方法: リフレクションを使用してジェネリック型をチェックおよびインスタンス化するHow to: Examine and Instantiate Generic Types with Reflection

ジェネリック型の情報は、他の型の情報と同じ方法で取得します。つまり、ジェネリック型を表す Type オブジェクトをチェックすることによって取得します。Information about generic types is obtained in the same way as information about other types: by examining a Type object that represents the generic type. 根本的な違いとして、ジェネリック型には、そのジェネリック型パラメーターを表す Type オブジェクトの一覧が含まれています。The principle difference is that a generic type has a list of Type objects representing its generic type parameters. このセクションでは、まず、ジェネリック型をチェックする手順を示します。The first procedure in this section examines generic types.

ジェネリック型の定義の型パラメーターに型引数をバインドすることにより、構築された型を表す Type オブジェクトを作成できます。You can create a Type object that represents a constructed type by binding type arguments to the type parameters of a generic type definition. 2 番目の手順でこの方法を示します。The second procedure demonstrates this.

ジェネリック型とその型パラメーターを確認するにはTo examine a generic type and its type parameters

  1. ジェネリック型を表す Type のインスタンスを取得します。Get an instance of Type that represents the generic type. 次のコードでは、C# の typeof 演算子 (Visual Basic では GetType、Visual C++ では typeid) を使用して型を取得します。In the following code, the type is obtained using the C# typeof operator (GetType in Visual Basic, typeid in Visual C++). Type オブジェクトを取得する他の方法については、Type クラスのトピックを参照してください。See the Type class topic for other ways to get a Type object. この手順では、これ以降、型は t という名前のメソッド パラメーターに格納されます。Note that in the rest of this procedure, the type is contained in a method parameter named t.

    Type^ d1 = Dictionary::typeid;
    
    Type d1 = typeof(Dictionary<,>);
    
    Dim d1 As Type = GetType(Dictionary(Of ,))
    
  2. IsGenericType プロパティを使用して、型がジェネリックかどうかを確認し、IsGenericTypeDefinition プロパティを使用して型がジェネリック型の定義かどうかを確認します。Use the IsGenericType property to determine whether the type is generic, and use the IsGenericTypeDefinition property to determine whether the type is a generic type definition.

    Console::WriteLine("   Is this a generic type? {0}",
        t->IsGenericType);
    Console::WriteLine("   Is this a generic type definition? {0}",
        t->IsGenericTypeDefinition);
    
    Console.WriteLine("   Is this a generic type? {0}",
        t.IsGenericType);
    Console.WriteLine("   Is this a generic type definition? {0}",
        t.IsGenericTypeDefinition);
    
    Console.WriteLine("   Is this a generic type? " _
        & t.IsGenericType)
    Console.WriteLine("   Is this a generic type definition? " _
        & t.IsGenericTypeDefinition)
    
  3. GetGenericArguments メソッドを使用して、ジェネリック型引数が格納された配列を取得します。Get an array that contains the generic type arguments, using the GetGenericArguments method.

    array<Type^>^ typeParameters = t->GetGenericArguments();
    
    Type[] typeParameters = t.GetGenericArguments();
    
    Dim typeParameters() As Type = t.GetGenericArguments()
    
  4. 各型引数について、IsGenericParameter プロパティを使用して、その型引数が型パラメーター (ジェネリック型定義の型パラメーターなど) であるか、型パラメーターに指定された型 (構築された型の型パラメーターなど) であるかを確認します。For each type argument, determine whether it is a type parameter (for example, in a generic type definition) or a type that has been specified for a type parameter (for example, in a constructed type), using the IsGenericParameter property.

