Esempio di controllo Windows Form con multithreading

In Windows Form viene utilizzato il modello STA (Single-Threaded Apartment), ovvero il modello con threading Apartment singolo, in quanto l'applicazione è basata su finestre Win32 native con threading Apartment. Tramite il modello STA una finestra può essere creata su qualsiasi thread, ma non può passare ad altri thread dopo che è stata creata. Tutte le relative chiamate di funzione devono inoltre essere eseguite sul thread di creazione. All'esterno di Windows Form le classi di .NET Framework utilizzano il modello di threading Free. Per ulteriori informazioni sul threading in .NET Framework, vedere Threading.

Il modello STA richiede che per tutti i metodi di un controllo che devono essere chiamati dall'esterno del thread di creazione del controllo stesso venga effettuato il marshalling per tale thread. La classe base Control fornisce numerosi metodi per questo scopo, ad esempio Invoke, BeginInvoke e EndInvoke. Il metodo Invoke effettua chiamate del metodo sincrone, mentre il metodo BeginInvoke effettua chiamate del metodo asincrone.

Se si utilizza il multithreading nel controllo per attività a elevato utilizzo di risorse, l'interfaccia utente può rimanere attiva durante l'esecuzione di un calcolo di questo tipo sul thread in background.

Nell'esempio seguente (DirectorySearcher) viene descritto un controllo Windows Form con multithreading che consente di utilizzare un thread in background per cercare in modo ricorsivo in una directory i file che corrispondono a una specifica stringa di ricerca e compilare una casella di riepilogo con il risultato della ricerca. Di seguito sono riportati i concetti fondamentali descritti nell'esempio.

  • Il controllo DirectorySearcher consente di avviare un nuovo thread per eseguire la ricerca. Il thread esegue il metodo ThreadProcedure, che a sua volta chiama il metodo di supporto RecurseDirectory per eseguire la ricerca effettiva e compilare la casella di riepilogo. Tuttavia, la compilazione della casella di riepilogo richiede una chiamata cross-thread, come descritto nei due punti seguenti.
  • Il controllo DirectorySearcher definisce il metodo AddFiles per aggiungere file a una casella di riepilogo. Tuttavia, il metodo RecurseDirectory non può richiamare direttamente AddFiles, in quanto AddFiles può essere eseguito solo nel thread STA che ha creato DirectorySearcher.
  • L'unico modo in cui RecurseDirectory può chiamare AddFiles è tramite una chiamata cross-thread, ovvero chiamando il metodo Invoke o BeginInvoke per eseguire il marshalling di AddFiles al thread di creazione di DirectorySearcher. RecurseDirectory utilizza il metodo BeginInvoke per eseguire la chiamata in modo asincrono.
  • Il marshalling di un metodo richiede l'equivalente di un puntatore a funzione o di un callback. Tale operazione viene eseguita utilizzando i delegati in .NET Framework. BeginInvoke accetta un delegato come argomento. Il controllo DirectorySearcher definisce quindi un delegato (FileListDelegate), associa AddFiles a un'istanza di FileListDelegate del proprio costruttore e passa questa istanza delegata al metodo BeginInvoke. DirectorySearcher definisce inoltre un delegato dell'evento di cui viene eseguito il marshalling al termine della ricerca.
Option Strict
Option Explicit

Imports System
Imports System.IO
Imports System.Threading
Imports System.Windows.Forms

Namespace Microsoft.Samples.DirectorySearcher
   ' <summary>
   '      This class is a Windows Forms control that implements a simple directory searcher.
   '      You provide, through code, a search string and it will search directories on
   '      a background thread, populating its list box with matches.
   ' </summary>
   Public Class DirectorySearcher
      Inherits Control
      ' Define a special delegate that handles marshaling
      ' lists of file names from the background directory search
      ' thread to the thread that contains the list box.
      Delegate Sub FileListDelegate(files() As String, startIndex As Integer, count As Integer)
      
