Creare un database a grafo ed eseguire alcune query di criteri di ricerca usando T-SQL

Si applica a:sìSQL Server 2017 (14.x)e versioni successive Sìdatabase SQL di AzureSìIstanza gestita di SQL di Azure

Questo esempio fornisce uno script per creare un database a grafo con nodi e bordi e quindi usare la nuova clausola MATCH per trovare le corrispondenze con alcuni modelli e Transact-SQL attraversare il grafico. Questo script di esempio funzionerà in database SQL di Azure e SQL Server 2017 (14.x)

Schema di esempio

Questo esempio crea uno schema del grafo, come illustrato nella figura 1, per un'ipotetica social network con nodi People, Restaurant e City. Questi nodi sono connessi tra loro usando i bordi Friends, Likes, LivesIn e LocatedIn.

Diagramma che mostra uno schema di esempio con bordi restaurant, city, person e LivesIn, LocatedIn, Likes.

Figura 1: Schema di esempio con bordi restaurant, city, person e LivesIn, LocatedIn, Likes.

Script di esempio

-- Create a graph demo database
IF NOT EXISTS (SELECT * FROM sys.databases WHERE NAME = 'graphdemo')
    CREATE DATABASE GraphDemo;
GO

USE GraphDemo;
GO

-- Create NODE tables
CREATE TABLE Person (
  ID INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
  name VARCHAR(100)
) AS NODE;

CREATE TABLE Restaurant (
  ID INTEGER NOT NULL,
  name VARCHAR(100),
  city VARCHAR(100)
) AS NODE;

CREATE TABLE City (
  ID INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
  name VARCHAR(100),
  stateName VARCHAR(100)
) AS NODE;

-- Create EDGE tables.
CREATE TABLE likes (rating INTEGER) AS EDGE;
CREATE TABLE friendOf AS EDGE;
CREATE TABLE livesIn AS EDGE;
CREATE TABLE locatedIn AS EDGE;

-- Insert data into node tables. Inserting into a node table is same as inserting into a regular table
INSERT INTO Person (Id, name)
    VALUES (1, 'John')
         , (2, 'Mary')
         , (3, 'Alice')
         , (4, 'Jacob')
         , (5, 'Julie');

INSERT INTO Restaurant (Id, name, city)
    VALUES (1, 'Taco Dell','Bellevue')
         , (2, 'Ginger and Spice','Seattle')
         , (3, 'Noodle Land', 'Redmond');

INSERT INTO City (Id, name, stateName)
    VALUES (1,'Bellevue','wa')
         , (2,'Seattle','wa')
         , (3,'Redmond','wa');

-- Insert into edge table. While inserting into an edge table,
-- you need to provide the $node_id from $from_id and $to_id columns.
/* Insert which restaurants each person likes */
INSERT INTO likes
    VALUES ((SELECT $node_id FROM Person WHERE ID = 1), (SELECT $node_id FROM Restaurant WHERE ID = 1), 9)
         , ((SELECT $node_id FROM Person WHERE ID = 2), (SELECT $node_id FROM Restaurant WHERE ID = 2), 9)
         , ((SELECT $node_id FROM Person WHERE ID = 3), (SELECT $node_id FROM Restaurant WHERE ID = 3), 9)
         , ((SELECT $node_id FROM Person WHERE ID = 4), (SELECT $node_id FROM Restaurant WHERE ID = 3), 9)
         , ((SELECT $node_id FROM Person WHERE ID = 5), (SELECT $node_id FROM Restaurant WHERE ID = 3), 9);

/* Associate in which city live each person*/
INSERT INTO livesIn
    VALUES ((SELECT $node_id FROM Person WHERE ID = 1), (SELECT $node_id FROM City WHERE ID = 1))
         , ((SELECT $node_id FROM Person WHERE ID = 2), (SELECT $node_id FROM City WHERE ID = 2))
         , ((SELECT $node_id FROM Person WHERE ID = 3), (SELECT $node_id FROM City WHERE ID = 3))
         , ((SELECT $node_id FROM Person WHERE ID = 4), (SELECT $node_id FROM City WHERE ID = 3))
         , ((SELECT $node_id FROM Person WHERE ID = 5), (SELECT $node_id FROM City WHERE ID = 1));