    Console::WriteLine("   List {0} type arguments:",
        typeParameters->Length);
    for each( Type^ tParam in typeParameters )
    {
        if (tParam->IsGenericParameter)
        {
            DisplayGenericParameter(tParam);
        }
        else
        {
            Console::WriteLine("      Type argument: {0}",
                tParam);
        }
    }
    
    Console.WriteLine("   List {0} type arguments:",
        typeParameters.Length);
    foreach( Type tParam in typeParameters )
    {
        if (tParam.IsGenericParameter)
        {
            DisplayGenericParameter(tParam);
        }
        else
        {
            Console.WriteLine("      Type argument: {0}",
                tParam);
        }
    }
    
    Console.WriteLine("   List {0} type arguments:", _
        typeParameters.Length)
    For Each tParam As Type In typeParameters
        If tParam.IsGenericParameter Then
            DisplayGenericParameter(tParam)
        Else
            Console.WriteLine("      Type argument: {0}", _
                tParam)
        End If
    Next
    
  5. 型システムでは、ジェネリック型パラメーターは、通常の型と同様に Type のインスタンスによって表されます。In the type system, a generic type parameter is represented by an instance of Type, just as ordinary types are. 次のコードでは、ジェネリック型パラメーターを表す Type オブジェクトの名前とパラメーター位置を表示します。The following code displays the name and parameter position of a Type object that represents a generic type parameter. パラメーター位置はここでは重要な情報ではありませんが、別のジェネリック型の型引数として使用されている型パラメーターをチェックする場合に重要となります。The parameter position is trivial information here; it is of more interest when you are examining a type parameter that has been used as a type argument of another generic type.

    static void DisplayGenericParameter(Type^ tp)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("      Type parameter: {0} position {1}",
            tp->Name, tp->GenericParameterPosition);
    
    private static void DisplayGenericParameter(Type tp)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("      Type parameter: {0} position {1}",
            tp.Name, tp.GenericParameterPosition);
    
    Private Shared Sub DisplayGenericParameter(ByVal tp As Type)
        Console.WriteLine("      Type parameter: {0} position {1}", _
            tp.Name, tp.GenericParameterPosition)
    
  6. GetGenericParameterConstraints メソッドを使用して、ジェネリック型パラメーターの基本型の制約とインターフェイスの制約を確認し、単一の配列内のすべての制約を取得します。Determine the base type constraint and the interface constraints of a generic type parameter by using the GetGenericParameterConstraints method to obtain all the constraints in a single array. 制約は、特定の順序であるという保証はありません。Constraints are not guaranteed to be in any particular order.

    Type^ classConstraint = nullptr;
    
    for each(Type^ iConstraint in tp->GetGenericParameterConstraints())
    {
        if (iConstraint->IsInterface)
        {
            Console::WriteLine("         Interface constraint: {0}",
                iConstraint);
        }
    }
    
    if (classConstraint != nullptr)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("         Base type constraint: {0}",
            tp->BaseType);
    }
    else
        Console::WriteLine("         Base type constraint: None");
    
    Type classConstraint = null;
    
    foreach(Type iConstraint in tp.GetGenericParameterConstraints())
    {
        if (iConstraint.IsInterface)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("         Interface constraint: {0}",
                iConstraint);
        }
    }
    
    if (classConstraint != null)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("         Base type constraint: {0}",
            tp.BaseType);
    }
    else
    {
        Console.WriteLine("         Base type constraint: None");
    }
    
    Dim classConstraint As Type = Nothing
    
    For Each iConstraint As Type In tp.GetGenericParameterConstraints()
        If iConstraint.IsInterface Then
            Console.WriteLine("         Interface constraint: {0}", _
                iConstraint)
        End If
    Next
    
    If classConstraint IsNot Nothing Then
        Console.WriteLine("         Base type constraint: {0}", _
            tp.BaseType)
    Else
        Console.WriteLine("         Base type constraint: None")
    End If
    
  7. GenericParameterAttributes プロパティを使用して、型パラメーターの特殊な制約 (参照型であることが必要など) を確認します。Use the GenericParameterAttributes property to discover the special constraints on a type parameter, such as requiring that it be a reference type. このプロパティには、分散を表す値も含まれています。次のコードに示すように、この値にはマスクを設定できます。The property also includes values that represent variance, which you can mask off as shown in the following code.

