Parole chiave riservate (Transact-SQL)Reserved Keywords (Transact-SQL)

QUESTO ARGOMENTO SI APPLICA A: sìSQL Server (a partire dalla versione 2008) sìDatabase SQL di AzuresìAzure SQL Data Warehouse sìParallel Data Warehouse THIS TOPIC APPLIES TO: yesSQL Server (starting with 2008)yesAzure SQL DatabaseyesAzure SQL Data Warehouse yesParallel Data Warehouse

MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server utilizza parole chiave riservate per la definizione, la modifica e l'accesso ai database. SQL ServerSQL Server uses reserved keywords for defining, manipulating, and accessing databases. Le parole chiave riservate fanno parte della grammatica del linguaggio Transact-SQLTransact-SQL utilizzata da SQL ServerSQL Server per analizzare e interpretare istruzioni e batch Transact-SQLTransact-SQL.Reserved keywords are part of the grammar of the Transact-SQLTransact-SQL language that is used by SQL ServerSQL Server to parse and understand Transact-SQLTransact-SQL statements and batches. Nonostante da un punto di vista sintattico sia possibile utilizzare le parole chiave riservate di SQL ServerSQL Server come identificatori e nomi di oggetto all'interno di script Transact-SQLTransact-SQL, in tal caso è necessario utilizzare identificatori delimitati.Although it is syntactically possible to use SQL ServerSQL Server reserved keywords as identifiers and object names in Transact-SQLTransact-SQL scripts, you can do this only by using delimited identifiers.

Nella tabella seguente vengono elencate le parole chiave riservate di SQL ServerSQL Server.The following table lists SQL ServerSQL Server reserved keywords.