      Private _listBox As ListBox
      Private _searchCriteria As String
      Private _searching As Boolean
      Private _deferSearch As Boolean
      Private _searchThread As Thread
      Private _fileListDelegate As FileListDelegate
      Private _onSearchComplete As EventHandler
      
      Public Sub New()
         _listBox = New ListBox()
         _listBox.Dock = DockStyle.Fill
         
         Controls.Add(_listBox)
         
         _fileListDelegate = New FileListDelegate(AddressOf AddFiles)
         _onSearchComplete = New EventHandler(AddressOf OnSearchComplete)
      End Sub
      
      Public Property SearchCriteria() As String
         Get
            Return _searchCriteria
         End Get
         Set
            ' If currently searching, abort
            ' the search and restart it after
            ' setting the new criteria.
            '
            Dim wasSearching As Boolean = Searching
            
            If wasSearching Then
               StopSearch()
            End If
            
            _listBox.Items.Clear()
            _searchCriteria = value
            
            If wasSearching Then
               BeginSearch()
            End If
         End Set
      End Property
      
      Public ReadOnly Property Searching() As Boolean
         Get
            Return _searching
         End Get
      End Property
      
      Public Event SearchComplete As EventHandler
      
      ' <summary>
      ' This method is called from the background thread.  It is called through
      ' a BeginInvoke call so that it is always marshaled to the thread that
      ' owns the list box control.
      ' </summary>
      ' <param name="files"></param>
      ' <param name="startIndex"></param>
      ' <param name="count"></param>
      Private Sub AddFiles(files() As String, startIndex As Integer, count As Integer)
         While count > 0
            count -= 1
            _listBox.Items.Add(files((startIndex + count)))
         End While
      End Sub
      
      Public Sub BeginSearch()
         ' Create the search thread, which 
         ' will begin the search.
         ' If already searching, do nothing.
         '
         If Searching Then
            Return
         End If
         
         ' Start the search if the handle has
         ' been created. Otherwise, defer it until the
         ' handle has been created.
         If IsHandleCreated Then
            _searchThread = New Thread(New ThreadStart(AddressOf ThreadProcedure))
            _searching = True
            _searchThread.Start()
         Else
            _deferSearch = True
         End If
      End Sub
      
      Protected Overrides Sub OnHandleDestroyed(e As EventArgs)
         ' If the handle is being destroyed and you are not
         ' recreating it, then abort the search.
         If Not RecreatingHandle Then
            StopSearch()
         End If
         MyBase.OnHandleDestroyed(e)
      End Sub
      
      Protected Overrides Sub OnHandleCreated(e As EventArgs)
         MyBase.OnHandleCreated(e)
         If _deferSearch Then
            _deferSearch = False
            BeginSearch()
         End If
      End Sub
      
      ' <summary>
      ' This method is called by the background thread when it has
      ' finished the search.
      ' </summary>
      ' <param name="sender"></param>
      ' <param name="e"></param>
      Private Sub OnSearchComplete(sender As Object, e As EventArgs)
         RaiseEvent SearchComplete(sender, e)
      End Sub
      
      Public Sub StopSearch()
         If Not _searching Then
            Return
         End If
         
         If _searchThread.IsAlive Then
            _searchThread.Abort()
            _searchThread.Join()
         End If
         
         _searchThread = Nothing
         _searching = False
      End Sub
      
      ' <summary>
      ' Recurses the given path, adding all files on that path to 
      ' the list box. After it finishes with the files, it
      ' calls itself once for each directory on the path.
      ' </summary>
      ' <param name="searchPath"></param>
      Private Sub RecurseDirectory(searchPath As String)
         ' Split searchPath into a directory and a wildcard specification.
         '
         Dim directoryPath As String = Path.GetDirectoryName(searchPath)
         Dim search As String = Path.GetFileName(searchPath)
         
         ' If a directory or search criteria are not specified, then return.
         '
         If directoryPath Is Nothing Or search Is Nothing Then
            Return
         End If
         
         Dim files() As String
         
         ' File systems like NTFS that have
         ' access permissions might result in exceptions
         ' when looking into directories without permission.
         ' Catch those exceptions and return.
         Try
            files = Directory.GetFiles(directoryPath, search)
         Catch e As UnauthorizedAccessException
            Return
         Catch e As DirectoryNotFoundException
            Return
         End Try
         
