BackgroundWorker クラス

定義

別個のスレッドに対する操作を実行します。

public ref class BackgroundWorker : IDisposable
public ref class BackgroundWorker : System::ComponentModel::Component
public class BackgroundWorker : IDisposable
public class BackgroundWorker : System.ComponentModel.Component
type BackgroundWorker = class
    interface IDisposable
type BackgroundWorker = class
    inherit Component
Public Class BackgroundWorker
Implements IDisposable
Public Class BackgroundWorker
Inherits Component
継承
BackgroundWorker
継承
実装

次のコード例は、時間のかかる操作を非同期的に実行するクラスの BackgroundWorker 基本を示しています。 次の図は、出力の例を示しています。

BackgroundWorker の簡単な例

このコードを試してみるには、Windows フォーム アプリケーションを作成します。 という名前の Label コントロールを追加 resultLabel し、 と という名前の Button 2 つのコントロールを startAsyncButton 追加します cancelAsyncButton 。 両方 Click のボタンのイベント ハンドラーを作成します。 ツールボックスの [コンポーネント] タブで、 という名前のコンポーネント BackgroundWorker を追加します backgroundWorker1 。 の DoWork ProgressChanged 、、および RunWorkerCompleted イベント ハンドラーを作成します BackgroundWorker 。 フォームのコードで、既存のコードを次のコードに置き換えます。

using System;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Windows.Forms;

namespace BackgroundWorkerSimple
{
    public partial class Form1 : Form
    {
        public Form1()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
            backgroundWorker1.WorkerReportsProgress = true;
            backgroundWorker1.WorkerSupportsCancellation = true;
        }

        private void startAsyncButton_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            if (backgroundWorker1.IsBusy != true)
            {
                // Start the asynchronous operation.
                backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync();
            }
        }

        private void cancelAsyncButton_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            if (backgroundWorker1.WorkerSupportsCancellation == true)
            {
                // Cancel the asynchronous operation.
                backgroundWorker1.CancelAsync();
            }
        }

        // This event handler is where the time-consuming work is done.
        private void backgroundWorker1_DoWork(object sender, DoWorkEventArgs e)
        {
            BackgroundWorker worker = sender as BackgroundWorker;

            for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++)
            {
                if (worker.CancellationPending == true)
                {
                    e.Cancel = true;
                    break;
                }
                else
                {
                    // Perform a time consuming operation and report progress.
                    System.Threading.Thread.Sleep(500);
                    worker.ReportProgress(i * 10);
                }
            }
        }

        // This event handler updates the progress.
        private void backgroundWorker1_ProgressChanged(object sender, ProgressChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            resultLabel.Text = (e.ProgressPercentage.ToString() + "%");
        }

        // This event handler deals with the results of the background operation.
        private void backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted(object sender, RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs e)
        {
            if (e.Cancelled == true)
            {
                resultLabel.Text = "Canceled!";
            }
            else if (e.Error != null)
            {
                resultLabel.Text = "Error: " + e.Error.Message;
            }
            else
            {
                resultLabel.Text = "Done!";
            }
        }
    }
}
Imports System.ComponentModel

Public Class Form1

    Public Sub New()
        InitializeComponent()
        backgroundWorker1.WorkerReportsProgress = True
        backgroundWorker1.WorkerSupportsCancellation = True
    End Sub

    Private Sub startAsyncButton_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, _
    ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles startAsyncButton.Click
        If backgroundWorker1.IsBusy <> True Then
            ' Start the asynchronous operation.
            backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync()
        End If
    End Sub

    Private Sub cancelAsyncButton_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, _
    ByVal e As System.EventArgs) Handles cancelAsyncButton.Click
        If backgroundWorker1.WorkerSupportsCancellation = True Then
            ' Cancel the asynchronous operation.
            backgroundWorker1.CancelAsync()
        End If
    End Sub

    ' This event handler is where the time-consuming work is done.
    Private Sub backgroundWorker1_DoWork(ByVal sender As System.Object, _
    ByVal e As DoWorkEventArgs) Handles backgroundWorker1.DoWork
        Dim worker As BackgroundWorker = CType(sender, BackgroundWorker)
        Dim i As Integer

        For i = 1 To 10
            If (worker.CancellationPending = True) Then
                e.Cancel = True
                Exit For
            Else
                ' Perform a time consuming operation and report progress.
                System.Threading.Thread.Sleep(500)
                worker.ReportProgress(i * 10)
            End If
        Next
    End Sub

    ' This event handler updates the progress.
    Private Sub backgroundWorker1_ProgressChanged(ByVal sender As System.Object, _
    ByVal e As ProgressChangedEventArgs) Handles backgroundWorker1.ProgressChanged
        resultLabel.Text = (e.ProgressPercentage.ToString() + "%")
    End Sub