ADDADD EXTERNALEXTERNAL PROCEDUREPROCEDURE
ALLALL FETCHFETCH PUBLICPUBLIC
ALTERALTER FILEFILE RAISERRORRAISERROR
ANDAND FILLFACTORFILLFACTOR READREAD
ANYANY FORFOR READTEXTREADTEXT
ASAS FOREIGNFOREIGN RECONFIGURERECONFIGURE
ASCASC FREETEXTFREETEXT REFERENCESREFERENCES
AUTHORIZATIONAUTHORIZATION FREETEXTTABLEFREETEXTTABLE REPLICATIONREPLICATION
BACKUPBACKUP FROMFROM RESTORERESTORE
BEGINBEGIN FULLFULL RESTRICTRESTRICT
BETWEENBETWEEN FUNCTIONFUNCTION RETURNRETURN
BREAKBREAK GOTOGOTO REVERTREVERT
BROWSEBROWSE GRANTGRANT REVOKEREVOKE
BULKBULK GROUPGROUP RIGHTRIGHT
BYBY HAVINGHAVING ROLLBACKROLLBACK
CASCADECASCADE HOLDLOCKHOLDLOCK ROWCOUNTROWCOUNT
CASECASE IDENTITYIDENTITY ROWGUIDCOLROWGUIDCOL
CHECKCHECK IDENTITY_INSERTIDENTITY_INSERT RULERULE
CHECKPOINTCHECKPOINT IDENTITYCOLIDENTITYCOL SAVESAVE
CLOSECLOSE IFIF SCHEMASCHEMA
CLUSTEREDCLUSTERED ININ SECURITYAUDITSECURITYAUDIT
COALESCECOALESCE INDEXINDEX SELECTSELECT
COLLATECOLLATE INNERINNER SEMANTICKEYPHRASETABLESEMANTICKEYPHRASETABLE
COLUMNCOLUMN INSERTINSERT SEMANTICSIMILARITYDETAILSTABLESEMANTICSIMILARITYDETAILSTABLE
COMMITCOMMIT INTERSECTINTERSECT SEMANTICSIMILARITYTABLESEMANTICSIMILARITYTABLE
COMPUTECOMPUTE INTOINTO SESSION_USERSESSION_USER
CONSTRAINTCONSTRAINT ISIS SETSET
CONTAINSCONTAINS JOINJOIN SETUSERSETUSER
CONTAINSTABLECONTAINSTABLE KEYKEY SHUTDOWNSHUTDOWN
CONTINUECONTINUE KILLKILL SOMESOME
CONVERTCONVERT LEFTLEFT STATISTICSSTATISTICS
CREATECREATE LIKELIKE SYSTEM_USERSYSTEM_USER
CROSSCROSS LINENOLINENO TABLETABLE
CURRENTCURRENT LOADLOAD TABLESAMPLETABLESAMPLE
CURRENT_DATECURRENT_DATE MERGEMERGE TEXTSIZETEXTSIZE
CURRENT_TIMECURRENT_TIME NATIONALNATIONAL THENTHEN
CURRENT_TIMESTAMPCURRENT_TIMESTAMP NOCHECKNOCHECK TOTO
CURRENT_USERCURRENT_USER NONCLUSTEREDNONCLUSTERED Torna all'inizioTOP
CURSORCURSOR NOTNOT TRANTRAN
DATABASEDATABASE NULLNULL TRANSACTIONTRANSACTION
DBCCDBCC NULLIFNULLIF TRIGGERTRIGGER
DEALLOCATEDEALLOCATE OFOF TRUNCATETRUNCATE
DECLAREDECLARE OFFOFF TRY_CONVERTTRY_CONVERT
DEFAULTDEFAULT OFFSETSOFFSETS TSEQUALTSEQUAL
EliminaDELETE ONON UNIONUNION
DENYDENY OPENOPEN UNIQUEUNIQUE
DESCDESC OPENDATASOURCEOPENDATASOURCE UNPIVOTUNPIVOT
DISKDISK OPENQUERYOPENQUERY UPDATEUPDATE
DISTINCTDISTINCT OPENROWSETOPENROWSET UPDATETEXTUPDATETEXT
DISTRIBUTEDDISTRIBUTED OPENXMLOPENXML USEUSE
DOUBLEDOUBLE OPTIONOPTION UtenteUSER
DROPDROP oOR VALUESVALUES
DUMPDUMP ORDERORDER VARYINGVARYING
ELSEELSE OUTEROUTER VIEWVIEW
ENDEND OVEROVER WAITFORWAITFOR
ERRLVLERRLVL PERCENTPERCENT WHENWHEN
ESCAPEESCAPE PIVOTPIVOT WHEREWHERE
EXCEPTEXCEPT PLANPLAN WHILEWHILE
EXECEXEC PRECISIONPRECISION conWITH
EXECUTEEXECUTE PRIMARYPRIMARY WITHIN GROUPWITHIN GROUP
EXISTSEXISTS PRINTPRINT WRITETEXTWRITETEXT
EXITEXIT PROCPROC

Lo standard ISO definisce inoltre un elenco di parole chiave riservate.Additionally, the ISO standard defines a list of reserved keywords. Non utilizzare le parole chiave riservate di ISO per i nomi di oggetto e gli identificatori.Avoid using ISO reserved keywords for object names and identifiers. Le parole chiave riservate di ODBC, elencate nella tabella seguente, corrispondono a quelle di ISO.The ODBC reserved keyword list, shown in the following table, is the same as the ISO reserved keyword list.

Nota

L'elenco delle parole chiave riservate degli standard ISO può essere più o meno restrittivo rispetto a quello di SQL ServerSQL Server.The ISO standards reserved keywords list sometimes can be more restrictive than SQL ServerSQL Server and at other times less restrictive. Ad esempio, l'elenco di parole chiave riservate ISO contiene INT.For example, the ISO reserved keywords list contains INT. In SQL ServerSQL Server tale valore non deve essere distinto come parola chiave riservata. SQL ServerSQL Server does not have to distinguish this as a reserved keyword.

