Math.Log Math.Log Math.Log Math.Log Method

定義

指定した数の対数を返します。Returns the logarithm of a specified number.

オーバーロード

Log(Double) Log(Double) Log(Double) Log(Double)

指定した数の自然 (底 e) 対数を返します。Returns the natural (base e) logarithm of a specified number.

Log(Double, Double) Log(Double, Double) Log(Double, Double) Log(Double, Double)

指定した数値の指定した底での対数を返します。Returns the logarithm of a specified number in a specified base.

Log(Double) Log(Double) Log(Double) Log(Double)

指定した数の自然 (底 e) 対数を返します。Returns the natural (base e) logarithm of a specified number.

public:
 static double Log(double d);
public static double Log (double d);
static member Log : double -> double
Public Shared Function Log (d As Double) As Double

パラメーター

d
Double Double Double Double

対数を求める対象の数値。The number whose logarithm is to be found.

戻り値

次の表に示した値のいずれかOne of the values in the following table.

d パラメーターd parameter 戻り値Return value
Positive d の自然対数。つまり、ln d または log e dThe natural logarithm of d; that is, ln d, or log e d
0Zero NegativeInfinity
Negative NaN
NaN と等価です。Equal to NaNNaN
PositiveInfinity と等価です。Equal to PositiveInfinityPositiveInfinity

次の例を示しています、Logメソッド。The following example illustrates the Log method.

using System;
public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      Console.WriteLine("  Evaluate this identity with selected values for X:");
      Console.WriteLine("                              ln(x) = 1 / log[X](B)");
      Console.WriteLine();
          
      double[] XArgs = { 1.2, 4.9, 9.9, 0.1 };
   
      foreach (double argX in XArgs)
      {
         // Find natural log of argX.
         Console.WriteLine("                      Math.Log({0}) = {1:E16}",
                           argX, Math.Log(argX));

         // Evaluate 1 / log[X](e).
         Console.WriteLine("             1.0 / Math.Log(e, {0}) = {1:E16}",
                           argX, 1.0 / Math.Log(Math.E, argX));
         Console.WriteLine();
      }
   }   
}
// This example displays the following output:
//         Evaluate this identity with selected values for X:
//                                     ln(x) = 1 / log[X](B)
//       
//                             Math.Log(1.2) = 1.8232155679395459E-001
//                    1.0 / Math.Log(e, 1.2) = 1.8232155679395459E-001
//       
//                             Math.Log(4.9) = 1.5892352051165810E+000
//                    1.0 / Math.Log(e, 4.9) = 1.5892352051165810E+000
//       
//                             Math.Log(9.9) = 2.2925347571405443E+000
//                    1.0 / Math.Log(e, 9.9) = 2.2925347571405443E+000
//       
//                             Math.Log(0.1) = -2.3025850929940455E+000
//                    1.0 / Math.Log(e, 0.1) = -2.3025850929940455E+000
Module Example
   Sub Main()
      Console.WriteLine( _
         "  Evaluate this identity with selected values for X:")
      Console.WriteLine("                              ln(x) = 1 / log[X](B)")
      Console.WriteLine()
          
      Dim XArgs() As Double = { 1.2, 4.9, 9.9, 0.1 }
   
      For Each argX As Double In XArgs
         ' Find natural log of argX.
         Console.WriteLine("                      Math.Log({0}) = {1:E16}", _
                           argX, Math.Log(argX))

         ' Evaluate 1 / log[X](e).
         Console.WriteLine("             1.0 / Math.Log(e, {0}) = {1:E16}", _
                           argX, 1.0 / Math.Log(Math.E, argX))
         Console.WriteLine()
      Next
   End Sub 
End Module
' This example displays the following output:
'         Evaluate this identity with selected values for X:
'                                     ln(x) = 1 / log[X](B)
'       
'                             Math.Log(1.2) = 1.8232155679395459E-001
'                    1.0 / Math.Log(e, 1.2) = 1.8232155679395459E-001
'       
'                             Math.Log(4.9) = 1.5892352051165810E+000
'                    1.0 / Math.Log(e, 4.9) = 1.5892352051165810E+000
'       
'                             Math.Log(9.9) = 2.2925347571405443E+000
'                    1.0 / Math.Log(e, 9.9) = 2.2925347571405443E+000
'       
'                             Math.Log(0.1) = -2.3025850929940455E+000
'                    1.0 / Math.Log(e, 0.1) = -2.3025850929940455E+000

注釈

パラメーターd底 10 の値として指定されます。Parameter d is specified as a base 10 number.