    ' This event handler deals with the results of the background operation.
    Private Sub backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted(ByVal sender As System.Object, _
    ByVal e As RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs) Handles backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerCompleted
        If e.Cancelled = True Then
            resultLabel.Text = "Canceled!"
        ElseIf e.Error IsNot Nothing Then
            resultLabel.Text = "Error: " & e.Error.Message
        Else
            resultLabel.Text = "Done!"
        End If
    End Sub
End Class

次のコード例は、 クラスを使用して、時間のかかる操作を非同期的に BackgroundWorker 実行する方法を示しています。 次の図は、出力の例を示しています。

BackgroundWorker フィボナッチの例

この操作では、選択したフィボナッチ数が計算され、計算が進むにつれて進行状況の更新が報告され、保留中の計算の取り消しが許可されます。

#using <System.Drawing.dll>
#using <System.dll>
#using <System.Windows.Forms.dll>

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;
using namespace System::ComponentModel;
using namespace System::Drawing;
using namespace System::Threading;
using namespace System::Windows::Forms;

public ref class FibonacciForm: public System::Windows::Forms::Form
{
private:

   int numberToCompute;
   int highestPercentageReached;

   System::Windows::Forms::NumericUpDown^ numericUpDown1;
   System::Windows::Forms::Button^ startAsyncButton;
   System::Windows::Forms::Button^ cancelAsyncButton;
   System::Windows::Forms::ProgressBar^ progressBar1;
   System::Windows::Forms::Label ^ resultLabel;
   System::ComponentModel::BackgroundWorker^ backgroundWorker1;

public:
   FibonacciForm()
   {
      InitializeComponent();
      numberToCompute = highestPercentageReached = 0;
      InitializeBackgoundWorker();
   }


private:

   // Set up the BackgroundWorker object by 
   // attaching event handlers. 
   void InitializeBackgoundWorker()
   {
      backgroundWorker1->DoWork += gcnew DoWorkEventHandler( this, &FibonacciForm::backgroundWorker1_DoWork );
      backgroundWorker1->RunWorkerCompleted += gcnew RunWorkerCompletedEventHandler( this, &FibonacciForm::backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted );
      backgroundWorker1->ProgressChanged += gcnew ProgressChangedEventHandler( this, &FibonacciForm::backgroundWorker1_ProgressChanged );
   }

   void startAsyncButton_Click( System::Object^ /*sender*/, System::EventArgs^ /*e*/ )
   {
      
      // Reset the text in the result label.
      resultLabel->Text = String::Empty;

      // Disable the UpDown control until 
      // the asynchronous operation is done.
      this->numericUpDown1->Enabled = false;

      // Disable the Start button until 
      // the asynchronous operation is done.
      this->startAsyncButton->Enabled = false;

      // Enable the Cancel button while 
      // the asynchronous operation runs.
      this->cancelAsyncButton->Enabled = true;

      // Get the value from the UpDown control.
      numberToCompute = (int)numericUpDown1->Value;

      // Reset the variable for percentage tracking.
      highestPercentageReached = 0;

      // Start the asynchronous operation.
      backgroundWorker1->RunWorkerAsync( numberToCompute );
   }

   void cancelAsyncButton_Click( System::Object^ /*sender*/, System::EventArgs^ /*e*/ )
   {  
      // Cancel the asynchronous operation.
      this->backgroundWorker1->CancelAsync();
      
      // Disable the Cancel button.
      cancelAsyncButton->Enabled = false;
   }

   // This event handler is where the actual,
   // potentially time-consuming work is done.
   void backgroundWorker1_DoWork( Object^ sender, DoWorkEventArgs^ e )
   {
      // Get the BackgroundWorker that raised this event.
      BackgroundWorker^ worker = dynamic_cast<BackgroundWorker^>(sender);

      // Assign the result of the computation
      // to the Result property of the DoWorkEventArgs
      // object. This is will be available to the 
      // RunWorkerCompleted eventhandler.
      e->Result = ComputeFibonacci( safe_cast<Int32>(e->Argument), worker, e );
   }

   // This event handler deals with the results of the
   // background operation.
   void backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted( Object^ /*sender*/, RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs^ e )
   {
      // First, handle the case where an exception was thrown.
      if ( e->Error != nullptr )
      {
         MessageBox::Show( e->Error->Message );
      }
      else
      if ( e->Cancelled )
      {
         // Next, handle the case where the user cancelled 
         // the operation.
         // Note that due to a race condition in 
         // the DoWork event handler, the Cancelled
         // flag may not have been set, even though
         // CancelAsync was called.
         resultLabel->Text = "Cancelled";
      }
      else
      {
         // Finally, handle the case where the operation 
         // succeeded.
         resultLabel->Text = e->Result->ToString();
      }

      // Enable the UpDown control.
      this->numericUpDown1->Enabled = true;

      // Enable the Start button.
      startAsyncButton->Enabled = true;

      // Disable the Cancel button.
      cancelAsyncButton->Enabled = false;
   }

   // This event handler updates the progress bar.
   void backgroundWorker1_ProgressChanged( Object^ /*sender*/, ProgressChangedEventArgs^ e )
   {
      this->progressBar1->Value = e->ProgressPercentage;
   }