È possibile utilizzare le parole chiave riservate Transact-SQLTransact-SQL come identificatori o nomi di database o di oggetti di database, ad esempio tabelle, colonne, viste e così via. Transact-SQLTransact-SQL reserved keywords can be used as identifiers or names of databases or database objects, such as tables, columns, views, and so on. A tale scopo, utilizzare identificatori tra virgolette o delimitati.Use either quoted identifiers or delimited identifiers. È inoltre possibile utilizzare le parole chiave riservate come nomi di variabili e parametri di stored procedure.Using reserved keywords as the names of variables and stored procedure parameters is not restricted.

Parole chiave riservate di ODBCODBC Reserved Keywords

Le parole elencate di seguito sono riservate per l'utilizzo in chiamate di funzioni di ODBC.The following words are reserved for use in ODBC function calls. Queste parole non limitano la grammatica SQL minima. Tuttavia, per garantire la compatibilità con driver che supportano la grammatica SQL di base, è consigliabile evitare l'utilizzo di queste parole riservate nelle applicazioni.These words do not constrain the minimum SQL grammar; however, to ensure compatibility with drivers that support the core SQL grammar, applications should avoid using these keywords.

Di seguito è riportato l'elenco corrente delle parole chiave riservate di ODBC.This is the current list of ODBC reserved keywords.