    GenericParameterAttributes sConstraints =
        tp->GenericParameterAttributes &
        GenericParameterAttributes::SpecialConstraintMask;
    
    GenericParameterAttributes sConstraints =
        tp.GenericParameterAttributes &
        GenericParameterAttributes.SpecialConstraintMask;
    
    Dim sConstraints As GenericParameterAttributes = _
        tp.GenericParameterAttributes And _
        GenericParameterAttributes.SpecialConstraintMask
    
  8. 特殊な制約の属性はフラグであり、特殊な制約がないことを表すフラグ (GenericParameterAttributes.None) と同じフラグが、共変性や反変性がないことも表します。The special constraint attributes are flags, and the same flag (GenericParameterAttributes.None) that represents no special constraints also represents no covariance or contravariance. したがって、これらの条件のいずれかを調べるには、適切なマスクを使用する必要があります。Thus, to test for either of these conditions you must use the appropriate mask. ここでは、GenericParameterAttributes.SpecialConstraintMask を使用して、特殊な制約のフラグを切り分けます。In this case, use GenericParameterAttributes.SpecialConstraintMask to isolate the special constraint flags.

    if (sConstraints == GenericParameterAttributes::None)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("         No special constraints.");
    }
    else
    {
        if (GenericParameterAttributes::None != (sConstraints &
            GenericParameterAttributes::DefaultConstructorConstraint))
        {
            Console::WriteLine("         Must have a parameterless constructor.");
        }
        if (GenericParameterAttributes::None != (sConstraints &
            GenericParameterAttributes::ReferenceTypeConstraint))
        {
            Console::WriteLine("         Must be a reference type.");
        }
        if (GenericParameterAttributes::None != (sConstraints &
            GenericParameterAttributes::NotNullableValueTypeConstraint))
        {
            Console::WriteLine("         Must be a non-nullable value type.");
        }
    }
    
    if (sConstraints == GenericParameterAttributes.None)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("         No special constraints.");
    }
    else
    {
        if (GenericParameterAttributes.None != (sConstraints &
            GenericParameterAttributes.DefaultConstructorConstraint))
        {
            Console.WriteLine("         Must have a parameterless constructor.");
        }
        if (GenericParameterAttributes.None != (sConstraints &
            GenericParameterAttributes.ReferenceTypeConstraint))
        {
            Console.WriteLine("         Must be a reference type.");
        }
        if (GenericParameterAttributes.None != (sConstraints &
            GenericParameterAttributes.NotNullableValueTypeConstraint))
        {
            Console.WriteLine("         Must be a non-nullable value type.");
        }
    }
    
    If sConstraints = GenericParameterAttributes.None Then
        Console.WriteLine("         No special constraints.")
    Else
        If GenericParameterAttributes.None <> (sConstraints And _
            GenericParameterAttributes.DefaultConstructorConstraint) Then
            Console.WriteLine("         Must have a parameterless constructor.")
        End If
        If GenericParameterAttributes.None <> (sConstraints And _
            GenericParameterAttributes.ReferenceTypeConstraint) Then
            Console.WriteLine("         Must be a reference type.")
        End If
        If GenericParameterAttributes.None <> (sConstraints And _
            GenericParameterAttributes.NotNullableValueTypeConstraint) Then
            Console.WriteLine("         Must be a non-nullable value type.")
        End If
    End If
    

ジェネリック型のインスタンスの構築Constructing an Instance of a Generic Type

ジェネリック型はテンプレートに似ています。A generic type is like a template. ジェネリック型パラメーターの実際の型を指定しない限り、インスタンスを作成することはできません。You cannot create instances of it unless you specify real types for its generic type parameters. リフレクションを使用して実行時にこれを行うには、MakeGenericType メソッドが必要です。To do this at run time, using reflection, requires the MakeGenericType method.

ジェネリック型のインスタンスを構築するにはTo construct an instance of a generic type

  1. ジェネリック型を表す Type オブジェクトを取得します。Get a Type object that represents the generic type. 次のコードでは、2 とおりの方法でジェネリック型 Dictionary<TKey,TValue> を取得します。型を示す文字列を指定して Type.GetType(String) メソッド オーバーロードを使用する方法と、構築された型 Dictionary\<String, Example> (Visual Basic では Dictionary(Of String, Example)) で GetGenericTypeDefinition メソッドを呼び出す方法です。The following code gets the generic type Dictionary<TKey,TValue> in two different ways: by using the Type.GetType(String) method overload with a string describing the type, and by calling the GetGenericTypeDefinition method on the constructed type Dictionary\<String, Example> (Dictionary(Of String, Example) in Visual Basic). MakeGenericType メソッドには、ジェネリック型の定義が必要です。The MakeGenericType method requires a generic type definition.

