Procedura: Annullare il wrapping di un'attività annidataHow to: Unwrap a Nested Task

È possibile restituire un'attività da un metodo e quindi attendere o continuare da tale attività, come illustrato nell'esempio seguente:You can return a task from a method, and then wait on or continue from that task, as shown in the following example:

static Task<string> DoWorkAsync()
{
    return Task<String>.Factory.StartNew(() =>
    {
       //...
        return "Work completed.";
    });
}

static void StartTask()
{
    Task<String> t = DoWorkAsync();
    t.Wait();
    Console.WriteLine(t.Result);
}
 Shared Function DoWorkAsync() As Task(Of String)

   Return Task(Of String).Run(Function()
                                 '...
                                 Return "Work completed."
                              End Function)
End Function

Shared Sub StartTask()

   Dim t As Task(Of String) = DoWorkAsync()
   t.Wait()
   Console.WriteLine(t.Result)
End Sub

Nell'esempio precedente la proprietà Result è di tipo string (String in Visual Basic).In the previous example, the Result property is of type string (String in Visual Basic).

In alcuni scenari, tuttavia, è consigliabile creare un'attività all'interno di un'altra attività e quindi restituire l'attività annidata.However, in some scenarios, you might want to create a task within another task, and then return the nested task. In questo caso, l'oggetto TResult dell'attività contenitore è esso stesso un'attività.In this case, the TResult of the enclosing task is itself a task. Nell'esempio seguente la proprietà Result è di tipo Task<Task<string>> in C# o Task(Of Task(Of String)) in Visual Basic.In the following example, the Result property is a Task<Task<string>> in C# or Task(Of Task(Of String)) in Visual Basic.

// Note the type of t and t2.
Task<Task<string>> t = Task.Factory.StartNew(() => DoWorkAsync());
Task<Task<string>> t2 = DoWorkAsync().ContinueWith((s) => DoMoreWorkAsync());

// Outputs: System.Threading.Tasks.Task`1[System.String]
Console.WriteLine(t.Result);
' Note the type of t and t2.
Dim t As Task(Of Task(Of String)) = Task.Run(Function() DoWorkAsync())
Dim t2 As Task(Of Task(Of String)) = DoWorkAsync().ContinueWith(Function(s) DoMoreWorkAsync())

' Outputs: System.Threading.Tasks.Task`1[System.String]
Console.WriteLine(t.Result)

Anche se è possibile scrivere codice per annullare il wrapping dell'attività esterna e recuperare l'attività originale e la relativa proprietà Result, tale codice non è semplice da scrivere perché è necessario gestire le eccezioni e anche le richieste di annullamento.Although it is possible to write code to unwrap the outer task and retrieve the original task and its Result property, such code is not easy to write because you must handle exceptions and also cancellation requests. In questo caso, è consigliabile usare uno dei metodi di estensione Unwrap, come illustrato nell'esempio seguente.In this situation, we recommend that you use one of the Unwrap extension methods, as shown in the following example.

// Unwrap the inner task.
Task<string> t3 = DoWorkAsync().ContinueWith((s) => DoMoreWorkAsync()).Unwrap();

// Outputs "More work completed."
Console.WriteLine(t.Result);
' Unwrap the inner task.
Dim t3 As Task(Of String) = DoWorkAsync().ContinueWith(Function(s) DoMoreWorkAsync()).Unwrap()

' Outputs "More work completed."
Console.WriteLine(t.Result)

I metodi Unwrap possono essere usati per trasformare qualsiasi oggetto Task<Task> o Task<Task<TResult>> (Task(Of Task) o Task(Of Task(Of TResult)) in Visual Basic) in un oggetto Task o Task<TResult> (Task(Of TResult) in Visual Basic).The Unwrap methods can be used to transform any Task<Task> or Task<Task<TResult>> (Task(Of Task) or Task(Of Task(Of TResult)) in Visual Basic) to a Task or Task<TResult> (Task(Of TResult) in Visual Basic). La nuova attività rappresenta completamente l'attività annidata interna e include lo stato di annullamento e tutte le eccezioni.The new task fully represents the inner nested task, and includes cancellation state and all exceptions.

