方法: バックグラウンドでファイルをダウンロードするHow to: Download a File in the Background

ファイルのダウンロードは一般的なタスクであり、時間のかかる可能性があるこの操作を別のスレッドで実行すると便利です。Downloading a file is a common task, and it is often useful to run this potentially time-consuming operation on a separate thread. ごくわずかなコードでこのタスクを実行するには、BackgroundWorker コンポーネントを使用します。Use the BackgroundWorker component to accomplish this task with very little code.

Example

次のコード例は、BackgroundWorker コンポーネントを使用して、URL からの XML ファイルを読み込む方法を示しています。The following code example demonstrates how to use a BackgroundWorker component to load an XML file from a URL. ユーザーがクリックしたとき、ダウンロードボタン、Clickイベント ハンドラーの呼び出し、RunWorkerAsyncのメソッドをBackgroundWorkerコンポーネント ダウンロード操作を開始します。When the user clicks the Download button, the Click event handler calls the RunWorkerAsync method of a BackgroundWorker component to start the download operation. ダウンロード中はボタンが無効になり、ダウンロードが完了すると有効になります。The button is disabled for the duration of the download, and then enabled when the download is complete. MessageBox にファイルの内容が表示されます。A MessageBox displays the contents of the file.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Threading;
using System.Windows.Forms;
using System.Xml;

public class Form1 : Form
{
    private BackgroundWorker backgroundWorker1;
    private Button downloadButton;
    private ProgressBar progressBar1;
    private XmlDocument document = null;

    public Form1()
    {
        InitializeComponent();

        // Instantiate BackgroundWorker and attach handlers to its
        // DoWork and RunWorkerCompleted events.
        backgroundWorker1 = new System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker();
        backgroundWorker1.DoWork += new System.ComponentModel.DoWorkEventHandler(this.backgroundWorker1_DoWork);
        backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerCompleted += new System.ComponentModel.RunWorkerCompletedEventHandler(this.backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted);
    }

    private void downloadButton_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        // Start the download operation in the background.
        this.backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync();

        // Disable the button for the duration of the download.
        this.downloadButton.Enabled = false;

        // Once you have started the background thread you 
        // can exit the handler and the application will 
        // wait until the RunWorkerCompleted event is raised.

        // Or if you want to do something else in the main thread,
        // such as update a progress bar, you can do so in a loop 
        // while checking IsBusy to see if the background task is
        // still running.

        while (this.backgroundWorker1.IsBusy)
        {
            progressBar1.Increment(1);
            // Keep UI messages moving, so the form remains 
            // responsive during the asynchronous operation.
            Application.DoEvents();
        }
    }

    private void backgroundWorker1_DoWork(
        object sender,
        DoWorkEventArgs e)
    {
        document = new XmlDocument();

        // Uncomment the following line to
        // simulate a noticeable latency.
        //Thread.Sleep(5000);

        // Replace this file name with a valid file name.
        document.Load(@"http://www.tailspintoys.com/sample.xml");
    }

    private void backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted(
        object sender,
        RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs e)
    {
        // Set progress bar to 100% in case it's not already there.
        progressBar1.Value = 100;

        if (e.Error == null)
        {
            MessageBox.Show(document.InnerXml, "Download Complete");
        }
        else
        {
            MessageBox.Show(
                "Failed to download file",
                "Download failed",
                MessageBoxButtons.OK,
                MessageBoxIcon.Error);
        }

        // Enable the download button and reset the progress bar.
        this.downloadButton.Enabled = true;
        progressBar1.Value = 0;
    }

    #region Windows Form Designer generated code

    /// <summary>
    /// Required designer variable.
    /// </summary>
    private System.ComponentModel.IContainer components = null;