    // Use the typeid keyword to create the generic type
    // definition directly.
    Type^ d1 = Dictionary::typeid;
    
    // You can also obtain the generic type definition from a
    // constructed class. In this case, the constructed class
    // is a dictionary of Example objects, with String keys.
    Dictionary<String^, Example^>^ d2 = gcnew Dictionary<String^, Example^>();
    // Get a Type object that represents the constructed type,
    // and from that get the generic type definition. The
    // variables d1 and d4 contain the same type.
    Type^ d3 = d2->GetType();
    Type^ d4 = d3->GetGenericTypeDefinition();
    
    // Use the typeof operator to create the generic type
    // definition directly. To specify the generic type definition,
    // omit the type arguments but retain the comma that separates
    // them.
    Type d1 = typeof(Dictionary<,>);
    
    // You can also obtain the generic type definition from a
    // constructed class. In this case, the constructed class
    // is a dictionary of Example objects, with String keys.
    Dictionary<string, Example> d2 = new Dictionary<string, Example>();
    // Get a Type object that represents the constructed type,
    // and from that get the generic type definition. The
    // variables d1 and d4 contain the same type.
    Type d3 = d2.GetType();
    Type d4 = d3.GetGenericTypeDefinition();
    
    ' Use the GetType operator to create the generic type 
    ' definition directly. To specify the generic type definition,
    ' omit the type arguments but retain the comma that separates
    ' them.
    Dim d1 As Type = GetType(Dictionary(Of ,))
    
    ' You can also obtain the generic type definition from a
    ' constructed class. In this case, the constructed class
    ' is a dictionary of Example objects, with String keys.
    Dim d2 As New Dictionary(Of String, Example)
    ' Get a Type object that represents the constructed type,
    ' and from that get the generic type definition. The 
    ' variables d1 and d4 contain the same type.
    Dim d3 As Type = d2.GetType()
    Dim d4 As Type = d3.GetGenericTypeDefinition()
    
  2. 型引数の配列を構築して、型パラメーターと置き換えます。Construct an array of type arguments to substitute for the type parameters. 配列には、型パラメーター リストに表示される順序と同じ順序で、正確な数の Type オブジェクトを格納する必要があります。The array must contain the correct number of Type objects, in the same order as they appear in the type parameter list. この場合、キー (最初の型パラメーター) の型は String であり、ディクショナリの値は Example というクラスのインスタンスです。In this case, the key (first type parameter) is of type String, and the values in the dictionary are instances of a class named Example.

    array<Type^>^ typeArgs = {String::typeid, Example::typeid};
    
    Type[] typeArgs = {typeof(string), typeof(Example)};
    
    Dim typeArgs() As Type = _
        {GetType(String), GetType(Example)}
    
  3. MakeGenericType メソッドを呼び出して型引数を型パラメーターにバインドし、型を構築します。Call the MakeGenericType method to bind the type arguments to the type parameters and construct the type.

    Type^ constructed = d1->MakeGenericType(typeArgs);
    
    Type constructed = d1.MakeGenericType(typeArgs);
    
    Dim constructed As Type = _
        d1.MakeGenericType(typeArgs)
    
  4. CreateInstance(Type) メソッド オーバーロードを使用して、構築された型のオブジェクトを作成します。Use the CreateInstance(Type) method overload to create an object of the constructed type. 次のコードでは、作成された Dictionary<String, Example> オブジェクトに、Example クラスの 2 つのインスタンスを格納します。The following code stores two instances of the Example class in the resulting Dictionary<String, Example> object.

    Object^ o = Activator::CreateInstance(constructed);
    
    object o = Activator.CreateInstance(constructed);
    
    Dim o As Object = Activator.CreateInstance(constructed)
    

Example

DisplayGenericType メソッドを定義して、コードで使用されているジェネリック型の定義と構築された型をチェックし、この情報を表示するコード例を次に示します。The following code example defines a DisplayGenericType method to examine the generic type definitions and constructed types used in the code and display their information. DisplayGenericType メソッドは、IsGenericTypeIsGenericParameterGenericParameterPosition の各プロパティと GetGenericArguments メソッドの使用方法を示します。The DisplayGenericType method shows how to use the IsGenericType, IsGenericParameter, and GenericParameterPosition properties and the GetGenericArguments method.