         ' Perform a BeginInvoke call to the list box
         ' in order to marshal to the correct thread. It is not
         ' very efficient to perform this marshal once for every
         ' file, so batch up multiple file calls into one
         ' marshal invocation.
         Dim startingIndex As Integer = 0
         While startingIndex < files.Length
            ' Batch up 20 files at once, unless at the
            ' end.
            '
            Dim count As Integer = 20
            If count + startingIndex >= files.Length Then
               count = files.Length - startingIndex
            End If
            ' Begin the cross-thread call. Because you are passing
            ' immutable objects into this invoke method, you do not have to
            ' wait for it to finish. If these were complex objects, you would
            ' have to either create new instances of them or 
            ' wait for the thread to process this invoke before modifying
            ' the objects.
            Dim r As IAsyncResult = BeginInvoke(_fileListDelegate, New Object() {files, startingIndex, count})
            startingIndex += count
         End While
         ' Now that you have finished the files in this directory, recurse
         ' for each subdirectory.
         Dim directories As String() = Directory.GetDirectories(directoryPath)
         Dim d As String
         For Each d In  directories
            RecurseDirectory(Path.Combine(d, search))
         Next d
      End Sub
      
      
      '/ <summary>
      '/ This is the actual thread procedure. This method runs in a background
      '/ thread to scan directories. When finished, it simply exits.
      '/ </summary>
      Private Sub ThreadProcedure()
         ' Get the search string. Individual 
         ' field assigns are atomic in .NET, so you do not
         ' need to use any thread synchronization to grab
         ' the string value here.
         Try
            Dim localSearch As String = SearchCriteria
            
            ' Now, search the file system.
            '
            RecurseDirectory(localSearch)
         Finally
            ' You are done with the search, so update.
            '
            _searching = False
            
            ' Raise an event that notifies the user that
            ' the search has terminated.  
            ' You do not have to do this through a marshaled call, but
            ' marshaling is recommended for the following reason:
            ' Users of this control do not know that it is
            ' multithreaded, so they expect its events to 
            ' come back on the same thread as the control.
            BeginInvoke(_onSearchComplete, New Object() {Me, EventArgs.Empty})
         End Try
      End Sub
   End Class
End Namespace
[C#]
namespace Microsoft.Samples.DirectorySearcher
{
   using System;
   using System.IO;
   using System.Threading;
   using System.Windows.Forms;

   /// <summary>
   ///      This class is a Windows Forms control that implements a simple directory searcher.
   ///      You provide, through code, a search string and it will search directories on
   ///      a background thread, populating its list box with matches.
   /// </summary>
   public class DirectorySearcher : Control
   {
      // Define a special delegate that handles marshaling
      // lists of file names from the background directory search
      // thread to the thread that contains the list box.
      private delegate void FileListDelegate(string[] files, int startIndex, int count);

      private ListBox listBox;
      private string  searchCriteria;
      private bool searching;
      private bool deferSearch;
      private Thread searchThread;
      private FileListDelegate fileListDelegate;
      private EventHandler onSearchComplete;

      public DirectorySearcher()
      {
         listBox = new ListBox();
         listBox.Dock = DockStyle.Fill;

         Controls.Add(listBox);

         fileListDelegate = new FileListDelegate(AddFiles);
         onSearchComplete = new EventHandler(OnSearchComplete);
      }

      public string SearchCriteria 
      {
         get 
         {
            return searchCriteria;
         }
         set 
         {
            // If currently searching, abort
            // the search and restart it after
            // setting the new criteria.
            //
            bool wasSearching = Searching;
            
            if (wasSearching)
            {
               StopSearch();
            }

            listBox.Items.Clear();
            searchCriteria = value;

            if (wasSearching)
            {
               BeginSearch();
            }
         }
      }

      public bool Searching 
      {
         get 
         {
            return searching;
         }
      }

      public event EventHandler SearchComplete;