   // This is the method that does the actual work. For this
   // example, it computes a Fibonacci number and
   // reports progress as it does its work.
   long ComputeFibonacci( int n, BackgroundWorker^ worker, DoWorkEventArgs ^ e )
   {
      // The parameter n must be >= 0 and <= 91.
      // Fib(n), with n > 91, overflows a long.
      if ( (n < 0) || (n > 91) )
      {
         throw gcnew ArgumentException( "value must be >= 0 and <= 91","n" );
      }

      long result = 0;
      
      // Abort the operation if the user has cancelled.
      // Note that a call to CancelAsync may have set 
      // CancellationPending to true just after the
      // last invocation of this method exits, so this 
      // code will not have the opportunity to set the 
      // DoWorkEventArgs.Cancel flag to true. This means
      // that RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs.Cancelled will
      // not be set to true in your RunWorkerCompleted
      // event handler. This is a race condition.
      if ( worker->CancellationPending )
      {
         e->Cancel = true;
      }
      else
      {
         if ( n < 2 )
         {
            result = 1;
         }
         else
         {
            result = ComputeFibonacci( n - 1, worker, e ) + ComputeFibonacci( n - 2, worker, e );
         }

         // Report progress as a percentage of the total task.
         int percentComplete = (int)((float)n / (float)numberToCompute * 100);
         if ( percentComplete > highestPercentageReached )
         {
            highestPercentageReached = percentComplete;
            worker->ReportProgress( percentComplete );
         }
      }

      return result;
   }

   void InitializeComponent()
   {
      this->numericUpDown1 = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::NumericUpDown;
      this->startAsyncButton = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::Button;
      this->cancelAsyncButton = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::Button;
      this->resultLabel = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::Label;
      this->progressBar1 = gcnew System::Windows::Forms::ProgressBar;
      this->backgroundWorker1 = gcnew System::ComponentModel::BackgroundWorker;
      (dynamic_cast<System::ComponentModel::ISupportInitialize^>(this->numericUpDown1))->BeginInit();
      this->SuspendLayout();
      
      // 
      // numericUpDown1
      // 
      this->numericUpDown1->Location = System::Drawing::Point( 16, 16 );
      array<Int32>^temp0 = {91,0,0,0};
      this->numericUpDown1->Maximum = System::Decimal( temp0 );
      array<Int32>^temp1 = {1,0,0,0};
      this->numericUpDown1->Minimum = System::Decimal( temp1 );
      this->numericUpDown1->Name = "numericUpDown1";
      this->numericUpDown1->Size = System::Drawing::Size( 80, 20 );
      this->numericUpDown1->TabIndex = 0;
      array<Int32>^temp2 = {1,0,0,0};
      this->numericUpDown1->Value = System::Decimal( temp2 );

      // 
      // startAsyncButton
      // 
      this->startAsyncButton->Location = System::Drawing::Point( 16, 72 );
      this->startAsyncButton->Name = "startAsyncButton";
      this->startAsyncButton->Size = System::Drawing::Size( 120, 23 );
      this->startAsyncButton->TabIndex = 1;
      this->startAsyncButton->Text = "Start Async";
      this->startAsyncButton->Click += gcnew System::EventHandler( this, &FibonacciForm::startAsyncButton_Click );

      // 
      // cancelAsyncButton
      // 
      this->cancelAsyncButton->Enabled = false;
      this->cancelAsyncButton->Location = System::Drawing::Point( 153, 72 );
      this->cancelAsyncButton->Name = "cancelAsyncButton";
      this->cancelAsyncButton->Size = System::Drawing::Size( 119, 23 );
      this->cancelAsyncButton->TabIndex = 2;
      this->cancelAsyncButton->Text = "Cancel Async";
      this->cancelAsyncButton->Click += gcnew System::EventHandler( this, &FibonacciForm::cancelAsyncButton_Click );

      // 
      // resultLabel
      // 
      this->resultLabel->BorderStyle = System::Windows::Forms::BorderStyle::Fixed3D;
      this->resultLabel->Location = System::Drawing::Point( 112, 16 );
      this->resultLabel->Name = "resultLabel";
      this->resultLabel->Size = System::Drawing::Size( 160, 23 );
      this->resultLabel->TabIndex = 3;
      this->resultLabel->Text = "(no result)";
      this->resultLabel->TextAlign = System::Drawing::ContentAlignment::MiddleCenter;

      // 
      // progressBar1
      // 
      this->progressBar1->Location = System::Drawing::Point( 18, 48 );
      this->progressBar1->Name = "progressBar1";
      this->progressBar1->Size = System::Drawing::Size( 256, 8 );
      this->progressBar1->Step = 2;
      this->progressBar1->TabIndex = 4;

      // 
      // backgroundWorker1
      // 
      this->backgroundWorker1->WorkerReportsProgress = true;
      this->backgroundWorker1->WorkerSupportsCancellation = true;

