Comment : déclencher et utiliser des événementsHow to: Raise and Consume Events

Les exemples de cette rubrique montrent comment utiliser des événements.The examples in this topic show how to work with events. Ils incluent des exemples du délégué EventHandler, le délégué EventHandler<TEventArgs> et un délégué personnalisé, pour illustrer les événements avec et sans données.They include examples of the EventHandler delegate, the EventHandler<TEventArgs> delegate, and a custom delegate, to illustrate events with and without data.

Les exemples utilisent les concepts décrits dans l’article Événements.The examples use concepts described in the Events article.

ExempleExample

Le premier exemple montre comment déclencher et consommer un événement n’ayant pas de données.The first example shows how to raise and consume an event that doesn't have data. Il contient une classe nommée Counter qui possède un événement nommé ThresholdReached.It contains a class named Counter that has an event named ThresholdReached. Cet événement est déclenché lorsqu’une valeur de compteur atteint ou dépasse un seuil.This event is raised when a counter value equals or exceeds a threshold value. Le délégué EventHandler est associé à l’événement, car aucune donnée d’événement n’est fournie.The EventHandler delegate is associated with the event, because no event data is provided.

using System;

namespace ConsoleApplication1
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            Counter c = new Counter(new Random().Next(10));
            c.ThresholdReached += c_ThresholdReached;

            Console.WriteLine("press 'a' key to increase total");
            while (Console.ReadKey(true).KeyChar == 'a')
            {
                Console.WriteLine("adding one");
                c.Add(1);
            }
        }

        static void c_ThresholdReached(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("The threshold was reached.");
            Environment.Exit(0); 
        }
    }

    class Counter
    {
        private int threshold;
        private int total;

        public Counter(int passedThreshold)
        {
            threshold = passedThreshold;
        }

        public void Add(int x)
        {
            total += x;
            if (total >= threshold)
            {
                OnThresholdReached(EventArgs.Empty);
            }
        }

        protected virtual void OnThresholdReached(EventArgs e)
        {
            EventHandler handler = ThresholdReached;
            if (handler != null)
            {
                handler(this, e);
            }
        }

        public event EventHandler ThresholdReached;
    }
}
Module Module1

    Sub Main()
        Dim c As Counter = New Counter(New Random().Next(10))
        AddHandler c.ThresholdReached, AddressOf c_ThresholdReached

        Console.WriteLine("press 'a' key to increase total")
        While Console.ReadKey(True).KeyChar = "a"
            Console.WriteLine("adding one")
            c.Add(1)
        End While
    End Sub

    Sub c_ThresholdReached(sender As Object, e As EventArgs)
        Console.WriteLine("The threshold was reached.")
        Environment.Exit(0)
    End Sub
End Module

Class Counter
    Private threshold As Integer
    Private total As Integer

    Public Sub New(passedThreshold As Integer)
        threshold = passedThreshold
    End Sub

    Public Sub Add(x As Integer)
        total = total + x
        If (total >= threshold) Then
            OnThresholdReached(EventArgs.Empty)
        End If
    End Sub

    Protected Overridable Sub OnThresholdReached(e As EventArgs)
        RaiseEvent ThresholdReached(Me, e)
    End Sub

    Public Event ThresholdReached As EventHandler
End Class

ExempleExample

L’exemple suivant montre comment déclencher et consommer un événement qui fournit des données.The next example shows how to raise and consume an event that provides data. Le délégué EventHandler<TEventArgs> est associé à l’événement, et une instance d’un objet de données d’événement personnalisé est fournie.The EventHandler<TEventArgs> delegate is associated with the event, and an instance of a custom event data object is provided.

using namespace System;

public ref class ThresholdReachedEventArgs : public EventArgs
{
   public:
      property int Threshold;
      property DateTime TimeReached;
};

public ref class Counter
{
   private:
      int threshold;
      int total;

   public:
      Counter() {};