      /// <summary>
      /// This method is called from the background thread. It is called through
      /// a BeginInvoke call so that it is always marshaled to the thread that
      /// owns the list box control.
      /// </summary>
      /// <param name="files"></param>
      /// <param name="startIndex"></param>
      /// <param name="count"></param>
      private void AddFiles(string[] files, int startIndex, int count)
      {
         while(count-- > 0)
         {
            listBox.Items.Add(files[startIndex + count]);
         }
      }

      public void BeginSearch() 
      {
         // Create the search thread, which 
         // will begin the search.
         // If already searching, do nothing.
         //
         if (Searching)
         {
            return;
         }

         // Start the search if the handle has
         // been created. Otherwise, defer it until the
         // handle has been created.
         if (IsHandleCreated)
         {
            searchThread = new Thread(new ThreadStart(ThreadProcedure));
            searching = true;
            searchThread.Start();
         }
         else
         {
            deferSearch = true;
         }
      }

      protected override void OnHandleDestroyed(EventArgs e)
      {
         // If the handle is being destroyed and you are not
         // recreating it, then abort the search.
         if (!RecreatingHandle)
         {
            StopSearch();
         }
         base.OnHandleDestroyed(e);
      }

      protected override void OnHandleCreated(EventArgs e) 
      {
         base.OnHandleCreated(e);
         if (deferSearch)
         {
            deferSearch = false;
            BeginSearch();
         }
      }

      /// <summary>
      /// This method is called by the background thread when it has finished
      /// the search.
      /// </summary>
      /// <param name="sender"></param>
      /// <param name="e"></param>
      private void OnSearchComplete(object sender, EventArgs e)
      {
         if (SearchComplete != null)
         {
            SearchComplete(sender, e);
         }
      }

      public void StopSearch()
      {
         if (!searching)
         {
            return;
         }

         if (searchThread.IsAlive)
         {
            searchThread.Abort();
            searchThread.Join();
         }

         searchThread = null;
         searching = false;
      }

      /// <summary>
      /// Recurses the given path, adding all files on that path to 
      /// the list box. After it finishes with the files, it
      /// calls itself once for each directory on the path.
      /// </summary>
      /// <param name="searchPath"></param>
      private void RecurseDirectory(string searchPath)
      {
         // Split searchPath into a directory and a wildcard specification.
         //
         string directory = Path.GetDirectoryName(searchPath);
         string search = Path.GetFileName(searchPath);

         // If a directory or search criteria are not specified, then return.
         //
         if (directory == null || search == null)
         {
            return;
         }

         string[] files;
         
         // File systems like NTFS that have
         // access permissions might result in exceptions
         // when looking into directories without permission.
         // Catch those exceptions and return.
         try 
         {
            files = Directory.GetFiles(directory, search);
         }
         catch(UnauthorizedAccessException)
         {
            return;
         }
         catch(DirectoryNotFoundException)
         {
            return;
         }

         // Perform a BeginInvoke call to the list box
         // in order to marshal to the correct thread. It is not
         // very efficient to perform this marshal once for every
         // file, so batch up multiple file calls into one
         // marshal invocation.
         int startingIndex = 0;

         while(startingIndex < files.Length)
         {
            // Batch up 20 files at once, unless at the
            // end.
            //
            int count = 20;
            if (count + startingIndex >= files.Length)
            {
               count = files.Length - startingIndex;
            }

            // Begin the cross-thread call. Because you are passing
            // immutable objects into this invoke method, you do not have to
            // wait for it to finish. If these were complex objects, you would
            // have to either create new instances of them or 
            // wait for the thread to process this invoke before modifying
            // the objects.
            IAsyncResult r = BeginInvoke(fileListDelegate, new object[] {files, startingIndex, count});
            startingIndex += count;
         }

         // Now that you have finished the files in this directory, recurse for
         // each subdirectory.
         string[] directories = Directory.GetDirectories(directory);
         foreach(string d in directories)
         {
            RecurseDirectory(Path.Combine(d, search));
         }
      }