      // 
      // FibonacciForm
      // 
      this->ClientSize = System::Drawing::Size( 292, 118 );
      this->Controls->Add( this->progressBar1 );
      this->Controls->Add( this->resultLabel );
      this->Controls->Add( this->cancelAsyncButton );
      this->Controls->Add( this->startAsyncButton );
      this->Controls->Add( this->numericUpDown1 );
      this->Name = "FibonacciForm";
      this->Text = "Fibonacci Calculator";
      (dynamic_cast<System::ComponentModel::ISupportInitialize^>(this->numericUpDown1))->EndInit();
      this->ResumeLayout( false );
   }
};

[STAThread]
int main()
{
   Application::Run( gcnew FibonacciForm );
}
using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Threading;
using System.Windows.Forms;

namespace BackgroundWorkerExample
{	
    public class FibonacciForm : System.Windows.Forms.Form
    {	
        private int numberToCompute = 0;
        private int highestPercentageReached = 0;

        private System.Windows.Forms.NumericUpDown numericUpDown1;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Button startAsyncButton;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Button cancelAsyncButton;
        private System.Windows.Forms.ProgressBar progressBar1;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Label resultLabel;
        private System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker backgroundWorker1;

        public FibonacciForm()
        {	
            InitializeComponent();

            InitializeBackgroundWorker();
        }

        // Set up the BackgroundWorker object by 
        // attaching event handlers. 
        private void InitializeBackgroundWorker()
        {
            backgroundWorker1.DoWork += 
                new DoWorkEventHandler(backgroundWorker1_DoWork);
            backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerCompleted += 
                new RunWorkerCompletedEventHandler(
            backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted);
            backgroundWorker1.ProgressChanged += 
                new ProgressChangedEventHandler(
            backgroundWorker1_ProgressChanged);
        }
    
        private void startAsyncButton_Click(System.Object sender, 
            System.EventArgs e)
        {
            // Reset the text in the result label.
            resultLabel.Text = String.Empty;

            // Disable the UpDown control until 
            // the asynchronous operation is done.
            this.numericUpDown1.Enabled = false;

            // Disable the Start button until 
            // the asynchronous operation is done.
            this.startAsyncButton.Enabled = false;

            // Enable the Cancel button while 
            // the asynchronous operation runs.
            this.cancelAsyncButton.Enabled = true;

            // Get the value from the UpDown control.
            numberToCompute = (int)numericUpDown1.Value;

            // Reset the variable for percentage tracking.
            highestPercentageReached = 0;

            // Start the asynchronous operation.
            backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync(numberToCompute);
        }

        private void cancelAsyncButton_Click(System.Object sender, 
            System.EventArgs e)
        {   
            // Cancel the asynchronous operation.
            this.backgroundWorker1.CancelAsync();

            // Disable the Cancel button.
            cancelAsyncButton.Enabled = false;
        }

        // This event handler is where the actual,
        // potentially time-consuming work is done.
        private void backgroundWorker1_DoWork(object sender, 
            DoWorkEventArgs e)
        {   
            // Get the BackgroundWorker that raised this event.
            BackgroundWorker worker = sender as BackgroundWorker;

            // Assign the result of the computation
            // to the Result property of the DoWorkEventArgs
            // object. This is will be available to the 
            // RunWorkerCompleted eventhandler.
            e.Result = ComputeFibonacci((int)e.Argument, worker, e);
        }

        // This event handler deals with the results of the
        // background operation.
        private void backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted(
            object sender, RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs e)
        {
            // First, handle the case where an exception was thrown.
            if (e.Error != null)
            {
                MessageBox.Show(e.Error.Message);
            }
            else if (e.Cancelled)
            {
                // Next, handle the case where the user canceled 
                // the operation.
                // Note that due to a race condition in 
                // the DoWork event handler, the Cancelled
                // flag may not have been set, even though
                // CancelAsync was called.
                resultLabel.Text = "Canceled";
            }
            else
            {
                // Finally, handle the case where the operation 
                // succeeded.
                resultLabel.Text = e.Result.ToString();
            }

            // Enable the UpDown control.
            this.numericUpDown1.Enabled = true;

            // Enable the Start button.
            startAsyncButton.Enabled = true;

            // Disable the Cancel button.
            cancelAsyncButton.Enabled = false;
        }

        // This event handler updates the progress bar.
        private void backgroundWorker1_ProgressChanged(object sender,
            ProgressChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            this.progressBar1.Value = e.ProgressPercentage;
        }

        // This is the method that does the actual work. For this
        // example, it computes a Fibonacci number and
        // reports progress as it does its work.
        long ComputeFibonacci(int n, BackgroundWorker worker, DoWorkEventArgs e)
        {
            // The parameter n must be >= 0 and <= 91.
            // Fib(n), with n > 91, overflows a long.
            if ((n < 0) || (n > 91))
            {
                throw new ArgumentException(
                    "value must be >= 0 and <= 91", "n");
            }

            long result = 0;