こちらもご覧ください

Log(Double, Double) Log(Double, Double) Log(Double, Double) Log(Double, Double)

指定した数値の指定した底での対数を返します。Returns the logarithm of a specified number in a specified base.

public:
 static double Log(double a, double newBase);
public static double Log (double a, double newBase);
static member Log : double * double -> double
Public Shared Function Log (a As Double, newBase As Double) As Double

パラメーター

a
Double Double Double Double

対数を求める対象の数値。The number whose logarithm is to be found.

newBase
Double Double Double Double

対数の底。The base of the logarithm.

戻り値

次の表に示した値のいずれかOne of the values in the following table. (+Infinity は PositiveInfinity、-Infinity は NegativeInfinity、NaN は NaN をそれぞれ示しています。)(+Infinity denotes PositiveInfinity, -Infinity denotes NegativeInfinity, and NaN denotes NaN.)

anewBase 戻り値Return value
a> 0a> 0 (0 <newBase< 1) - または -(newBase> 1)(0 <newBase< 1) -or-(newBase> 1) lognewBase(a)lognewBase(a)
a< 0a< 0 (任意の値)(any value) NaNNaN
(任意の値)(any value) newBase< 0newBase< 0 NaNNaN
a != 1a != 1 newBase = 0newBase = 0 NaNNaN
a != 1a != 1 newBase = +InfinitynewBase = +Infinity NaNNaN
a = NaNa = NaN (任意の値)(any value) NaNNaN
(任意の値)(any value) newBase = NaNnewBase = NaN NaNNaN
(任意の値)(any value) newBase = 1newBase = 1 NaNNaN
a = 0a = 0 0 <newBase< 10 <newBase< 1 +Infinity+Infinity
a = 0a = 0 newBase> 1newBase> 1 -Infinity-Infinity
a = +無限大a = +Infinity 0 <newBase< 10 <newBase< 1 -Infinity-Infinity
a = +無限大a = +Infinity newBase> 1newBase> 1 +Infinity+Infinity
a = 1a = 1 newBase = 0newBase = 0 00
a = 1a = 1 newBase = +InfinitynewBase = +Infinity 00

次の例ではLogの選択した値を評価します。The following example uses Log to evaluate certain logarithmic identities for selected values.

// Example for the Math::Log( double ) and Math::Log( double, double ) methods.
using namespace System;

// Evaluate logarithmic identities that are functions of two arguments.
void UseBaseAndArg( double argB, double argX )
{
   
   // Evaluate log(B)[X] == 1 / log(X)[B].
   Console::WriteLine( "\n                     Math::Log({1}, {0}) == {2:E16}"
   "\n               1.0 / Math::Log({0}, {1}) == {3:E16}", argB, argX, Math::Log( argX, argB ), 1.0 / Math::Log( argB, argX ) );
   
   // Evaluate log(B)[X] == ln[X] / ln[B].
   Console::WriteLine( "         Math::Log({1}) / Math::Log({0}) == {2:E16}", argB, argX, Math::Log( argX ) / Math::Log( argB ) );
   
   // Evaluate log(B)[X] == log(B)[e] * ln[X].
   Console::WriteLine( "Math::Log(Math::E, {0}) * Math::Log({1}) == {2:E16}", argB, argX, Math::Log( Math::E, argB ) * Math::Log( argX ) );
}

void main()
{
   Console::WriteLine( "This example of Math::Log( double ) and "
   "Math::Log( double, double )\n"
   "generates the following output.\n" );
   Console::WriteLine( "Evaluate these identities with "
   "selected values for X and B (base):" );
   Console::WriteLine( "   log(B)[X] == 1 / log(X)[B]" );
   Console::WriteLine( "   log(B)[X] == ln[X] / ln[B]" );
   Console::WriteLine( "   log(B)[X] == log(B)[e] * ln[X]" );
   UseBaseAndArg( 0.1, 1.2 );
   UseBaseAndArg( 1.2, 4.9 );
   UseBaseAndArg( 4.9, 9.9 );
   UseBaseAndArg( 9.9, 0.1 );
}

/*
This example of Math::Log( double ) and Math::Log( double, double )
generates the following output.