      /// <summary>
      /// This is the actual thread procedure. This method runs in a background
      /// thread to scan directories. When finished, it simply exits.
      /// </summary>
      private void ThreadProcedure()
      {
         // Get the search string. Individual 
         // field assigns are atomic in .NET, so you do not
         // need to use any thread synchronization to grab
         // the string value here.
         try 
         {
            string localSearch = SearchCriteria;

            // Now, search the file system.
            //
            RecurseDirectory(localSearch);
         }
         finally
         {
            // You are done with the search, so update.
            //
            searching = false;

            // Raise an event that notifies the user that
            // the search has terminated.  
            // You do not have to do this through a marshaled call, but
            // marshaling is recommended for the following reason:
            // Users of this control do not know that it is
            // multithreaded, so they expect its events to 
            // come back on the same thread as the control.
            BeginInvoke(onSearchComplete, new object[] {this, EventArgs.Empty});
         }
      }
   }
}

Utilizzo del controllo con multithreading in un form

Nell'esempio seguente viene descritto l'utilizzo del controllo DirectorySearcher con multithreading in un form.

Option Explicit
Option Strict

Imports Microsoft.Samples.DirectorySearcher
Imports System
Imports System.Drawing
Imports System.Collections
Imports System.ComponentModel
Imports System.Windows.Forms
Imports System.Data

Namespace SampleUsage

   ' <summary>
   '      Summary description for Form1.
   ' </summary>
   Public Class Form1
      Inherits System.Windows.Forms.Form
      Private WithEvents directorySearcher As DirectorySearcher
      Private searchText As System.Windows.Forms.TextBox
      Private searchLabel As System.Windows.Forms.Label
      Private WithEvents searchButton As System.Windows.Forms.Button
      
      Public Sub New()
         '
         ' Required for Windows Forms designer support.
         '
         InitializeComponent()
         '
         ' Add any constructor code after InitializeComponent call here.
         '
      End Sub

      #Region "Windows Form Designer generated code"
      ' <summary>
      '      Required method for designer support. Do not modify
      '      the contents of this method with the code editor.
      ' </summary>
      Private Sub InitializeComponent()
         Me.directorySearcher = New Microsoft.Samples.DirectorySearcher.DirectorySearcher()
         Me.searchButton = New System.Windows.Forms.Button()
         Me.searchText = New System.Windows.Forms.TextBox()
         Me.searchLabel = New System.Windows.Forms.Label()
         Me.directorySearcher.Anchor = System.Windows.Forms.AnchorStyles.Top Or System.Windows.Forms.AnchorStyles.Bottom Or System.Windows.Forms.AnchorStyles.Left Or System.Windows.Forms.AnchorStyles.Right
         Me.directorySearcher.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(8, 72)
         Me.directorySearcher.SearchCriteria = Nothing
         Me.directorySearcher.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(271, 173)
         Me.directorySearcher.TabIndex = 2
         Me.searchButton.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(8, 16)
         Me.searchButton.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(88, 40)
         Me.searchButton.TabIndex = 0
         Me.searchButton.Text = "&Search"
         Me.searchText.Anchor = System.Windows.Forms.AnchorStyles.Top Or System.Windows.Forms.AnchorStyles.Left Or System.Windows.Forms.AnchorStyles.Right
         Me.searchText.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(104, 24)
         Me.searchText.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(175, 20)
         Me.searchText.TabIndex = 1
         Me.searchText.Text = "c:\*.cs"
         Me.searchLabel.ForeColor = System.Drawing.Color.Red
         Me.searchLabel.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(104, 48)
         Me.searchLabel.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(176, 16)
         Me.searchLabel.TabIndex = 3
         Me.AutoScaleBaseSize = New System.Drawing.Size(5, 13)
         Me.ClientSize = New System.Drawing.Size(291, 264)
         Me.Controls.AddRange(New System.Windows.Forms.Control() {Me.searchLabel, Me.directorySearcher, Me.searchText, Me.searchButton})
         Me.Text = "Search Directories"
      End Sub
      #End Region
       