            // Abort the operation if the user has canceled.
            // Note that a call to CancelAsync may have set 
            // CancellationPending to true just after the
            // last invocation of this method exits, so this 
            // code will not have the opportunity to set the 
            // DoWorkEventArgs.Cancel flag to true. This means
            // that RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs.Cancelled will
            // not be set to true in your RunWorkerCompleted
            // event handler. This is a race condition.

            if (worker.CancellationPending)
            {   
                e.Cancel = true;
            }
            else
            {   
                if (n < 2)
                {   
                    result = 1;
                }
                else
                {   
                    result = ComputeFibonacci(n - 1, worker, e) + 
                             ComputeFibonacci(n - 2, worker, e);
                }

                // Report progress as a percentage of the total task.
                int percentComplete = 
                    (int)((float)n / (float)numberToCompute * 100);
                if (percentComplete > highestPercentageReached)
                {
                    highestPercentageReached = percentComplete;
                    worker.ReportProgress(percentComplete);
                }
            }

            return result;
        }

        #region Windows Form Designer generated code
        
        private void InitializeComponent()
        {
            this.numericUpDown1 = new System.Windows.Forms.NumericUpDown();
            this.startAsyncButton = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
            this.cancelAsyncButton = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
            this.resultLabel = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
            this.progressBar1 = new System.Windows.Forms.ProgressBar();
            this.backgroundWorker1 = new System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker();
            ((System.ComponentModel.ISupportInitialize)(this.numericUpDown1)).BeginInit();
            this.SuspendLayout();
            // 
            // numericUpDown1
            // 
            this.numericUpDown1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(16, 16);
            this.numericUpDown1.Maximum = new System.Decimal(new int[] {
            91,
            0,
            0,
            0});
            this.numericUpDown1.Minimum = new System.Decimal(new int[] {
            1,
            0,
            0,
            0});
            this.numericUpDown1.Name = "numericUpDown1";
            this.numericUpDown1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(80, 20);
            this.numericUpDown1.TabIndex = 0;
            this.numericUpDown1.Value = new System.Decimal(new int[] {
            1,
            0,
            0,
            0});
            // 
            // startAsyncButton
            // 
            this.startAsyncButton.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(16, 72);
            this.startAsyncButton.Name = "startAsyncButton";
            this.startAsyncButton.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(120, 23);
            this.startAsyncButton.TabIndex = 1;
            this.startAsyncButton.Text = "Start Async";
            this.startAsyncButton.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.startAsyncButton_Click);
            // 
            // cancelAsyncButton
            // 
            this.cancelAsyncButton.Enabled = false;
            this.cancelAsyncButton.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(153, 72);
            this.cancelAsyncButton.Name = "cancelAsyncButton";
            this.cancelAsyncButton.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(119, 23);
            this.cancelAsyncButton.TabIndex = 2;
            this.cancelAsyncButton.Text = "Cancel Async";
            this.cancelAsyncButton.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.cancelAsyncButton_Click);
            // 
            // resultLabel
            // 
            this.resultLabel.BorderStyle = System.Windows.Forms.BorderStyle.Fixed3D;
            this.resultLabel.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(112, 16);
            this.resultLabel.Name = "resultLabel";
            this.resultLabel.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(160, 23);
            this.resultLabel.TabIndex = 3;
            this.resultLabel.Text = "(no result)";
            this.resultLabel.TextAlign = System.Drawing.ContentAlignment.MiddleCenter;
            // 
            // progressBar1
            // 
            this.progressBar1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(18, 48);
            this.progressBar1.Name = "progressBar1";
            this.progressBar1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(256, 8);
            this.progressBar1.Step = 2;
            this.progressBar1.TabIndex = 4;
            // 
            // backgroundWorker1
            // 
            this.backgroundWorker1.WorkerReportsProgress = true;
            this.backgroundWorker1.WorkerSupportsCancellation = true;
            // 
            // FibonacciForm
            // 
            this.ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size(292, 118);
            this.Controls.Add(this.progressBar1);
            this.Controls.Add(this.resultLabel);
            this.Controls.Add(this.cancelAsyncButton);
            this.Controls.Add(this.startAsyncButton);
            this.Controls.Add(this.numericUpDown1);
            this.Name = "FibonacciForm";
            this.Text = "Fibonacci Calculator";
            ((System.ComponentModel.ISupportInitialize)(this.numericUpDown1)).EndInit();
            this.ResumeLayout(false);
        }
        #endregion

        [STAThread]
        static void Main()
        {
            Application.Run(new FibonacciForm());
        }
    }
}
Imports System.Collections
Imports System.ComponentModel
Imports System.Drawing
Imports System.Threading
Imports System.Windows.Forms

Public Class FibonacciForm
    Inherits System.Windows.Forms.Form

    Private numberToCompute As Integer = 0
    Private highestPercentageReached As Integer = 0