この例では、DisplayGenericParameter メソッドも定義してジェネリック型パラメーターをチェックし、その制約を表示します。The example also defines a DisplayGenericParameter method to examine a generic type parameter and display its constraints.

このコード例では、型パラメーターの制約を示すジェネリック型を含む一連のテスト用の型を定義し、これらの型の情報を表示する方法を示します。The code example defines a set of test types, including a generic type that illustrates type parameter constraints, and shows how to display information about these types.

この例では、型引数の配列を作成し、MakeGenericType メソッドを呼び出して、Dictionary<TKey,TValue> クラスから型を構築します。The example constructs a type from the Dictionary<TKey,TValue> class by creating an array of type arguments and calling the MakeGenericType method. プログラムでは、MakeGenericType を使用して構築された Type オブジェクトと、typeof (Visual Basic では GetType) を使用して取得した Type オブジェクトを比較し、これらが同じであることを示します。The program compares the Type object constructed using MakeGenericType with a Type object obtained using typeof (GetType in Visual Basic), demonstrating that they are the same. 同様に、GetGenericTypeDefinition メソッドを使用して構築された型のジェネリック型の定義を取得し、Dictionary<TKey,TValue> クラスを表す Type オブジェクトと比較します。Similarly, the program uses the GetGenericTypeDefinition method to obtain the generic type definition of the constructed type, and compares it to the Type object representing the Dictionary<TKey,TValue> class.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Reflection;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;
using namespace System::Security::Permissions;

// Define an example interface.
public interface class ITestArgument {};

// Define an example base class.
public ref class TestBase {};

// Define a generic class with one parameter. The parameter
// has three constraints: It must inherit TestBase, it must
// implement ITestArgument, and it must have a parameterless
// constructor.

generic<class T>
    where T : TestBase, ITestArgument, gcnew()
public ref class Test {};

// Define a class that meets the constraints on the type
// parameter of class Test.
public ref class TestArgument : TestBase, ITestArgument
{
public:
    TestArgument() {}
};

public ref class Example
{
    // The following method displays information about a generic
    // type.
private:
    static void DisplayGenericType(Type^ t)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("\r\n {0}", t);
        Console::WriteLine("   Is this a generic type? {0}",
            t->IsGenericType);
        Console::WriteLine("   Is this a generic type definition? {0}",
            t->IsGenericTypeDefinition);

        // Get the generic type parameters or type arguments.
        array<Type^>^ typeParameters = t->GetGenericArguments();

        Console::WriteLine("   List {0} type arguments:",
            typeParameters->Length);
        for each( Type^ tParam in typeParameters )
        {
            if (tParam->IsGenericParameter)
            {
                DisplayGenericParameter(tParam);
            }
            else
            {
                Console::WriteLine("      Type argument: {0}",
                    tParam);
            }
        }
    }

    // The following method displays information about a generic
    // type parameter. Generic type parameters are represented by
    // instances of System.Type, just like ordinary types.
    static void DisplayGenericParameter(Type^ tp)
    {
        Console::WriteLine("      Type parameter: {0} position {1}",
            tp->Name, tp->GenericParameterPosition);

        Type^ classConstraint = nullptr;

        for each(Type^ iConstraint in tp->GetGenericParameterConstraints())
        {
            if (iConstraint->IsInterface)
            {
                Console::WriteLine("         Interface constraint: {0}",
                    iConstraint);
            }
        }

        if (classConstraint != nullptr)
        {
            Console::WriteLine("         Base type constraint: {0}",
                tp->BaseType);
        }
        else
            Console::WriteLine("         Base type constraint: None");

        GenericParameterAttributes sConstraints =
            tp->GenericParameterAttributes &
            GenericParameterAttributes::SpecialConstraintMask;

        if (sConstraints == GenericParameterAttributes::None)
        {
            Console::WriteLine("         No special constraints.");
        }
        else
        {
            if (GenericParameterAttributes::None != (sConstraints &
                GenericParameterAttributes::DefaultConstructorConstraint))
            {
                Console::WriteLine("         Must have a parameterless constructor.");
            }
            if (GenericParameterAttributes::None != (sConstraints &
                GenericParameterAttributes::ReferenceTypeConstraint))
            {
                Console::WriteLine("         Must be a reference type.");
            }
            if (GenericParameterAttributes::None != (sConstraints &
                GenericParameterAttributes::NotNullableValueTypeConstraint))
            {
                Console::WriteLine("         Must be a non-nullable value type.");
            }
        }
    }

public:
    [PermissionSetAttribute(SecurityAction::Demand, Name="FullTrust")]
    static void Main()
    {
        // Two ways to get a Type object that represents the generic
        // type definition of the Dictionary class.
        //
        // Use the typeid keyword to create the generic type
        // definition directly.
        Type^ d1 = Dictionary::typeid;