Evaluate these identities with selected values for X and B (base):
   log(B)[X] == 1 / log(X)[B]
   log(B)[X] == ln[X] / ln[B]
   log(B)[X] == log(B)[e] * ln[X]

                     Math::Log(1.2, 0.1) == -7.9181246047624818E-002
               1.0 / Math::Log(0.1, 1.2) == -7.9181246047624818E-002
         Math::Log(1.2) / Math::Log(0.1) == -7.9181246047624818E-002
Math::Log(Math::E, 0.1) * Math::Log(1.2) == -7.9181246047624804E-002

                     Math::Log(4.9, 1.2) == 8.7166610085093179E+000
               1.0 / Math::Log(1.2, 4.9) == 8.7166610085093161E+000
         Math::Log(4.9) / Math::Log(1.2) == 8.7166610085093179E+000
Math::Log(Math::E, 1.2) * Math::Log(4.9) == 8.7166610085093179E+000

                     Math::Log(9.9, 4.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000
               1.0 / Math::Log(4.9, 9.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000
         Math::Log(9.9) / Math::Log(4.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000
Math::Log(Math::E, 4.9) * Math::Log(9.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000

                     Math::Log(0.1, 9.9) == -1.0043839404494075E+000
               1.0 / Math::Log(9.9, 0.1) == -1.0043839404494075E+000
         Math::Log(0.1) / Math::Log(9.9) == -1.0043839404494075E+000
Math::Log(Math::E, 9.9) * Math::Log(0.1) == -1.0043839404494077E+000
*/
// Example for the Math.Log( double ) and Math.Log( double, double ) methods.
using System;

class LogDLogDD
{
    public static void Main() 
    {
        Console.WriteLine( 
            "This example of Math.Log( double ) and " +
            "Math.Log( double, double )\n" +
            "generates the following output.\n" );
        Console.WriteLine( 
            "Evaluate these identities with " +
            "selected values for X and B (base):" );
        Console.WriteLine( "   log(B)[X] == 1 / log(X)[B]" );
        Console.WriteLine( "   log(B)[X] == ln[X] / ln[B]" );
        Console.WriteLine( "   log(B)[X] == log(B)[e] * ln[X]" );

        UseBaseAndArg(0.1, 1.2);
        UseBaseAndArg(1.2, 4.9);
        UseBaseAndArg(4.9, 9.9);
        UseBaseAndArg(9.9, 0.1);
    }

    // Evaluate logarithmic identities that are functions of two arguments.
    static void UseBaseAndArg(double argB, double argX)
    {
        // Evaluate log(B)[X] == 1 / log(X)[B].
        Console.WriteLine( 
            "\n                   Math.Log({1}, {0}) == {2:E16}" + 
            "\n             1.0 / Math.Log({0}, {1}) == {3:E16}", 
            argB, argX, Math.Log(argX, argB),
            1.0 / Math.Log(argB, argX) );

        // Evaluate log(B)[X] == ln[X] / ln[B].
        Console.WriteLine( 
            "        Math.Log({1}) / Math.Log({0}) == {2:E16}",
            argB, argX, Math.Log(argX) / Math.Log(argB) );

        // Evaluate log(B)[X] == log(B)[e] * ln[X].
        Console.WriteLine( 
            "Math.Log(Math.E, {0}) * Math.Log({1}) == {2:E16}", 
            argB, argX, Math.Log(Math.E, argB) * Math.Log(argX) );
    }
}

/*
This example of Math.Log( double ) and Math.Log( double, double )
generates the following output.

Evaluate these identities with selected values for X and B (base):
   log(B)[X] == 1 / log(X)[B]
   log(B)[X] == ln[X] / ln[B]
   log(B)[X] == log(B)[e] * ln[X]

                   Math.Log(1.2, 0.1) == -7.9181246047624818E-002
             1.0 / Math.Log(0.1, 1.2) == -7.9181246047624818E-002
        Math.Log(1.2) / Math.Log(0.1) == -7.9181246047624818E-002
Math.Log(Math.E, 0.1) * Math.Log(1.2) == -7.9181246047624804E-002

                   Math.Log(4.9, 1.2) == 8.7166610085093179E+000
             1.0 / Math.Log(1.2, 4.9) == 8.7166610085093161E+000
        Math.Log(4.9) / Math.Log(1.2) == 8.7166610085093179E+000
Math.Log(Math.E, 1.2) * Math.Log(4.9) == 8.7166610085093179E+000