ABSOLUTEABSOLUTE EXECEXEC OVERLAPSOVERLAPS
ACTIONACTION EXECUTEEXECUTE PADPAD
ADAADA EXISTSEXISTS PARTIALPARTIAL
ADDADD EXTERNALEXTERNAL PASCALPASCAL
ALLALL EXTRACTEXTRACT POSITIONPOSITION
ALLOCATEALLOCATE FALSEFALSE PRECISIONPRECISION
ALTERALTER FETCHFETCH PREPAREPREPARE
ANDAND FIRSTFIRST PRESERVEPRESERVE
ANYANY FLOATFLOAT PRIMARYPRIMARY
AREARE FORFOR PRIORPRIOR
Analysis ServicesAS FOREIGNFOREIGN PRIVILEGESPRIVILEGES
ASCASC FORTRANFORTRAN PROCEDUREPROCEDURE
ASSERTIONASSERTION FOUNDFOUND PUBLICPUBLIC
ATAT FROMFROM READREAD
AUTHORIZATIONAUTHORIZATION FULLFULL REALREAL
AVGAVG GETGET REFERENCESREFERENCES
BEGINBEGIN GLOBALGLOBAL RELATIVERELATIVE
BETWEENBETWEEN GOGO RESTRICTRESTRICT
BITBIT GOTOGOTO REVOKEREVOKE
BIT_LENGTHBIT_LENGTH GRANTGRANT RIGHTRIGHT
BOTHBOTH GROUPGROUP ROLLBACKROLLBACK
BYBY HAVINGHAVING ROWSROWS
CASCADECASCADE HOURHOUR SCHEMASCHEMA
CASCADEDCASCADED IDENTITYIDENTITY SCROLLSCROLL
CASECASE IMMEDIATEIMMEDIATE SECONDSECOND
CASTCAST ININ SECTIONSECTION
CATALOGCATALOG INCLUDEINCLUDE SELECTSELECT
CHARCHAR INDEXINDEX SESSIONSESSION
CHAR_LENGTHCHAR_LENGTH INDICATORINDICATOR SESSION_USERSESSION_USER
CHARACTERCHARACTER INITIALLYINITIALLY SETSET
CHARACTER_LENGTHCHARACTER_LENGTH INNERINNER SIZESIZE
CHECKCHECK INPUTINPUT SMALLINTSMALLINT
CLOSECLOSE INSENSITIVEINSENSITIVE SOMESOME
COALESCECOALESCE INSERTINSERT SPACESPACE
COLLATECOLLATE INTINT SQLSQL
COLLATIONCOLLATION INTEGERINTEGER SQLCASQLCA
COLUMNCOLUMN INTERSECTINTERSECT SQLCODESQLCODE
COMMITCOMMIT INTERVALINTERVAL SQLERRORSQLERROR
CONNECTCONNECT INTOINTO SQLSTATESQLSTATE
CONNECTIONCONNECTION ISIS SQLWARNINGSQLWARNING
CONSTRAINTCONSTRAINT ISOLATIONISOLATION SUBSTRINGSUBSTRING
CONSTRAINTSCONSTRAINTS JOINJOIN SUMSUM
CONTINUECONTINUE KEYKEY SYSTEM_USERSYSTEM_USER
CONVERTCONVERT LANGUAGELANGUAGE TABLETABLE
CORRESPONDINGCORRESPONDING LASTLAST TEMPORARYTEMPORARY
COUNTCOUNT LEADINGLEADING THENTHEN
CREATECREATE LEFTLEFT TIMETIME
CROSSCROSS LEVELLEVEL TIMESTAMPTIMESTAMP
CURRENTCURRENT LIKELIKE TIMEZONE_HOURTIMEZONE_HOUR
CURRENT_DATECURRENT_DATE LOCALLOCAL TIMEZONE_MINUTETIMEZONE_MINUTE
CURRENT_TIMECURRENT_TIME LOWERLOWER TOTO
CURRENT_TIMESTAMPCURRENT_TIMESTAMP MATCHMATCH TRAILINGTRAILING
CURRENT_USERCURRENT_USER MAXMAX TRANSACTIONTRANSACTION
CURSORCURSOR MINMIN TRANSLATETRANSLATE
DATEDATE MINUTEMINUTE TRANSLATIONTRANSLATION
DAYDAY MODULEMODULE TRIMTRIM
DEALLOCATEDEALLOCATE MONTHMONTH TRUETRUE
DECDEC NAMESNAMES UNIONUNION
DECIMALDECIMAL NATIONALNATIONAL UNIQUEUNIQUE
DECLAREDECLARE NATURALNATURAL UNKNOWNUNKNOWN
DEFAULTDEFAULT NCHARNCHAR UPDATEUPDATE
DEFERRABLEDEFERRABLE NEXTNEXT UPPERUPPER
DEFERREDDEFERRED NONO USAGEUSAGE
DELETEDELETE NONENONE USERUSER
DESCDESC NOTNOT USINGUSING
DESCRIBEDESCRIBE NULLNULL VALUEVALUE
DESCRIPTORDESCRIPTOR NULLIFNULLIF VALUESVALUES
DIAGNOSTICSDIAGNOSTICS NUMERICNUMERIC VARCHARVARCHAR
DISCONNECTDISCONNECT OCTET_LENGTHOCTET_LENGTH VARYINGVARYING
DISTINCTDISTINCT OFOF VIEWVIEW
DOMAINDOMAIN ONON WHENWHEN
DOUBLEDOUBLE ONLYONLY WHENEVERWHENEVER
DROPDROP OPENOPEN WHEREWHERE
ELSEELSE OPTIONOPTION WITHWITH
ENDEND OROR WORKWORK
END-EXECEND-EXEC ORDERORDER WRITEWRITE
ESCAPEESCAPE OUTEROUTER YEARYEAR
EXCEPTEXCEPT OUTPUTOUTPUT ZONEZONE
EXCEPTIONEXCEPTION

Parole chiave di versioni futureFuture Keywords

Nelle versioni future di SQL ServerSQL Server le parole chiave elencate di seguito potrebbero diventare riservate in seguito all'implementazione di nuove funzionalità.The following keywords could be reserved in future releases of SQL ServerSQL Server as new features are implemented. È consigliabile evitare l'utilizzo di queste parole come identificatori.Consider avoiding the use of these words as identifiers.