        // You can also obtain the generic type definition from a
        // constructed class. In this case, the constructed class
        // is a dictionary of Example objects, with String keys.
        Dictionary<String^, Example^>^ d2 = gcnew Dictionary<String^, Example^>();
        // Get a Type object that represents the constructed type,
        // and from that get the generic type definition. The
        // variables d1 and d4 contain the same type.
        Type^ d3 = d2->GetType();
        Type^ d4 = d3->GetGenericTypeDefinition();

        // Display information for the generic type definition, and
        // for the constructed type Dictionary<String, Example>.
        DisplayGenericType(d1);
        DisplayGenericType(d2->GetType());

        // Construct an array of type arguments to substitute for
        // the type parameters of the generic Dictionary class.
        // The array must contain the correct number of types, in
        // the same order that they appear in the type parameter
        // list of Dictionary. The key (first type parameter)
        // is of type string, and the type to be contained in the
        // dictionary is Example.
        array<Type^>^ typeArgs = {String::typeid, Example::typeid};

        // Construct the type Dictionary<String, Example>.
        Type^ constructed = d1->MakeGenericType(typeArgs);

        DisplayGenericType(constructed);

        Object^ o = Activator::CreateInstance(constructed);

        Console::WriteLine("\r\nCompare types obtained by different methods:");
        Console::WriteLine("   Are the constructed types equal? {0}",
            (d2->GetType()==constructed));
        Console::WriteLine("   Are the generic definitions equal? {0}",
            (d1==constructed->GetGenericTypeDefinition()));

        // Demonstrate the DisplayGenericType and
        // DisplayGenericParameter methods with the Test class
        // defined above. This shows base, interface, and special
        // constraints.
        DisplayGenericType(Test::typeid);
    }
};

int main()
{
    Example::Main();
}
using System;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Security.Permissions;

// Define an example interface.
public interface ITestArgument {}

// Define an example base class.
public class TestBase {}

// Define a generic class with one parameter. The parameter
// has three constraints: It must inherit TestBase, it must
// implement ITestArgument, and it must have a parameterless
// constructor.
public class Test<T> where T : TestBase, ITestArgument, new() {}

// Define a class that meets the constraints on the type
// parameter of class Test.
public class TestArgument : TestBase, ITestArgument
{
    public TestArgument() {}
}

public class Example
{
    // The following method displays information about a generic
    // type.
    private static void DisplayGenericType(Type t)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("\r\n {0}", t);
        Console.WriteLine("   Is this a generic type? {0}",
            t.IsGenericType);
        Console.WriteLine("   Is this a generic type definition? {0}",
            t.IsGenericTypeDefinition);

        // Get the generic type parameters or type arguments.
        Type[] typeParameters = t.GetGenericArguments();

        Console.WriteLine("   List {0} type arguments:",
            typeParameters.Length);
        foreach( Type tParam in typeParameters )
        {
            if (tParam.IsGenericParameter)
            {
                DisplayGenericParameter(tParam);
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("      Type argument: {0}",
                    tParam);
            }
        }
    }

    // The following method displays information about a generic
    // type parameter. Generic type parameters are represented by
    // instances of System.Type, just like ordinary types.
    private static void DisplayGenericParameter(Type tp)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("      Type parameter: {0} position {1}",
            tp.Name, tp.GenericParameterPosition);

        Type classConstraint = null;

        foreach(Type iConstraint in tp.GetGenericParameterConstraints())
        {
            if (iConstraint.IsInterface)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("         Interface constraint: {0}",
                    iConstraint);
            }
        }

        if (classConstraint != null)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("         Base type constraint: {0}",
                tp.BaseType);
        }
        else
        {
            Console.WriteLine("         Base type constraint: None");
        }