    Private numericUpDown1 As System.Windows.Forms.NumericUpDown
    Private WithEvents startAsyncButton As System.Windows.Forms.Button
    Private WithEvents cancelAsyncButton As System.Windows.Forms.Button
    Private progressBar1 As System.Windows.Forms.ProgressBar
    Private resultLabel As System.Windows.Forms.Label
    Private WithEvents backgroundWorker1 As System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker


    Public Sub New()
        InitializeComponent()
    End Sub

    Private Sub startAsyncButton_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, _
    ByVal e As System.EventArgs) _
    Handles startAsyncButton.Click

        ' Reset the text in the result label.
        resultLabel.Text = [String].Empty

        ' Disable the UpDown control until 
        ' the asynchronous operation is done.
        Me.numericUpDown1.Enabled = False

        ' Disable the Start button until 
        ' the asynchronous operation is done.
        Me.startAsyncButton.Enabled = False

        ' Enable the Cancel button while 
        ' the asynchronous operation runs.
        Me.cancelAsyncButton.Enabled = True

        ' Get the value from the UpDown control.
        numberToCompute = CInt(numericUpDown1.Value)

        ' Reset the variable for percentage tracking.
        highestPercentageReached = 0


        ' Start the asynchronous operation.
        backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync(numberToCompute)
    End Sub 

    Private Sub cancelAsyncButton_Click( _
    ByVal sender As System.Object, _
    ByVal e As System.EventArgs) _
    Handles cancelAsyncButton.Click
        
        ' Cancel the asynchronous operation.
        Me.backgroundWorker1.CancelAsync()

        ' Disable the Cancel button.
        cancelAsyncButton.Enabled = False
        
    End Sub

    ' This event handler is where the actual work is done.
    Private Sub backgroundWorker1_DoWork( _
    ByVal sender As Object, _
    ByVal e As DoWorkEventArgs) _
    Handles backgroundWorker1.DoWork

        ' Get the BackgroundWorker object that raised this event.
        Dim worker As BackgroundWorker = _
            CType(sender, BackgroundWorker)

        ' Assign the result of the computation
        ' to the Result property of the DoWorkEventArgs
        ' object. This is will be available to the 
        ' RunWorkerCompleted eventhandler.
        e.Result = ComputeFibonacci(e.Argument, worker, e)
    End Sub

    ' This event handler deals with the results of the
    ' background operation.
    Private Sub backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted( _
    ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs) _
    Handles backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerCompleted

        ' First, handle the case where an exception was thrown.
        If (e.Error IsNot Nothing) Then
            MessageBox.Show(e.Error.Message)
        ElseIf e.Cancelled Then
            ' Next, handle the case where the user canceled the 
            ' operation.
            ' Note that due to a race condition in 
            ' the DoWork event handler, the Cancelled
            ' flag may not have been set, even though
            ' CancelAsync was called.
            resultLabel.Text = "Canceled"
        Else
            ' Finally, handle the case where the operation succeeded.
            resultLabel.Text = e.Result.ToString()
        End If

        ' Enable the UpDown control.
        Me.numericUpDown1.Enabled = True

        ' Enable the Start button.
        startAsyncButton.Enabled = True

        ' Disable the Cancel button.
        cancelAsyncButton.Enabled = False
    End Sub

    ' This event handler updates the progress bar.
    Private Sub backgroundWorker1_ProgressChanged( _
    ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As ProgressChangedEventArgs) _
    Handles backgroundWorker1.ProgressChanged

        Me.progressBar1.Value = e.ProgressPercentage

    End Sub

    ' This is the method that does the actual work. For this
    ' example, it computes a Fibonacci number and
    ' reports progress as it does its work.
    Function ComputeFibonacci( _
        ByVal n As Integer, _
        ByVal worker As BackgroundWorker, _
        ByVal e As DoWorkEventArgs) As Long

        ' The parameter n must be >= 0 and <= 91.
        ' Fib(n), with n > 91, overflows a long.
        If n < 0 OrElse n > 91 Then
            Throw New ArgumentException( _
                "value must be >= 0 and <= 91", "n")
        End If

        Dim result As Long = 0

        ' Abort the operation if the user has canceled.
        ' Note that a call to CancelAsync may have set 
        ' CancellationPending to true just after the
        ' last invocation of this method exits, so this 
        ' code will not have the opportunity to set the 
        ' DoWorkEventArgs.Cancel flag to true. This means
        ' that RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs.Cancelled will
        ' not be set to true in your RunWorkerCompleted
        ' event handler. This is a race condition.
        If worker.CancellationPending Then
            e.Cancel = True
        Else
            If n < 2 Then
                result = 1
            Else
                result = ComputeFibonacci(n - 1, worker, e) + _
                         ComputeFibonacci(n - 2, worker, e)
            End If

            ' Report progress as a percentage of the total task.
            Dim percentComplete As Integer = _
                CSng(n) / CSng(numberToCompute) * 100
            If percentComplete > highestPercentageReached Then
                highestPercentageReached = percentComplete
                worker.ReportProgress(percentComplete)
            End If