      ' <summary>
      '    The main entry point for the application.
      ' </summary>
      <STAThread()> _
      Shared Sub Main()
         Application.Run(New Form1())
      End Sub
      
      Private Sub searchButton_Click(sender As Object, e As System.EventArgs) Handles searchButton.Click
         directorySearcher.SearchCriteria = searchText.Text
         searchLabel.Text = "Searching..."
         directorySearcher.BeginSearch()
      End Sub
      
      
      Private Sub directorySearcher_SearchComplete(sender As Object, e As System.EventArgs) Handles directorySearcher.SearchComplete
         searchLabel.Text = String.Empty
      End Sub
   End Class
End Namespace
[C#]
namespace SampleUsage
{
   using Microsoft.Samples.DirectorySearcher;
   using System;
   using System.Drawing;
   using System.Collections;
   using System.ComponentModel;
   using System.Windows.Forms;
   using System.Data;

   /// <summary>
   ///      Summary description for Form1.
   /// </summary>
   public class Form1 : System.Windows.Forms.Form
   {
      private DirectorySearcher directorySearcher;
      private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox searchText;
      private System.Windows.Forms.Label searchLabel;
      private System.Windows.Forms.Button searchButton;

      public Form1()
      {
         //
         // Required for Windows Forms designer support.
         //
         InitializeComponent();

         //
         // Add any constructor code after InitializeComponent call here.
         //
      }

      #region Windows Form Designer generated code
      /// <summary>
      ///      Required method for designer support. Do not modify
      ///      the contents of this method with the code editor.
      /// </summary>
      private void InitializeComponent()
      {
         this.directorySearcher = new Microsoft.Samples.DirectorySearcher.DirectorySearcher();
         this.searchButton = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
         this.searchText = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox();
         this.searchLabel = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
         this.directorySearcher.Anchor = (((System.Windows.Forms.AnchorStyles.Top | System.Windows.Forms.AnchorStyles.Bottom) 
            | System.Windows.Forms.AnchorStyles.Left) 
            | System.Windows.Forms.AnchorStyles.Right);
         this.directorySearcher.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(8, 72);
         this.directorySearcher.SearchCriteria = null;
         this.directorySearcher.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(271, 173);
         this.directorySearcher.TabIndex = 2;
         this.directorySearcher.SearchComplete += new System.EventHandler(this.directorySearcher_SearchComplete);
         this.searchButton.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(8, 16);
         this.searchButton.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(88, 40);
         this.searchButton.TabIndex = 0;
         this.searchButton.Text = "&Search";
         this.searchButton.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.searchButton_Click);
         this.searchText.Anchor = ((System.Windows.Forms.AnchorStyles.Top | System.Windows.Forms.AnchorStyles.Left) 
            | System.Windows.Forms.AnchorStyles.Right);
         this.searchText.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(104, 24);
         this.searchText.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(175, 20);
         this.searchText.TabIndex = 1;
         this.searchText.Text = "c:\\*.cs";
         this.searchLabel.ForeColor = System.Drawing.Color.Red;
         this.searchLabel.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(104, 48);
         this.searchLabel.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(176, 16);
         this.searchLabel.TabIndex = 3;
         this.AutoScaleBaseSize = new System.Drawing.Size(5, 13);
         this.ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size(291, 264);
         this.Controls.AddRange(new System.Windows.Forms.Control[] {this.searchLabel,
                                                        this.directorySearcher,
                                                        this.searchText,
                                                        this.searchButton});
         this.Text = "Search Directories";

      }
      #endregion

      /// <summary>
      ///    The main entry point for the application.
      /// </summary>
      [STAThread]
      static void Main() 
      {
         Application.Run(new Form1());
      }

      private void searchButton_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
      {
         directorySearcher.SearchCriteria = searchText.Text;
         searchLabel.Text = "Searching...";
         directorySearcher.BeginSearch();
      }

      private void directorySearcher_SearchComplete(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
      {
         searchLabel.Text = string.Empty;
      }
   }
}

Vedere anche

Sviluppo di controlli Windows Form