EsempioExample

L'esempio seguente illustra come usare i metodi di estensione Unwrap.The following example demonstrates how to use the Unwrap extension methods.



namespace Unwrap
{
    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.Linq;
    using System.Text;
    using System.Threading;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    // A program whose only use is to demonstrate Unwrap.
    class Program
    {
        static void Main()
        {
            // An arbitrary threshold value.
            byte threshold = 0x40;

            // data is a Task<byte[]>
            var data = Task<byte[]>.Factory.StartNew(() =>
                {
                    return GetData();
                });

            // We want to return a task so that we can
            // continue from it later in the program.
            // Without Unwrap: stepTwo is a Task<Task<byte[]>>
            // With Unwrap: stepTwo is a Task<byte[]>
            var stepTwo = data.ContinueWith((antecedent) =>
                {                    
                    return Task<byte>.Factory.StartNew( () => Compute(antecedent.Result));                  
                })
                .Unwrap();

            // Without Unwrap: antecedent.Result = Task<byte>
            // and the following method will not compile.
            // With Unwrap: antecedent.Result = byte and
            // we can work directly with the result of the Compute method.
            var lastStep = stepTwo.ContinueWith( (antecedant) =>
                {
                    if (antecedant.Result >= threshold)
                    {
                      return Task.Factory.StartNew( () =>  Console.WriteLine("Program complete. Final = 0x{0:x} threshold = 0x{1:x}", stepTwo.Result, threshold));
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        return DoSomeOtherAsyncronousWork(stepTwo.Result, threshold);
                    }
                });

            lastStep.Wait();
            Console.WriteLine("Press any key");
            Console.ReadKey();
        }

        #region Dummy_Methods
        private static byte[] GetData()
        {
            Random rand = new Random();
            byte[] bytes = new byte[64];
            rand.NextBytes(bytes);
            return bytes;
        }

        static Task DoSomeOtherAsyncronousWork(int i, byte b2) 
        {
            return Task.Factory.StartNew(() =>
                {
                    Thread.SpinWait(500000);
                    Console.WriteLine("Doing more work. Value was <= threshold");
                });
        }
        static byte Compute(byte[] data)
        {

            byte final = 0;
            foreach (byte item in data)
            {
                final ^= item;
                Console.WriteLine("{0:x}", final);
            }
            Console.WriteLine("Done computing");
            return final;
        }
        #endregion
    }
}
'How to: Unwrap a Task
Imports System.Threading
Imports System.Threading.Tasks
Module UnwrapATask2

    Sub Main()
        ' An arbitrary threshold value.
        Dim threshold As Byte = &H40

        ' myData is a Task(Of Byte())

        Dim myData As Task(Of Byte()) = Task.Factory.StartNew(Function()
                                                                  Return GetData()
                                                              End Function)
        ' We want to return a task so that we can
        ' continue from it later in the program.
        ' Without Unwrap: stepTwo is a Task(Of Task(Of Byte))
        ' With Unwrap: stepTwo is a Task(Of Byte)

        Dim stepTwo = myData.ContinueWith(Function(antecedent)
                                              Return Task.Factory.StartNew(Function()
                                                                               Return Compute(antecedent.Result)
                                                                           End Function)
                                          End Function).Unwrap()

        Dim lastStep = stepTwo.ContinueWith(Function(antecedent)
                                                Console.WriteLine("Result = {0}", antecedent.Result)
                                                If antecedent.Result >= threshold Then
                                                    Return Task.Factory.StartNew(Sub()
                                                                                     Console.WriteLine("Program complete. Final = &H{1:x} threshold = &H{1:x}",
                                                                                                       stepTwo.Result, threshold)
                                                                                 End Sub)
                                                Else
                                                    Return DoSomeOtherAsynchronousWork(stepTwo.Result, threshold)
                                                End If
                                            End Function)
        Try
            lastStep.Wait()
        Catch ae As AggregateException
            For Each ex As Exception In ae.InnerExceptions
                Console.WriteLine(ex.Message & ex.StackTrace & ex.GetBaseException.ToString())
            Next
        End Try

        Console.WriteLine("Press any key")
        Console.ReadKey()
    End Sub

#Region "Dummy_Methods"
    Function GetData() As Byte()
        Dim rand As Random = New Random()
        Dim bytes(64) As Byte
        rand.NextBytes(bytes)
        Return bytes
    End Function

    Function DoSomeOtherAsynchronousWork(ByVal i As Integer, ByVal b2 As Byte) As Task
        Return Task.Factory.StartNew(Sub()
                                         Thread.SpinWait(500000)
                                         Console.WriteLine("Doing more work. Value was <= threshold.")
                                     End Sub)
    End Function

    Function Compute(ByVal d As Byte()) As Byte
        Dim final As Byte = 0
        For Each item As Byte In d
            final = final Xor item
            Console.WriteLine("{0:x}", final)
        Next
        Console.WriteLine("Done computing")
        Return final
    End Function
#End Region
End Module

Vedere ancheSee also