クエリ式

クエリ式を使用すると、データ ソースに対してクエリを実行し、データを適切な形式にすることができます。 クエリ式は、F# の LINQ に対するサポートを提供します。

構文

query { expression }

解説

クエリ式は、シーケンス式に似たコンピュテーション式の一種です。 シーケンス式にコードを提供することでシーケンスを指定するのと同じように、クエリ式にコードを提供することでデータのセットを指定します。 シーケンス式では、yield キーワードは、結果として得られるシーケンスの一部として返されるデータを識別します。 クエリ式では、select キーワードが同じ関数を実行します。 select キーワードに加え、F# では、SQL SELECT ステートメントの部分とよく似た多数のクエリ演算子もサポートされています。 Northwind OData ソースに接続するコードと共に、シンプルなクエリ式の例を次に示します。

// Use the OData type provider to create types that can be used to access the Northwind database.
// Add References to FSharp.Data.TypeProviders and System.Data.Services.Client
open Microsoft.FSharp.Data.TypeProviders

type Northwind = ODataService<"http://services.odata.org/Northwind/Northwind.svc">
let db = Northwind.GetDataContext()

// A query expression.
let query1 =
    query {
        for customer in db.Customers do
            select customer
    }

// Print results
query1
|> Seq.iter (fun customer -> printfn "Company: %s Contact: %s" customer.CompanyName customer.ContactName)

前のコードの例では、クエリ式は中かっこで囲まれています。 式のコードは、クエリ結果のデータベースの Customers テーブルに含まれるすべての顧客を返すことを示しています。 クエリ式は、IQueryable<T>IEnumerable<T> を実装する型を返すため、例に示すように Seq モジュールを使用して反復処理することができます。

すべてのコンピュテーション式の型は、ビルダー クラスから構築されます。 クエリ コンピュテーション式のビルダー クラスは QueryBuilder です。 詳細については、「コンピュテーション式」と QueryBuilder クラスに関するページをご覧ください。

クエリ演算子

クエリ演算子を使用すると、クエリの詳細を指定することができます。たとえば、返されるレコードに条件を追加したり、結果の並べ替え順序を指定したりできます。 クエリ ソースでは、クエリ演算子がサポートされている必要があります。 サポートされていないクエリ演算子を使用しようとすると、System.NotSupportedException がスローされます。

クエリ式では、SQL に変換できる式のみを使用できます。 たとえば、where クエリ演算子を使用する場合、式で関数呼び出しを使用することはできません。

表 1 では、使用できるクエリ演算子を示しています。 また、表 2 では、SQL クエリと、このトピックで後述する同等の F# クエリ式を比較しています。 一部のクエリ演算子は、一部の型プロバイダーではサポートされていません。 特に、OData 型プロバイダーは、OData の制限のため、サポートされるクエリ演算子が制限されています。

この表では、次の形式のデータベースを前提としています。

サンプル データベースを示す図。

次のテーブル内のコードでは、次のデータベース接続コードも前提としています。 プロジェクトには、System.Data、System.Data.Linq、FSharp.Data.TypeProviders のアセンブリへの参照を追加する必要があります。 このデータベースを作成するコードは、このトピックの最後に記載されています。

open System
open Microsoft.FSharp.Data.TypeProviders
open System.Data.Linq.SqlClient
open System.Linq
open Microsoft.FSharp.Linq

type schema = SqlDataConnection< @"Data Source=SERVER\INSTANCE;Initial Catalog=MyDatabase;Integrated Security=SSPI;" >

let db = schema.GetDataContext()

// Needed for some query operator examples:
let data = [ 1; 5; 7; 11; 18; 21]

表 1 クエリ演算子

演算子 説明
contains 選択した要素に指定した要素が含まれているかどうかを判断します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    select student.Age.Value
    contains 11
}
count選択した要素の数を返します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    select student
    count
}
lastこれまでに選択した要素の中から最後の要素を選択します。

query {
    for number in data do
    last
}
lastOrDefaultこれまでに選択した要素の中から最後の要素を選択します。要素が見つからない場合は既定値を選択します。