    /// <summary>
    /// Clean up any resources being used.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="disposing">true if managed resources should be disposed; otherwise, false.</param>
    protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
    {
        if (disposing && (components != null))
        {
            components.Dispose();
        }
        base.Dispose(disposing);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Required method for Designer support
    /// </summary>
    private void InitializeComponent()
    {
        this.downloadButton = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
        this.progressBar1 = new System.Windows.Forms.ProgressBar();
        this.SuspendLayout();
        // 
        // downloadButton
        // 
        this.downloadButton.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(12, 12);
        this.downloadButton.Name = "downloadButton";
        this.downloadButton.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(100, 23);
        this.downloadButton.TabIndex = 0;
        this.downloadButton.Text = "Download file";
        this.downloadButton.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
        this.downloadButton.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.downloadButton_Click);
        // 
        // progressBar1
        // 
        this.progressBar1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(12, 50);
        this.progressBar1.Name = "progressBar1";
        this.progressBar1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(100, 26);
        this.progressBar1.TabIndex = 1;
        // 
        // Form1
        // 
        this.AutoScaleDimensions = new System.Drawing.SizeF(6F, 13F);
        this.AutoScaleMode = System.Windows.Forms.AutoScaleMode.Font;
        this.ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size(133, 104);
        this.Controls.Add(this.progressBar1);
        this.Controls.Add(this.downloadButton);
        this.Name = "Form1";
        this.Text = "Form1";
        this.ResumeLayout(false);

    }

    #endregion
}

static class Program
{
    /// <summary>
    /// The main entry point for the application.
    /// </summary>
    [STAThread]
    static void Main()
    {
        Application.EnableVisualStyles();
        Application.Run(new Form1());
    }
}
Imports System.Collections.Generic
Imports System.ComponentModel
Imports System.Drawing
Imports System.Threading
Imports System.Windows.Forms
Imports System.Xml

Public Class Form1
    Inherits Form

    Private WithEvents downloadButton As Button
    Private WithEvents progressBar1 As ProgressBar
    Private WithEvents backgroundWorker1 As BackgroundWorker
    Private document As XmlDocument = Nothing

    Public Sub New()
        InitializeComponent()
        Me.backgroundWorker1 = New System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker()
    End Sub

    Private Sub downloadButton_Click( _
        ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As EventArgs) _
        Handles downloadButton.Click

        ' Start the download operation in the background.
        Me.backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync()

        ' Disable the button for the duration of the download.
        Me.downloadButton.Enabled = False

        ' Once you have started the background thread you 
        ' can exit the handler and the application will 
        ' wait until the RunWorkerCompleted event is raised.

        ' If you want to do something else in the main thread,
        ' such as update a progress bar, you can do so in a loop 
        ' while checking IsBusy to see if the background task is
        ' still running.
        While Me.backgroundWorker1.IsBusy
            progressBar1.Increment(1)
            ' Keep UI messages moving, so the form remains 
            ' responsive during the asynchronous operation.
            Application.DoEvents()
        End While
    End Sub

    Private Sub backgroundWorker1_DoWork( _
        ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As DoWorkEventArgs) _
        Handles backgroundWorker1.DoWork

        document = New XmlDocument()

        ' Replace this file name with a valid file name.
        document.Load("http://www.tailspintoys.com/sample.xml")

        ' Uncomment the following line to
        ' simulate a noticeable latency.
        'Thread.Sleep(5000);
    End Sub

    Private Sub backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted( _
        ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs) _
        Handles backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerCompleted

        ' Set progress bar to 100% in case it isn't already there.
        progressBar1.Value = 100

        If e.Error Is Nothing Then
            MessageBox.Show(document.InnerXml, "Download Complete")
        Else
            MessageBox.Show("Failed to download file", "Download failed", MessageBoxButtons.OK, MessageBoxIcon.Error)
        End If

        ' Enable the download button and reset the progress bar.
        Me.downloadButton.Enabled = True
        progressBar1.Value = 0
    End Sub

#Region "Windows Form Designer generated code"
    ' Required designer variable.
    Private components As System.ComponentModel.IContainer = Nothing

    ' Clean up any resources being used.
    ' <param name="disposing">true if managed resources should be disposed; otherwise, false.</param>
    Protected Overrides Sub Dispose(ByVal disposing As Boolean)
        If disposing AndAlso (components IsNot Nothing) Then
            components.Dispose()
        End If
        MyBase.Dispose(disposing)
    End Sub