      Counter(int passedThreshold)
      {
         threshold = passedThreshold;
      }

      void Add(int x)
      {
          total += x;
          if (total >= threshold) {
             ThresholdReachedEventArgs^ args = gcnew ThresholdReachedEventArgs();
             args->Threshold = threshold;
             args->TimeReached = DateTime::Now;
             OnThresholdReached(args);
          }
      }

      event EventHandler<ThresholdReachedEventArgs^>^ ThresholdReached;

   protected:
      virtual void OnThresholdReached(ThresholdReachedEventArgs^ e)
      {
         ThresholdReached(this, e);
      }
};

public ref class SampleHandler
{
   public:
      static void c_ThresholdReached(Object^ sender, ThresholdReachedEventArgs^ e)
      {
         Console::WriteLine("The threshold of {0} was reached at {1}.",
                            e->Threshold,  e->TimeReached);
         Environment::Exit(0);
      }
};

void main()
{
   Counter^ c = gcnew Counter((gcnew Random())->Next(10));
   c->ThresholdReached += gcnew EventHandler<ThresholdReachedEventArgs^>(SampleHandler::c_ThresholdReached);

   Console::WriteLine("press 'a' key to increase total");
   while (Console::ReadKey(true).KeyChar == 'a') {
      Console::WriteLine("adding one");
      c->Add(1);
   }
}
using System;

namespace ConsoleApplication1
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            Counter c = new Counter(new Random().Next(10));
            c.ThresholdReached += c_ThresholdReached;

            Console.WriteLine("press 'a' key to increase total");
            while (Console.ReadKey(true).KeyChar == 'a')
            {
                Console.WriteLine("adding one");
                c.Add(1);
            }
        }

        static void c_ThresholdReached(object sender, ThresholdReachedEventArgs e)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("The threshold of {0} was reached at {1}.", e.Threshold,  e.TimeReached);
            Environment.Exit(0);
        }
    }

    class Counter
    {
        private int threshold;
        private int total;

        public Counter(int passedThreshold)
        {
            threshold = passedThreshold;
        }

        public void Add(int x)
        {
            total += x;
            if (total >= threshold)
            {
                ThresholdReachedEventArgs args = new ThresholdReachedEventArgs();
                args.Threshold = threshold;
                args.TimeReached = DateTime.Now;
                OnThresholdReached(args);
            }
        }

        protected virtual void OnThresholdReached(ThresholdReachedEventArgs e)
        {
            EventHandler<ThresholdReachedEventArgs> handler = ThresholdReached;
            if (handler != null)
            {
                handler(this, e);
            }
        }

        public event EventHandler<ThresholdReachedEventArgs> ThresholdReached;
    }

    public class ThresholdReachedEventArgs : EventArgs
    {
        public int Threshold { get; set; }
        public DateTime TimeReached { get; set; }
    }
}
Module Module1

    Sub Main()
        Dim c As Counter = New Counter(New Random().Next(10))
        AddHandler c.ThresholdReached, AddressOf c_ThresholdReached

        Console.WriteLine("press 'a' key to increase total")
        While Console.ReadKey(True).KeyChar = "a"
            Console.WriteLine("adding one")
            c.Add(1)
        End While
    End Sub

    Sub c_ThresholdReached(sender As Object, e As ThresholdReachedEventArgs)
        Console.WriteLine("The threshold of {0} was reached at {1}.", e.Threshold, e.TimeReached)
        Environment.Exit(0)
    End Sub
End Module

Class Counter
    Private threshold As Integer
    Private total As Integer

    Public Sub New(passedThreshold As Integer)
        threshold = passedThreshold
    End Sub

    Public Sub Add(x As Integer)
        total = total + x
        If (total >= threshold) Then
            Dim args As ThresholdReachedEventArgs = New ThresholdReachedEventArgs()
            args.Threshold = threshold
            args.TimeReached = DateTime.Now
            OnThresholdReached(args)
        End If
    End Sub

    Protected Overridable Sub OnThresholdReached(e As ThresholdReachedEventArgs)
        RaiseEvent ThresholdReached(Me, e)
    End Sub

    Public Event ThresholdReached As EventHandler(Of ThresholdReachedEventArgs)
End Class

Class ThresholdReachedEventArgs
    Inherits EventArgs

    Public Property Threshold As Integer
    Public Property TimeReached As DateTime
End Class