        End If

        Return result

    End Function


    Private Sub InitializeComponent()
        Me.numericUpDown1 = New System.Windows.Forms.NumericUpDown
        Me.startAsyncButton = New System.Windows.Forms.Button
        Me.cancelAsyncButton = New System.Windows.Forms.Button
        Me.resultLabel = New System.Windows.Forms.Label
        Me.progressBar1 = New System.Windows.Forms.ProgressBar
        Me.backgroundWorker1 = New System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker
        CType(Me.numericUpDown1, System.ComponentModel.ISupportInitialize).BeginInit()
        Me.SuspendLayout()
        '
        'numericUpDown1
        '
        Me.numericUpDown1.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(16, 16)
        Me.numericUpDown1.Maximum = New Decimal(New Integer() {91, 0, 0, 0})
        Me.numericUpDown1.Minimum = New Decimal(New Integer() {1, 0, 0, 0})
        Me.numericUpDown1.Name = "numericUpDown1"
        Me.numericUpDown1.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(80, 20)
        Me.numericUpDown1.TabIndex = 0
        Me.numericUpDown1.Value = New Decimal(New Integer() {1, 0, 0, 0})
        '
        'startAsyncButton
        '
        Me.startAsyncButton.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(16, 72)
        Me.startAsyncButton.Name = "startAsyncButton"
        Me.startAsyncButton.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(120, 23)
        Me.startAsyncButton.TabIndex = 1
        Me.startAsyncButton.Text = "Start Async"
        '
        'cancelAsyncButton
        '
        Me.cancelAsyncButton.Enabled = False
        Me.cancelAsyncButton.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(153, 72)
        Me.cancelAsyncButton.Name = "cancelAsyncButton"
        Me.cancelAsyncButton.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(119, 23)
        Me.cancelAsyncButton.TabIndex = 2
        Me.cancelAsyncButton.Text = "Cancel Async"
        '
        'resultLabel
        '
        Me.resultLabel.BorderStyle = System.Windows.Forms.BorderStyle.Fixed3D
        Me.resultLabel.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(112, 16)
        Me.resultLabel.Name = "resultLabel"
        Me.resultLabel.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(160, 23)
        Me.resultLabel.TabIndex = 3
        Me.resultLabel.Text = "(no result)"
        Me.resultLabel.TextAlign = System.Drawing.ContentAlignment.MiddleCenter
        '
        'progressBar1
        '
        Me.progressBar1.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(18, 48)
        Me.progressBar1.Name = "progressBar1"
        Me.progressBar1.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(256, 8)
        Me.progressBar1.TabIndex = 4
        '
        'backgroundWorker1
        '
        Me.backgroundWorker1.WorkerReportsProgress = True
        Me.backgroundWorker1.WorkerSupportsCancellation = True
        '
        'FibonacciForm
        '
        Me.ClientSize = New System.Drawing.Size(292, 118)
        Me.Controls.Add(Me.progressBar1)
        Me.Controls.Add(Me.resultLabel)
        Me.Controls.Add(Me.cancelAsyncButton)
        Me.Controls.Add(Me.startAsyncButton)
        Me.Controls.Add(Me.numericUpDown1)
        Me.Name = "FibonacciForm"
        Me.Text = "Fibonacci Calculator"
        CType(Me.numericUpDown1, System.ComponentModel.ISupportInitialize).EndInit()
        Me.ResumeLayout(False)

    End Sub

    <STAThread()> _
    Shared Sub Main()
        Application.Run(New FibonacciForm)
    End Sub
End Class

注釈

クラス BackgroundWorker を使用すると、別の専用スレッドで操作を実行できます。 ダウンロードやデータベース トランザクションなどの時間のかかる操作により、ユーザー インターフェイス (UI) が実行中に応答を停止したように見える可能性があります。 応答性の高い UI が必要で、そのような操作に関連する長い遅延が発生した場合、 クラスは BackgroundWorker 便利なソリューションを提供します。

時間のかかる操作をバックグラウンドで実行するには、 を作成し、操作の進行状況を報告するイベントをリッスンし、操作が完了した場合に BackgroundWorker シグナルを送信します。 プログラムを使用して作成するか、ツールボックス の [コンポーネント] タブからフォーム BackgroundWorker にドラッグ できます。 Windows フォーム デザイナーで を作成すると、コンポーネント トレイに表示され、そのプロパティが [プロパティ] ウィンドウ BackgroundWorker にプロパティ ウィンドウ。

バックグラウンド操作を設定するには、イベントのイベント ハンドラーを追加 DoWork します。 このイベント ハンドラーで時間のかかる操作を呼び出します。 操作を開始するには、 を呼び出します RunWorkerAsync 。 進行状況の更新の通知を受信するには、 イベントを処理 ProgressChanged します。 操作の完了時に通知を受信するには、 イベントを処理 RunWorkerCompleted します。