    ' Required method for Designer support - do not modify
    ' the contents of this method with the code editor.
    Private Sub InitializeComponent()
        Me.downloadButton = New System.Windows.Forms.Button
        Me.progressBar1 = New System.Windows.Forms.ProgressBar
        Me.SuspendLayout()
        '
        'downloadButton
        '
        Me.downloadButton.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(12, 12)
        Me.downloadButton.Name = "downloadButton"
        Me.downloadButton.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(100, 23)
        Me.downloadButton.TabIndex = 0
        Me.downloadButton.Text = "Download file"
        Me.downloadButton.UseVisualStyleBackColor = True
        '
        'progressBar1
        '
        Me.progressBar1.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(12, 50)
        Me.progressBar1.Name = "progressBar1"
        Me.progressBar1.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(100, 26)
        Me.progressBar1.TabIndex = 1
        '
        'Form1
        '
        Me.AutoScaleDimensions = New System.Drawing.SizeF(6.0!, 13.0!)
        Me.AutoScaleMode = System.Windows.Forms.AutoScaleMode.Font
        Me.ClientSize = New System.Drawing.Size(136, 104)
        Me.Controls.Add(Me.downloadButton)
        Me.Controls.Add(Me.progressBar1)
        Me.Name = "Form1"
        Me.Text = "Form1"
        Me.ResumeLayout(False)

    End Sub

#End Region
End Class


Public Class Program

    ' The main entry point for the application.
    <STAThread()> _
    Shared Sub Main()
        Application.EnableVisualStyles()
        Application.Run(New Form1())
    End Sub
End Class

ファイルをダウンロードするDownloading the file

ファイルが DoWork イベント ハンドラーを実行する BackgroundWorker コンポーネントのワーカー スレッドにダウンロードされます。The file is downloaded on the BackgroundWorker component's worker thread, which runs the DoWork event handler. このスレッドは、コードが RunWorkerAsync メソッドを呼び出すときに開始されます。This thread starts when your code calls the RunWorkerAsync method.

private void backgroundWorker1_DoWork(
    object sender,
    DoWorkEventArgs e)
{
    document = new XmlDocument();

    // Uncomment the following line to
    // simulate a noticeable latency.
    //Thread.Sleep(5000);

    // Replace this file name with a valid file name.
    document.Load(@"http://www.tailspintoys.com/sample.xml");
}
Private Sub backgroundWorker1_DoWork( _
    ByVal sender As Object, _
    ByVal e As DoWorkEventArgs) _
    Handles backgroundWorker1.DoWork

    document = New XmlDocument()

    ' Replace this file name with a valid file name.
    document.Load("http://www.tailspintoys.com/sample.xml")

    ' Uncomment the following line to
    ' simulate a noticeable latency.
    'Thread.Sleep(5000);
End Sub

BackgroundWorker が完了するのを待つWaiting for a BackgroundWorker to finish

downloadButton_Click イベント ハンドラーが BackgroundWorker コンポーネントの非同期タスクの終了を待機する方法を示します。The downloadButton_Click event handler demonstrates how to wait for a BackgroundWorker component to finish its asynchronous task.

アプリケーションがイベントへの応答のみを実行し、バック グラウンド スレッドを待機している間にメイン スレッドでその他の作業を実行しないようにする場合は、ハンドラーを終了します。If you only want the application to respond to events and do not want to do any work in the main thread while you wait for the background thread to complete, just exit the handler.

メイン スレッドで処理を続行する場合は、IsBusy プロパティを使用して、BackgroundWorker スレッドをまだ実行するかどうかを決定します。If you want to continue doing work in the main thread, use the IsBusy property to determine whether the BackgroundWorker thread is still running. 例では、ダウンロードの処理中に、進行状況バーが更新されます。In the example, a progress bar is updated while the download is processing. 必ず Application.DoEvents メソッドを呼び出して、UI 応答性を維持してください。Be sure to call the Application.DoEvents method to keep the UI responsive.

private void downloadButton_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    // Start the download operation in the background.
    this.backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync();

    // Disable the button for the duration of the download.
    this.downloadButton.Enabled = false;

    // Once you have started the background thread you 
    // can exit the handler and the application will 
    // wait until the RunWorkerCompleted event is raised.