        GenericParameterAttributes sConstraints =
            tp.GenericParameterAttributes &
            GenericParameterAttributes.SpecialConstraintMask;

        if (sConstraints == GenericParameterAttributes.None)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("         No special constraints.");
        }
        else
        {
            if (GenericParameterAttributes.None != (sConstraints &
                GenericParameterAttributes.DefaultConstructorConstraint))
            {
                Console.WriteLine("         Must have a parameterless constructor.");
            }
            if (GenericParameterAttributes.None != (sConstraints &
                GenericParameterAttributes.ReferenceTypeConstraint))
            {
                Console.WriteLine("         Must be a reference type.");
            }
            if (GenericParameterAttributes.None != (sConstraints &
                GenericParameterAttributes.NotNullableValueTypeConstraint))
            {
                Console.WriteLine("         Must be a non-nullable value type.");
            }
        }
    }

    [PermissionSetAttribute(SecurityAction.Demand, Name="FullTrust")]
    public static void Main()
    {
        // Two ways to get a Type object that represents the generic
        // type definition of the Dictionary class.
        //
        // Use the typeof operator to create the generic type
        // definition directly. To specify the generic type definition,
        // omit the type arguments but retain the comma that separates
        // them.
        Type d1 = typeof(Dictionary<,>);

        // You can also obtain the generic type definition from a
        // constructed class. In this case, the constructed class
        // is a dictionary of Example objects, with String keys.
        Dictionary<string, Example> d2 = new Dictionary<string, Example>();
        // Get a Type object that represents the constructed type,
        // and from that get the generic type definition. The
        // variables d1 and d4 contain the same type.
        Type d3 = d2.GetType();
        Type d4 = d3.GetGenericTypeDefinition();

        // Display information for the generic type definition, and
        // for the constructed type Dictionary<String, Example>.
        DisplayGenericType(d1);
        DisplayGenericType(d2.GetType());

        // Construct an array of type arguments to substitute for
        // the type parameters of the generic Dictionary class.
        // The array must contain the correct number of types, in
        // the same order that they appear in the type parameter
        // list of Dictionary. The key (first type parameter)
        // is of type string, and the type to be contained in the
        // dictionary is Example.
        Type[] typeArgs = {typeof(string), typeof(Example)};

        // Construct the type Dictionary<String, Example>.
        Type constructed = d1.MakeGenericType(typeArgs);

        DisplayGenericType(constructed);

        object o = Activator.CreateInstance(constructed);

        Console.WriteLine("\r\nCompare types obtained by different methods:");
        Console.WriteLine("   Are the constructed types equal? {0}",
            (d2.GetType()==constructed));
        Console.WriteLine("   Are the generic definitions equal? {0}",
            (d1==constructed.GetGenericTypeDefinition()));

        // Demonstrate the DisplayGenericType and
        // DisplayGenericParameter methods with the Test class
        // defined above. This shows base, interface, and special
        // constraints.
        DisplayGenericType(typeof(Test<>));
    }
}
Imports System.Reflection
Imports System.Collections.Generic
Imports System.Security.Permissions

' Define an example interface.
Public Interface ITestArgument
End Interface

' Define an example base class.
Public Class TestBase
End Class

' Define a generic class with one parameter. The parameter
' has three constraints: It must inherit TestBase, it must
' implement ITestArgument, and it must have a parameterless
' constructor.
Public Class Test(Of T As {TestBase, ITestArgument, New})
End Class

' Define a class that meets the constraints on the type
' parameter of class Test.
Public Class TestArgument
    Inherits TestBase
    Implements ITestArgument
    Public Sub New()
    End Sub
End Class

Public Class Example
    ' The following method displays information about a generic
    ' type.
    Private Shared Sub DisplayGenericType(ByVal t As Type)
        Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & t.ToString())
        Console.WriteLine("   Is this a generic type? " _
            & t.IsGenericType)
        Console.WriteLine("   Is this a generic type definition? " _
            & t.IsGenericTypeDefinition)

        ' Get the generic type parameters or type arguments.
        Dim typeParameters() As Type = t.GetGenericArguments()