注意

イベント ハンドラーでユーザー インターフェイス オブジェクトを操作しないように注意する DoWork 必要があります。 代わりに、 イベントと イベントを介してユーザー インターフェイスと ProgressChanged 通信 RunWorkerCompleted します。

BackgroundWorker イベントは境界を越えてマーシャ AppDomain リングされません。 コンポーネントを使用 BackgroundWorker して、複数の でマルチスレッド操作を実行することはできません AppDomain

バックグラウンド操作でパラメーターが必要な場合は、 パラメーター RunWorkerAsync を使用して を呼び出します。 イベント ハンドラー DoWork 内では、 プロパティから パラメーターを抽出 DoWorkEventArgs.Argument できます。

BackgroundWorker の詳細については、「方法:バックグラウンドで操作を実行する」を参照してください。

コンストラクター

BackgroundWorker()

BackgroundWorker クラスの新しいインスタンスを初期化します。

プロパティ

CancellationPending

アプリケーションがバックグラウンド操作のキャンセルを要求したかどうかを示す値を取得します。

CanRaiseEvents

コンポーネントがイベントを発生させることがきるかどうかを示す値を取得します。

(継承元 Component)
Container

IContainer を含む Component を取得します。

(継承元 Component)
DesignMode

Component が現在デザイン モードかどうかを示す値を取得します。

(継承元 Component)
Events

Component に結び付けられているイベント ハンドラーのリストを取得します。

(継承元 Component)
IsBusy

BackgroundWorker が非同期操作を実行中かどうかを示す値を取得します。

Site

ComponentISite を取得または設定します。

(継承元 Component)
WorkerReportsProgress

BackgroundWorker が進行状況の更新を報告できるかどうかを示す値を取得または設定します。

WorkerSupportsCancellation

BackgroundWorker が非同期のキャンセルをサポートしているかどうかを示す値を取得または設定します。

メソッド

CancelAsync()

保留中のバックグラウンド操作のキャンセルを要求します。

CreateObjRef(Type)

リモート オブジェクトとの通信に使用するプロキシの生成に必要な情報をすべて格納しているオブジェクトを作成します。

(継承元 MarshalByRefObject)
Dispose()

アンマネージ リソースの解放またはリセットに関連付けられているアプリケーション定義のタスクを実行します。

Dispose()

Component によって使用されているすべてのリソースを解放します。

(継承元 Component)
Dispose(Boolean)

このメソッドは何も実行しません。

Dispose(Boolean)

Component によって使用されているアンマネージド リソースを解放し、オプションでマネージド リソースも解放します。

(継承元 Component)
Equals(Object)

指定されたオブジェクトが現在のオブジェクトと等しいかどうかを判断します。

(継承元 Object)
GetHashCode()

既定のハッシュ関数として機能します。

(継承元 Object)
GetLifetimeService()
互換性のために残されています。

対象のインスタンスの有効期間ポリシーを制御する、現在の有効期間サービス オブジェクトを取得します。

(継承元 MarshalByRefObject)
GetService(Type)

Component またはその Container で提供されるサービスを表すオブジェクトを返します。

(継承元 Component)
GetType()

現在のインスタンスの Type を取得します。

(継承元 Object)
InitializeLifetimeService()
互換性のために残されています。

このインスタンスの有効期間ポリシーを制御する有効期間サービス オブジェクトを取得します。

(継承元 MarshalByRefObject)
MemberwiseClone()

現在の Object の簡易コピーを作成します。

(継承元 Object)
MemberwiseClone(Boolean)

現在の MarshalByRefObject オブジェクトの簡易コピーを作成します。

(継承元 MarshalByRefObject)
OnDoWork(DoWorkEventArgs)

DoWork イベントを発生させます。

OnProgressChanged(ProgressChangedEventArgs)

ProgressChanged イベントを発生させます。

OnRunWorkerCompleted(RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs)

RunWorkerCompleted イベントを発生させます。

ReportProgress(Int32)

ProgressChanged イベントを発生させます。

ReportProgress(Int32, Object)

ProgressChanged イベントを発生させます。

RunWorkerAsync()

バックグラウンド操作の実行を開始します。

RunWorkerAsync(Object)

バックグラウンド操作の実行を開始します。

ToString()

現在のオブジェクトを表す文字列を返します。

(継承元 Object)
ToString()

Component の名前 (存在する場合) を格納する String を返します。 このメソッドはオーバーライドできません。

(継承元 Component)

イベント

Disposed

Dispose() メソッドの呼び出しによってコンポーネントが破棄されるときに発生します。

(継承元 Component)
DoWork

RunWorkerAsync() が呼び出されたときに発生します。

ProgressChanged

ReportProgress(Int32) が呼び出されたときに発生します。

RunWorkerCompleted

バックグラウンド操作の完了時、キャンセル時、またはバックグラウンド操作によって例外が発生したときに発生します。

適用対象

こちらもご覧ください