    // Or if you want to do something else in the main thread,
    // such as update a progress bar, you can do so in a loop 
    // while checking IsBusy to see if the background task is
    // still running.

    while (this.backgroundWorker1.IsBusy)
    {
        progressBar1.Increment(1);
        // Keep UI messages moving, so the form remains 
        // responsive during the asynchronous operation.
        Application.DoEvents();
    }
}
Private Sub downloadButton_Click( _
    ByVal sender As Object, _
    ByVal e As EventArgs) _
    Handles downloadButton.Click

    ' Start the download operation in the background.
    Me.backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync()

    ' Disable the button for the duration of the download.
    Me.downloadButton.Enabled = False

    ' Once you have started the background thread you 
    ' can exit the handler and the application will 
    ' wait until the RunWorkerCompleted event is raised.

    ' If you want to do something else in the main thread,
    ' such as update a progress bar, you can do so in a loop 
    ' while checking IsBusy to see if the background task is
    ' still running.
    While Me.backgroundWorker1.IsBusy
        progressBar1.Increment(1)
        ' Keep UI messages moving, so the form remains 
        ' responsive during the asynchronous operation.
        Application.DoEvents()
    End While
End Sub

結果を表示するDisplaying the result

backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted メソッドは、RunWorkerCompleted イベントを処理し、バック グラウンド操作が完了したときに呼び出されます。The backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted method handles the RunWorkerCompleted event and is called when the background operation is completed. このメソッドはまず、AsyncCompletedEventArgs.Error プロパティを確認します。This method first checks the AsyncCompletedEventArgs.Error property. AsyncCompletedEventArgs.Errornull の場合に、このメソッドはファイルの内容を表示します。If AsyncCompletedEventArgs.Error is null, then this method displays the contents of the file. これで、ダウンロードを開始したときに無効になっていた [ダウンロード] ボタンが有効になり、進行状況バーがリセットされます。It then enables the download button, which was disabled when the download began, and it resets the progress bar.

private void backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted(
    object sender,
    RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs e)
{
    // Set progress bar to 100% in case it's not already there.
    progressBar1.Value = 100;

    if (e.Error == null)
    {
        MessageBox.Show(document.InnerXml, "Download Complete");
    }
    else
    {
        MessageBox.Show(
            "Failed to download file",
            "Download failed",
            MessageBoxButtons.OK,
            MessageBoxIcon.Error);
    }

    // Enable the download button and reset the progress bar.
    this.downloadButton.Enabled = true;
    progressBar1.Value = 0;
}
Private Sub backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted( _
    ByVal sender As Object, _
    ByVal e As RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs) _
    Handles backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerCompleted

    ' Set progress bar to 100% in case it isn't already there.
    progressBar1.Value = 100

    If e.Error Is Nothing Then
        MessageBox.Show(document.InnerXml, "Download Complete")
    Else
        MessageBox.Show("Failed to download file", "Download failed", MessageBoxButtons.OK, MessageBoxIcon.Error)
    End If

    ' Enable the download button and reset the progress bar.
    Me.downloadButton.Enabled = True
    progressBar1.Value = 0
End Sub

コードのコンパイルCompiling the Code

この例で必要な要素は次のとおりです。This example requires:

  • System.Drawing、System.Windows.Forms、および System.Xml の各アセンブリへの参照。References to the System.Drawing, System.Windows.Forms, and System.Xml assemblies.

信頼性の高いプログラミングRobust Programming

DoWork イベント ハンドラーにより影響を受けている可能性がある RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs.Result プロパティまたはその他のオブジェクトへのアクセスを試みる前に、常に RunWorkerCompleted イベント ハンドラーの AsyncCompletedEventArgs.Error プロパティを確認してください。Always check the AsyncCompletedEventArgs.Error property in your RunWorkerCompleted event handler before attempting to access the RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs.Result property or any other object that may have been affected by the DoWork event handler.

関連項目See also