/* Insert data where the restaurants are located */
INSERT INTO locatedIn
    VALUES ((SELECT $node_id FROM Restaurant WHERE ID = 1), (SELECT $node_id FROM City WHERE ID =1))
         , ((SELECT $node_id FROM Restaurant WHERE ID = 2), (SELECT $node_id FROM City WHERE ID =2))
         , ((SELECT $node_id FROM Restaurant WHERE ID = 3), (SELECT $node_id FROM City WHERE ID =3));

/* Insert data into the friendOf edge */
INSERT INTO friendOf
    VALUES ((SELECT $NODE_ID FROM Person WHERE ID = 1), (SELECT $NODE_ID FROM Person WHERE ID = 2))
         , ((SELECT $NODE_ID FROM Person WHERE ID = 2), (SELECT $NODE_ID FROM Person WHERE ID = 3))
         , ((SELECT $NODE_ID FROM Person WHERE ID = 3), (SELECT $NODE_ID FROM Person WHERE ID = 1))
         , ((SELECT $NODE_ID FROM Person WHERE ID = 4), (SELECT $NODE_ID FROM Person WHERE ID = 2))
         , ((SELECT $NODE_ID FROM Person WHERE ID = 5), (SELECT $NODE_ID FROM Person WHERE ID = 4));


-- Find Restaurants that John likes
SELECT Restaurant.name
FROM Person, likes, Restaurant
WHERE MATCH (Person-(likes)->Restaurant)
AND Person.name = 'John';

-- Find Restaurants that John's friends like
SELECT Restaurant.name
FROM Person person1, Person person2, likes, friendOf, Restaurant
WHERE MATCH(person1-(friendOf)->person2-(likes)->Restaurant)
AND person1.name='John';

-- Find people who like a restaurant in the same city they live in
SELECT Person.name
FROM Person, likes, Restaurant, livesIn, City, locatedIn
WHERE MATCH (Person-(likes)->Restaurant-(locatedIn)->City AND Person-(livesIn)->City);

-- Find friends-of-friends-of-friends, excluding those cases where the relationship "loops back".
-- For example, Alice is a friend of John; John is a friend of Mary; and Mary in turn is a friend of Alice.
-- This causes a "loop" back to Alice. In many cases, it is necessary to explicitly check for such loops and exclude the results.
SELECT CONCAT(Person.name, '->', Person2.name, '->', Person3.name, '->', Person4.name)
FROM Person, friendOf, Person as Person2, friendOf as friendOffriend, Person as Person3, friendOf as friendOffriendOfFriend, Person as Person4
WHERE MATCH (Person-(friendOf)->Person2-(friendOffriend)->Person3-(friendOffriendOfFriend)->Person4)
AND Person2.name != Person.name
AND Person3.name != Person2.name
AND Person4.name != Person3.name
AND Person.name != Person4.name;

Eseguire la pulizia

Pulire lo schema e il database creati per l'esempio.

USE graphdemo;
go

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS likes;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS Person;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS Restaurant;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS City;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS friendOf;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS livesIn;
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS locatedIn;

USE master;
go
DROP DATABASE graphdemo;
go

Spiegazione dello script

Questo script usa la nuova sintassi T-SQL per creare tabelle nodi e bordi. Illustra come inserire dati nelle tabelle nodi e bordi usando l'istruzione e come usare la clausola per i criteri di ricerca e INSERT MATCH la navigazione.

Comando Note
CREATE TABLE (Transact-SQL) Creare un nodo del grafo o una tabella perimetrale
INSERT (Transact-SQL) Inserire in un nodo o in una tabella perimetrale
MATCH (Transact-SQL) Usare MATCH per trovare una corrispondenza con un criterio o attraversare il grafico