                   Math.Log(9.9, 4.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000
             1.0 / Math.Log(4.9, 9.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000
        Math.Log(9.9) / Math.Log(4.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000
Math.Log(Math.E, 4.9) * Math.Log(9.9) == 1.4425396251981288E+000

                   Math.Log(0.1, 9.9) == -1.0043839404494075E+000
             1.0 / Math.Log(9.9, 0.1) == -1.0043839404494075E+000
        Math.Log(0.1) / Math.Log(9.9) == -1.0043839404494075E+000
Math.Log(Math.E, 9.9) * Math.Log(0.1) == -1.0043839404494077E+000
*/
' Example for the Math.Log( Double ) and Math.Log( Double, Double ) methods.
Imports System
Imports Microsoft.VisualBasic

Module LogDLogDD
   
    Sub Main()
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "This example of Math.Log( Double ) and " + _
            "Math.Log( Double, Double )" & vbCrLf & _
            "generates the following output." & vbCrLf)
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Evaluate these identities with selected " & _
            "values for X and B (base):")
        Console.WriteLine("   log(B)[X] = 1 / log(X)[B]")
        Console.WriteLine("   log(B)[X] = ln[X] / ln[B]")
        Console.WriteLine("   log(B)[X] = log(B)[e] * ln[X]")
          
        UseBaseAndArg(0.1, 1.2)
        UseBaseAndArg(1.2, 4.9)
        UseBaseAndArg(4.9, 9.9)
        UseBaseAndArg(9.9, 0.1)
    End Sub 'Main
       
    ' Evaluate logarithmic identities that are functions of two arguments.
    Sub UseBaseAndArg(argB As Double, argX As Double)

        ' Evaluate log(B)[X] = 1 / log(X)[B].
        Console.WriteLine( _
            vbCrLf & "                   Math.Log({1}, {0}) = {2:E16}" + _
            vbCrLf & "             1.0 / Math.Log({0}, {1}) = {3:E16}", _
            argB, argX, Math.Log(argX, argB), _
            1.0 / Math.Log(argB, argX))
          
        ' Evaluate log(B)[X] = ln[X] / ln[B].
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "        Math.Log({1}) / Math.Log({0}) = {2:E16}", _
            argB, argX, Math.Log(argX) / Math.Log(argB))
          
        ' Evaluate log(B)[X] = log(B)[e] * ln[X].
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "Math.Log(Math.E, {0}) * Math.Log({1}) = {2:E16}", _
            argB, argX, Math.Log(Math.E, argB) * Math.Log(argX))

    End Sub 'UseBaseAndArg
End Module 'LogDLogDD

' This example of Math.Log( Double ) and Math.Log( Double, Double )
' generates the following output.
' 
' Evaluate these identities with selected values for X and B (base):
'    log(B)[X] = 1 / log(X)[B]
'    log(B)[X] = ln[X] / ln[B]
'    log(B)[X] = log(B)[e] * ln[X]
' 
'                    Math.Log(1.2, 0.1) = -7.9181246047624818E-002
'              1.0 / Math.Log(0.1, 1.2) = -7.9181246047624818E-002
'         Math.Log(1.2) / Math.Log(0.1) = -7.9181246047624818E-002
' Math.Log(Math.E, 0.1) * Math.Log(1.2) = -7.9181246047624804E-002
' 
'                    Math.Log(4.9, 1.2) = 8.7166610085093179E+000
'              1.0 / Math.Log(1.2, 4.9) = 8.7166610085093161E+000
'         Math.Log(4.9) / Math.Log(1.2) = 8.7166610085093179E+000
' Math.Log(Math.E, 1.2) * Math.Log(4.9) = 8.7166610085093179E+000
' 
'                    Math.Log(9.9, 4.9) = 1.4425396251981288E+000
'              1.0 / Math.Log(4.9, 9.9) = 1.4425396251981288E+000
'         Math.Log(9.9) / Math.Log(4.9) = 1.4425396251981288E+000
' Math.Log(Math.E, 4.9) * Math.Log(9.9) = 1.4425396251981288E+000
' 
'                    Math.Log(0.1, 9.9) = -1.0043839404494075E+000
'              1.0 / Math.Log(9.9, 0.1) = -1.0043839404494075E+000
'         Math.Log(0.1) / Math.Log(9.9) = -1.0043839404494075E+000
' Math.Log(Math.E, 9.9) * Math.Log(0.1) = -1.0043839404494077E+000

適用対象