoutPanel1.FlowDirection = FlowDirection.TopDown;
        FlowLayoutPanel1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point( 304, 0 );
        FlowLayoutPanel1.AutoSize = true;

        FlowLayoutPanel1.Controls.Add( RadioButton1 );
        FlowLayoutPanel1.Controls.Add( RadioButton2 );
        FlowLayoutPanel1.Controls.Add( Button1 );

        Button1.Text = "Sort";
        RadioButton1.Text = "Ascending";
        RadioButton2.Text = "Descending";
        RadioButton1.Checked = true;

        Controls.Add( FlowLayoutPanel1 );
        Controls.Add( DataGridView1 );
    }

    protected override void OnLoad( EventArgs e )
    {
        PopulateDataGridView();
        Button1.Click += new EventHandler(Button1_Click);

        base.OnLoad( e );
    }

    // Replace this with your own code to populate the DataGridView.
    private void PopulateDataGridView()
    {

        DataGridView1.Size = new Size(300, 300);

        // Add columns to the DataGridView.
        DataGridView1.ColumnCount = 2;

        // Set the properties of the DataGridView columns.
        DataGridView1.Columns[0].Name = "First";
        DataGridView1.Columns[1].Name = "Last";
        DataGridView1.Columns["First"].HeaderText = "First Name";
        DataGridView1.Columns["Last"].HeaderText = "Last Name";
        DataGridView1.Columns["First"].SortMode = 
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic;
        DataGridView1.Columns["Last"].SortMode = 
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic;

        // Add rows of data to the DataGridView.
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Peter", "Parker" });
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "James", "Jameson" });
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "May", "Parker" });
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Mary", "Watson" });
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Eddie", "Brock" });
    }

    private void Button1_Click( object sender, EventArgs e )
    {
        if ( RadioButton1.Checked == true )
        {
            DataGridView1.Sort( new RowComparer( SortOrder.Ascending ) );
        }
        else if ( RadioButton2.Checked == true )
        {
            DataGridView1.Sort( new RowComparer( SortOrder.Descending ) );
        }
    }

    private class RowComparer : System.Collections.IComparer
    {
        private static int sortOrderModifier = 1;

        public RowComparer(SortOrder sortOrder)
        {
            if (sortOrder == SortOrder.Descending)
            {
                sortOrderModifier = -1;
            }
            else if (sortOrder == SortOrder.Ascending)
            {
                sortOrderModifier = 1;
            }
        }

        public int Compare(object x, object y)
        {
            DataGridViewRow DataGridViewRow1 = (DataGridViewRow)x;
            DataGridViewRow DataGridViewRow2 = (DataGridViewRow)y;

            // Try to sort based on the Last Name column.
            int CompareResult = System.String.Compare(
                DataGridViewRow1.Cells[1].Value.ToString(),
                DataGridViewRow2.Cells[1].Value.ToString());

            // If the Last Names are equal, sort based on the First Name.
            if ( CompareResult == 0 )
            {
                CompareResult = System.String.Compare(
                    DataGridViewRow1.Cells[0].Value.ToString(),
                    DataGridViewRow2.Cells[0].Value.ToString());
            }
            return CompareResult * sortOrderModifier;
        }
    }
}
Imports System.Drawing
Imports System.Windows.Forms

Public Class Form1
    Inherits Form

    Private WithEvents DataGridView1 As New DataGridView()
    Private FlowLayoutPanel1 As New FlowLayoutPanel()
    Private WithEvents Button1 As New Button()
    Private RadioButton1 As New RadioButton()
    Private RadioButton2 As New RadioButton()

    ' Establish the main entry point for the application.
    <STAThreadAttribute()> _
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        Application.Run(New Form1())
    End Sub

    Public Sub New()
        ' Initialize the form.
        ' This code can be replaced with designer generated code.
        AutoSize = True
        Text = "DataGridView IComparer sort demo"

        FlowLayoutPanel1.FlowDirection = FlowDirection.TopDown
        FlowLayoutPanel1.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(304, 0)
        FlowLayoutPanel1.AutoSize = True

        FlowLayoutPanel1.Controls.Add(RadioButton1)
        FlowLayoutPanel1.Controls.Add(RadioButton2)
        FlowLayoutPanel1.Controls.Add(Button1)

        Button1.Text = "Sort"
        RadioButton1.Text = "Ascending"
        RadioButton2.Text = "Descending"
        RadioButton1.Checked = True

        Controls.Add(FlowLayoutPanel1)
        Controls.Add(DataGridView1)

        PopulateDataGridView()
    End Sub

    ' Replace this with your own code to populate the DataGridView.
    Private Sub PopulateDataGridView()

        DataGridView1.Size = New Size(300, 300)

        ' Add columns to the DataGridView.
        DataGridView1.ColumnCount = 2

        ' Set the properties of the DataGridView columns.
        DataGridView1.Columns(0).Name = "First"
        DataGridView1.Columns(1).Name = "Last"
        DataGridView1.Columns("First").HeaderText = "First Name"
        DataGridView1.Columns("Last").HeaderText = "Last Name"
        DataGridView1.Columns("First").SortMode = _
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic
        DataGridView1.Columns("Last").SortMode = _
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic

        ' Add rows of data to the DataGridView.
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Peter", "Parker"})
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"James", "Jameson"})
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"May", "Parker"})
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Mary", "Watson"})
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Eddie", "Brock"})
    End Sub

    Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) _
    Handles Button1.Click
        If RadioButton1.Checked = True Then
            DataGridView1.Sort(New RowComparer(SortOrder.Ascending))
        ElseIf RadioButton2.Checked = True Then
            DataGridView1.Sort(New RowComparer(SortOrder.Descending))
        End If
    End Sub

    Private Class RowComparer
        Implements System.Collections.IComparer

        Private sortOrderModifier As Integer = 1

        Public Sub New(ByVal sortOrder As SortOrder)
            If sortOrder = sortOrder.Descending Then
                sortOrderModifier = -1
            ElseIf sortOrder = sortOrder.Ascending Then

                sortOrderModifier = 1
            End If
        End Sub

        Public Function Compare(ByVal x As Object, ByVal y As Object) As Integer _
            Implements System.Collections.IComparer.Compare

            Dim DataGridViewRow1 As DataGridViewRow = CType(x, DataGridViewRow)
            Dim DataGridViewRow2 As DataGridViewRow = CType(y, DataGridViewRow)

            ' Try to sort based on the Last Name column.
            Dim CompareResult As Integer = System.String.Compare( _
                DataGridViewRow1.Cells(1).Value.ToString(), _
                DataGridViewRow2.Cells(1).Value.ToString())

            ' If the Last Names are equal, sort based on the First Name.
            If CompareResult = 0 Then
                CompareResult = System.String.Compare( _
                    DataGridViewRow1.Cells(0).Value.ToString(), _
                    DataGridViewRow2.Cells(0).Value.ToString())
            End If
            Return CompareResult * sortOrderModifier
        End Function
    End Class
End Class

Compilation du codeCompiling the Code

Ces exemples nécessitent :These examples require:

  • Références aux assemblys System, System.Drawing et System.Windows.Forms.References to the System, System.Drawing, and System.Windows.Forms assemblies.

Voir aussiSee also