ABSOLUTEABSOLUTE HOSTHOST RELATIVERELATIVE
ACTIONACTION HOURHOUR RELEASERELEASE
ADMINADMIN IGNOREIGNORE RESULTRESULT
AFTERAFTER IMMEDIATEIMMEDIATE RETURNSRETURNS
AGGREGATEAGGREGATE INDICATORINDICATOR ROLEROLE
ALIASALIAS INITIALIZEINITIALIZE ROLLUPROLLUP
ALLOCATEALLOCATE INITIALLYINITIALLY ROUTINEROUTINE
AREARE INOUTINOUT ROWROW
ARRAYARRAY INPUTINPUT ROWSROWS
ASENSITIVEASENSITIVE INTINT SAVEPOINTSAVEPOINT
ASSERTIONASSERTION INTEGERINTEGER SCROLLSCROLL
ASYMMETRICASYMMETRIC INTERSECTIONINTERSECTION SCOPESCOPE
ATAT INTERVALINTERVAL SEARCHSEARCH
ATOMICATOMIC ISOLATIONISOLATION SECONDSECOND
BEFOREBEFORE ITERATEITERATE SECTIONSECTION
BINARYBINARY LANGUAGELANGUAGE SENSITIVESENSITIVE
BITBIT LARGELARGE SEQUENCESEQUENCE
BLOBBLOB LASTLAST SESSIONSESSION
BOOLEANBOOLEAN LATERALLATERAL SETSSETS
BOTHBOTH LEADINGLEADING SIMILARSIMILAR
BREADTHBREADTH LESSLESS SIZESIZE
CALLCALL LEVELLEVEL SMALLINTSMALLINT
CALLEDCALLED LIKE_REGEXLIKE_REGEX SPACESPACE
CARDINALITYCARDINALITY LIMITLIMIT SPECIFICSPECIFIC
CASCADEDCASCADED LNLN SPECIFICTYPESPECIFICTYPE
CASTCAST LOCALLOCAL SQLSQL
CATALOGCATALOG LOCALTIMELOCALTIME SQLEXCEPTIONSQLEXCEPTION
CHARCHAR LOCALTIMESTAMPLOCALTIMESTAMP SQLSTATESQLSTATE
CHARACTERCHARACTER LOCATORLOCATOR SQLWARNINGSQLWARNING
CLASSCLASS MAPMAP STARTSTART
CLOBCLOB MATCHMATCH STATESTATE
COLLATIONCOLLATION MEMBERMEMBER STATEMENTSTATEMENT
COLLECTCOLLECT METHODMETHOD STATICSTATIC
COMPLETIONCOMPLETION MINUTEMINUTE STDDEV_POPSTDDEV_POP
CONDITIONCONDITION MODMOD STDDEV_SAMPSTDDEV_SAMP
CONNECTCONNECT MODIFIESMODIFIES STRUCTURESTRUCTURE
CONNECTIONCONNECTION MODIFYMODIFY SUBMULTISETSUBMULTISET
CONSTRAINTSCONSTRAINTS MODULEMODULE SUBSTRING_REGEXSUBSTRING_REGEX
CONSTRUCTORCONSTRUCTOR MONTHMONTH SYMMETRICSYMMETRIC
CORRCORR MULTISETMULTISET SYSTEMSYSTEM
CORRESPONDINGCORRESPONDING NAMESNAMES TEMPORARYTEMPORARY
COVAR_POPCOVAR_POP NATURALNATURAL TERMINATETERMINATE
COVAR_SAMPCOVAR_SAMP NCHARNCHAR THANTHAN
CUBECUBE NCLOBNCLOB TIMETIME
CUME_DISTCUME_DIST NEWNEW timestampTIMESTAMP
CURRENT_CATALOGCURRENT_CATALOG NEXTNEXT TIMEZONE_HOURTIMEZONE_HOUR
CURRENT_DEFAULT_TRANSFORM_GROUPCURRENT_DEFAULT_TRANSFORM_GROUP NoNO TIMEZONE_MINUTETIMEZONE_MINUTE
CURRENT_PATHCURRENT_PATH NessunoNONE TRAILINGTRAILING
CURRENT_ROLECURRENT_ROLE NORMALIZENORMALIZE TRANSLATE_REGEXTRANSLATE_REGEX