        Console.WriteLine("   List {0} type arguments:", _
            typeParameters.Length)
        For Each tParam As Type In typeParameters
            If tParam.IsGenericParameter Then
                DisplayGenericParameter(tParam)
            Else
                Console.WriteLine("      Type argument: {0}", _
                    tParam)
            End If
        Next
    End Sub

    ' The following method displays information about a generic
    ' type parameter. Generic type parameters are represented by
    ' instances of System.Type, just like ordinary types.
    Private Shared Sub DisplayGenericParameter(ByVal tp As Type)
        Console.WriteLine("      Type parameter: {0} position {1}", _
            tp.Name, tp.GenericParameterPosition)

        Dim classConstraint As Type = Nothing

        For Each iConstraint As Type In tp.GetGenericParameterConstraints()
            If iConstraint.IsInterface Then
                Console.WriteLine("         Interface constraint: {0}", _
                    iConstraint)
            End If
        Next

        If classConstraint IsNot Nothing Then
            Console.WriteLine("         Base type constraint: {0}", _
                tp.BaseType)
        Else
            Console.WriteLine("         Base type constraint: None")
        End If

        Dim sConstraints As GenericParameterAttributes = _
            tp.GenericParameterAttributes And _
            GenericParameterAttributes.SpecialConstraintMask
        If sConstraints = GenericParameterAttributes.None Then
            Console.WriteLine("         No special constraints.")
        Else
            If GenericParameterAttributes.None <> (sConstraints And _
                GenericParameterAttributes.DefaultConstructorConstraint) Then
                Console.WriteLine("         Must have a parameterless constructor.")
            End If
            If GenericParameterAttributes.None <> (sConstraints And _
                GenericParameterAttributes.ReferenceTypeConstraint) Then
                Console.WriteLine("         Must be a reference type.")
            End If
            If GenericParameterAttributes.None <> (sConstraints And _
                GenericParameterAttributes.NotNullableValueTypeConstraint) Then
                Console.WriteLine("         Must be a non-nullable value type.")
            End If
        End If
    End Sub

    <PermissionSetAttribute(SecurityAction.Demand, Name:="FullTrust")> _
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        ' Two ways to get a Type object that represents the generic
        ' type definition of the Dictionary class. 
        '
        ' Use the GetType operator to create the generic type 
        ' definition directly. To specify the generic type definition,
        ' omit the type arguments but retain the comma that separates
        ' them.
        Dim d1 As Type = GetType(Dictionary(Of ,))

        ' You can also obtain the generic type definition from a
        ' constructed class. In this case, the constructed class
        ' is a dictionary of Example objects, with String keys.
        Dim d2 As New Dictionary(Of String, Example)
        ' Get a Type object that represents the constructed type,
        ' and from that get the generic type definition. The 
        ' variables d1 and d4 contain the same type.
        Dim d3 As Type = d2.GetType()
        Dim d4 As Type = d3.GetGenericTypeDefinition()

        ' Display information for the generic type definition, and
        ' for the constructed type Dictionary(Of String, Example).
        DisplayGenericType(d1)
        DisplayGenericType(d2.GetType())

        ' Construct an array of type arguments to substitute for 
        ' the type parameters of the generic Dictionary class.
        ' The array must contain the correct number of types, in 
        ' the same order that they appear in the type parameter 
        ' list of Dictionary. The key (first type parameter)
        ' is of type string, and the type to be contained in the
        ' dictionary is Example.
        Dim typeArgs() As Type = _
            {GetType(String), GetType(Example)}

        ' Construct the type Dictionary(Of String, Example).
        Dim constructed As Type = _
            d1.MakeGenericType(typeArgs)

        DisplayGenericType(constructed)

        Dim o As Object = Activator.CreateInstance(constructed)

        Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & _
            "Compare types obtained by different methods:")
        Console.WriteLine("   Are the constructed types equal? " _
            & (d2.GetType() Is constructed))
        Console.WriteLine("   Are the generic definitions equal? " _
            & (d1 Is constructed.GetGenericTypeDefinition()))

        ' Demonstrate the DisplayGenericType and 
        ' DisplayGenericParameter methods with the Test class 
        ' defined above. This shows base, interface, and special
        ' constraints.
        DisplayGenericType(GetType(Test(Of )))
    End Sub
End Class

関連項目See also