query {
    for number in data do
    where (number < 0)
    lastOrDefault
}
exactlyOneこれまでに選択した単一の特定の要素を選択します。 複数の要素が存在する場合は、例外がスローされます。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (student.StudentID = 1)
    select student
    exactlyOne
}
exactlyOneOrDefaultこれまでに選択した要素の中から単一の特定の要素を選択します。その要素が見つからない場合は既定値を選択します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (student.StudentID = 1)
    select student
    exactlyOneOrDefault
}
headOrDefaultこれまでに選択した要素の中から最初の要素を選択します。シーケンスに要素が含まれていない場合は既定値を選択します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    select student
    headOrDefault
}
selectこれまでに選択した各要素を予想します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    select student
}
where指定された述語に基づいて要素を選択します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (student.StudentID > 4)
    select student
}
minByこれまでに選択した各要素の値を選択し、結果として得られる最小値を返します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    minBy student.StudentID
}
maxByこれまでに選択した各要素の値を選択し、結果として得られる最大値を返します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    maxBy student.StudentID
}
groupBy指定したキー セレクターに従って、これまでに選択した要素をグループ化します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    groupBy student.Age into g
    select (g.Key, g.Count())
}
sortByこれまでに選択した要素を、指定した並べ替えキーの昇順に並べ替えます。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sortBy student.Name
    select student
}
sortByDescendingこれまでに選択した要素を、指定した並べ替えキーの降順に並べ替えます。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sortByDescending student.Name
    select student
}
thenByこれまでに選択した要素の後続の並べ替えを、指定した並べ替えキーの昇順で実行します。 この演算子は、sortBysortByDescendingthenBythenByDescending の後にのみ使用できます。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where student.Age.HasValue
    sortBy student.Age.Value
    thenBy student.Name
    select student
}
thenByDescendingこれまでに選択した要素の後続の並べ替えを、指定した並べ替えキーの降順で実行します。 この演算子は、sortBysortByDescendingthenBythenByDescending の後にのみ使用できます。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where student.Age.HasValue
    sortBy student.Age.Value
    thenByDescending student.Name
    select student
}
groupValByこれまでに選択した各要素の値を選択し、指定したキーで要素をグループ化します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    groupValBy student.Name student.Age into g
    select (g, g.Key, g.Count())
}
join一致するキーに基づいて、選択した 2 つの値のセットを関連付けます。 結合式の = 記号の前後のキーの順序は重要です。 すべての結合で、行が -> 記号の後に分割されている場合は、少なくともキーワード for までインデントする必要があります。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    join selection in db.CourseSelection
        on (student.StudentID = selection.StudentID)
    select (student, selection)
}
groupJoin一致するキーに基づいて選択した 2 つの値のセットを関連付けて、結果をグループ化します。 結合式の = 記号の前後のキーの順序は重要です。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    groupJoin courseSelection in db.CourseSelection
        on (student.StudentID = courseSelection.StudentID) into g
    for courseSelection in g do
    join course in db.Course
        on (courseSelection.CourseID = course.CourseID)
    select (student.Name, course.CourseName)
}
leftOuterJoin一致するキーに基づいて選択した 2 つの値のセットを関連付けて、結果をグループ化します。 グループが空の場合は、代わりに単一の既定値を持つグループが使用されます。 結合式の = 記号の前後のキーの順序は重要です。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    leftOuterJoin selection in db.CourseSelection
        on (student.StudentID = selection.StudentID) into result
    for selection in result.DefaultIfEmpty() do
    select (student, selection)
}
sumByNullableこれまでに選択した各要素に対して Null 許容の値を選択し、これらの値の合計を返します。 Null 許容型に値がない場合は、無視されます。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sumByNullable student.Age
}
minByNullableこれまでに選択した各要素に対して Null 許容値を選択し、これらの値の最小値を返します。 Null 許容型に値がない場合は、無視されます。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    minByNullable student.Age
}
maxByNullableこれまでに選択した各要素に対して Null 許容値を選択し、これらの値の最大値を返します。 Null 許容型に値がない場合は、無視されます。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    maxByNullable student.Age
}
averageByNullableこれまでに選択した各要素に対して Null 許容値を選択し、これらの値の平均を返します。 Null 許容型に値がない場合は、無視されます。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    averageByNullable (Nullable.float student.Age)
}
averageByこれまでに選択した各要素に対して値を選択し、これらの値の平均を返します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    averageBy (float student.StudentID)
}
distinctこれまでに選択した要素の中から個別の要素を選択します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    join selection in db.CourseSelection
        on (student.StudentID = selection.StudentID)
    distinct
}
existsこれまでに選択した要素が条件を満たしているかどうかを判断します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where
        (query {
            for courseSelection in db.CourseSelection do
            exists (courseSelection.StudentID = student.StudentID) })
    select student
}
findこれまでに選択した最初の要素の中から、指定した条件を満たす要素を選択します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    find (student.Name = "Abercrombie, Kim")
}
allこれまでに選択したすべての要素が条件を満たしているかどうかを判断します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    all (SqlMethods.Like(student.Name, "%,%"))
}
headこれまでに選択した要素の中から最初の要素を選択します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    head
}
nthこれまでに選択した要素の中から、指定したインデックス位置にある要素を選択します。

query {
    for numbers in data do
    nth 3
}
skipこれまでに選択した要素の指定した数の要素をバイパスした後、残りの要素を選択します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    skip 1
}
skipWhile指定した条件を満たしている場合はシーケンスの要素をバイパスした後、残りの要素を選択します。