CURRENT_SCHEMACURRENT_SCHEMA NUMERICNUMERIC TRANSLATIONTRANSLATION
CURRENT_TRANSFORM_GROUP_FOR_TYPECURRENT_TRANSFORM_GROUP_FOR_TYPE OBJECTOBJECT TREATTREAT
CYCLECYCLE OCCURRENCES_REGEXOCCURRENCES_REGEX TRUETRUE
DATADATA OLDOLD UESCAPEUESCAPE
DATEDATE ONLYONLY UNDERUNDER
DAYDAY OPERATIONOPERATION UNKNOWNUNKNOWN
DECDEC ORDINALITYORDINALITY UNNESTUNNEST
DECIMALDECIMAL OUTOUT USAGEUSAGE
DEFERRABLEDEFERRABLE OVERLAYOVERLAY USINGUSING
DEFERREDDEFERRED OUTPUTOUTPUT ValueVALUE
DEPTHDEPTH PADPAD VAR_POPVAR_POP
DEREFDEREF ParametroPARAMETER VAR_SAMPVAR_SAMP
DESCRIBEDESCRIBE PARAMETERSPARAMETERS VARCHARVARCHAR
DESCRIPTORDESCRIPTOR PARTIALPARTIAL VARIABLEVARIABLE
DESTROYDESTROY PARTITIONPARTITION WHENEVERWHENEVER
DESTRUCTORDESTRUCTOR PATHPATH WIDTH_BUCKETWIDTH_BUCKET
DETERMINISTICDETERMINISTIC POSTFIXPOSTFIX WITHOUTWITHOUT
DICTIONARYDICTIONARY PREFIXPREFIX WINDOWWINDOW
DIAGNOSTICSDIAGNOSTICS PREORDERPREORDER WITHINWITHIN
DISCONNECTDISCONNECT PREPAREPREPARE WORKWORK
DOMAINDOMAIN PERCENT_RANKPERCENT_RANK WRITEWRITE
DYNAMICDYNAMIC PERCENTILE_CONTPERCENTILE_CONT XMLAGGXMLAGG
EACHEACH PERCENTILE_DISCPERCENTILE_DISC XMLATTRIBUTESXMLATTRIBUTES
ELEMENTELEMENT POSITION_REGEXPOSITION_REGEX XMLBINARYXMLBINARY
END-EXECEND-EXEC PRESERVEPRESERVE XMLCASTXMLCAST
EQUALSEQUALS PRIORPRIOR XMLCOMMENTXMLCOMMENT
EVERYEVERY PRIVILEGESPRIVILEGES XMLCONCATXMLCONCAT
EXCEPTIONEXCEPTION RANGERANGE XMLDOCUMENTXMLDOCUMENT
FALSEFALSE READSREADS XMLELEMENTXMLELEMENT
FILTERFILTER realREAL XMLEXISTSXMLEXISTS
FIRSTFIRST RECURSIVERECURSIVE XMLFORESTXMLFOREST
FLOATFLOAT REFREF XMLITERATEXMLITERATE
FOUNDFOUND REFERENCINGREFERENCING XMLNAMESPACESXMLNAMESPACES
FREEFREE REGR_AVGXREGR_AVGX XMLPARSEXMLPARSE
FULLTEXTTABLEFULLTEXTTABLE REGR_AVGYREGR_AVGY XMLPIXMLPI
FUSIONFUSION REGR_COUNTREGR_COUNT XMLQUERYXMLQUERY
GENERALGENERAL REGR_INTERCEPTREGR_INTERCEPT XMLSERIALIZEXMLSERIALIZE
GETGET REGR_R2REGR_R2 XMLTABLEXMLTABLE
GLOBALGLOBAL REGR_SLOPEREGR_SLOPE XMLTEXTXMLTEXT
GOGO REGR_SXXREGR_SXX XMLVALIDATEXMLVALIDATE
GROUPINGGROUPING REGR_SXYREGR_SXY YEARYEAR
HOLDHOLD REGR_SYYREGR_SYY ZONEZONE

Vedere ancheSee Also

SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER (Transact-SQL) SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER (Transact-SQL)
Livello di compatibilità ALTER DATABASE (Transact-SQL)ALTER DATABASE Compatibility Level (Transact-SQL)