ExempleExample

L'exemple suivant montre comment déclarer un délégué pour un événement.The next example shows how to declare a delegate for an event. Le délégué est nommé ThresholdReachedEventHandler.The delegate is named ThresholdReachedEventHandler. Ce n’est qu’une illustration.This is just an illustration. En règle générale, il est inutile de déclarer un délégué pour un événement, car vous pouvez utiliser le délégué EventHandler ou le délégué EventHandler<TEventArgs>.Typically, you do not have to declare a delegate for an event, because you can use either the EventHandler or the EventHandler<TEventArgs> delegate. Vous devez déclarer un délégué uniquement dans de rares cas, par exemple, pour rendre votre classe disponible pour le code hérité qui ne peut pas utiliser des classes génériques.You should declare a delegate only in rare scenarios, such as making your class available to legacy code that cannot use generics.

using System;

namespace ConsoleApplication1
{
    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            Counter c = new Counter(new Random().Next(10));
            c.ThresholdReached += c_ThresholdReached;

            Console.WriteLine("press 'a' key to increase total");
            while (Console.ReadKey(true).KeyChar == 'a')
            {
                Console.WriteLine("adding one");
                c.Add(1);
            }
        }

        static void c_ThresholdReached(Object sender, ThresholdReachedEventArgs e)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("The threshold of {0} was reached at {1}.", e.Threshold, e.TimeReached);
            Environment.Exit(0);
        }
    }

    class Counter
    {
        private int threshold;
        private int total;

        public Counter(int passedThreshold)
        {
            threshold = passedThreshold;
        }

        public void Add(int x)
        {
            total += x;
            if (total >= threshold)
            {
                ThresholdReachedEventArgs args = new ThresholdReachedEventArgs();
                args.Threshold = threshold;
                args.TimeReached = DateTime.Now;
                OnThresholdReached(args);
            }
        }

        protected virtual void OnThresholdReached(ThresholdReachedEventArgs e)
        {
            ThresholdReachedEventHandler handler = ThresholdReached;
            if (handler != null)
            {
                handler(this, e);
            }
        }

        public event ThresholdReachedEventHandler ThresholdReached;
    }

    public class ThresholdReachedEventArgs : EventArgs
    {
        public int Threshold { get; set; }
        public DateTime TimeReached { get; set; }
    }

    public delegate void ThresholdReachedEventHandler(Object sender, ThresholdReachedEventArgs e);
}
Module Module1

    Sub Main()
        Dim c As Counter = New Counter(New Random().Next(10))
        AddHandler c.ThresholdReached, AddressOf c_ThresholdReached

        Console.WriteLine("press 'a' key to increase total")
        While Console.ReadKey(True).KeyChar = "a"
            Console.WriteLine("adding one")
            c.Add(1)
        End While
    End Sub

    Sub c_ThresholdReached(sender As Object, e As ThresholdReachedEventArgs)
        Console.WriteLine("The threshold of {0} was reached at {1}.", e.Threshold, e.TimeReached)
        Environment.Exit(0)
    End Sub
End Module

Class Counter
    Private threshold As Integer
    Private total As Integer

    Public Sub New(passedThreshold As Integer)
        threshold = passedThreshold
    End Sub

    Public Sub Add(x As Integer)
        total = total + x
        If (total >= threshold) Then
            Dim args As ThresholdReachedEventArgs = New ThresholdReachedEventArgs()
            args.Threshold = threshold
            args.TimeReached = DateTime.Now
            OnThresholdReached(args)
        End If
    End Sub

    Protected Overridable Sub OnThresholdReached(e As ThresholdReachedEventArgs)
        RaiseEvent ThresholdReached(Me, e)
    End Sub

    Public Event ThresholdReached As ThresholdReachedEventHandler
End Class

Public Class ThresholdReachedEventArgs
    Inherits EventArgs

    Public Property Threshold As Integer
    Public Property TimeReached As DateTime
End Class

Public Delegate Sub ThresholdReachedEventHandler(sender As Object, e As ThresholdReachedEventArgs)

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