query {
    for number in data do
    skipWhile (number < 3)
    select student
}
sumByこれまでに選択した各要素に対して値を選択し、これらの値の合計を返します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sumBy student.StudentID
}
takeこれまでに選択した要素の中から、指定した数の連続する要素を選択します。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    select student
    take 2
}
takeWhile指定した条件を満たしている場合はシーケンスから要素を選択した後、残りの要素をスキップします。

query {
    for number in data do
    takeWhile (number < 10)
}
sortByNullableこれまでに選択した要素を、指定した Null 許容の並べ替えキーの昇順に並べ替えます。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sortByNullable student.Age
    select student
}
sortByNullableDescendingこれまでに選択した要素を、指定した Null 許容の並べ替えキーの降順に並べ替えます。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sortByNullableDescending student.Age
    select student
}
thenByNullableこれまでに選択した要素の後続の並べ替えを、指定した Null 許容の並べ替えキーの昇順で実行します。 この演算子は、sortBysortByDescendingthenBythenByDescending、またはそれらの Null 許容バリアントの直後にのみ使用できます。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sortBy student.Name
    thenByNullable student.Age
    select student
}
thenByNullableDescendingこれまでに選択した要素の後続の並べ替えを、指定した Null 許容の並べ替えキーの降順で実行します。 この演算子は、sortBysortByDescendingthenBythenByDescending、またはそれらの Null 許容バリアントの直後にのみ使用できます。

query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sortBy student.Name
    thenByNullableDescending student.Age
    select student
}

Transact-SQL と F# のクエリ式の比較

次の表では、いくつかの一般的な Transact-SQL クエリ、および F# での同等のクエリを示しています。 また、この表のコードでは、前のテーブルと同じデータベースと、型プロバイダーを設定するための同じ初期コードを前提としています。

表 2 Transact-SQL と F# のクエリ式

Transact-SQL (大文字と小文字を区別しない) F# クエリ式 (大文字と小文字を区別)
テーブルのすべてのフィールドを選択します。
SELECT * FROM Student
// All students.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    select student
}
テーブル内のレコードをカウントします。
SELECT COUNT( * ) FROM Student
// Count of students.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    count
}
EXISTS
SELECT * FROM Student
WHERE EXISTS
  (SELECT * FROM CourseSelection
   WHERE CourseSelection.StudentID = Student.StudentID)
// Find students who have signed up at least one course.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where
        (query {
            for courseSelection in db.CourseSelection do
            exists (courseSelection.StudentID = student.StudentID) })
    select student
}
グループ化
SELECT Student.Age, COUNT( * ) FROM Student
GROUP BY Student.Age
// Group by age and count.
query {
    for n in db.Student do
    groupBy n.Age into g
    select (g.Key, g.Count())
}
// OR
query {
    for n in db.Student do
    groupValBy n.Age n.Age into g
    select (g.Key, g.Count())
}
条件を使用してグループ化。
SELECT Student.Age, COUNT( * )
FROM Student
GROUP BY Student.Age
HAVING student.Age > 10
// Group students by age where age > 10.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    groupBy student.Age into g
    where (g.Key.HasValue && g.Key.Value > 10)
    select (g.Key, g.Count())
}
カウント条件を使用してグループ化。
SELECT Student.Age, COUNT( * )
FROM Student
GROUP BY Student.Age
HAVING COUNT( * ) > 1
// Group students by age and count number of students
// at each age with more than 1 student.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    groupBy student.Age into group
    where (group.Count() > 1)
    select (group.Key, group.Count())
}
グループ化、カウント、集計。
SELECT Student.Age, COUNT( * ), SUM(Student.Age) as total
FROM Student
GROUP BY Student.Age
// Group students by age and sum ages.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    groupBy student.Age into g
    let total =
        query {
            for student in g do
            sumByNullable student.Age
        }
    select (g.Key, g.Count(), total)
}
カウント別にグループ化、カウント、順序付け。
SELECT Student.Age, COUNT( * ) as myCount
FROM Student
GROUP BY Student.Age
HAVING COUNT( * ) > 1
ORDER BY COUNT( * ) DESC
// Group students by age, count number of students
// at each age, and display all with count > 1
// in descending order of count.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    groupBy student.Age into g
    where (g.Count() > 1)
    sortByDescending (g.Count())
    select (g.Key, g.Count())
}
IN 指定した一連の値
SELECT *
FROM Student
WHERE Student.StudentID IN (1, 2, 5, 10)
// Select students where studentID is one of a given list.
let idQuery =
    query {
        for id in [1; 2; 5; 10] do
        select id
    }
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (idQuery.Contains(student.StudentID))
    select student
}
LIKE および TOP
-- '_e%' matches strings where the second character is 'e'
SELECT TOP 2 * FROM Student
WHERE Student.Name LIKE '_e%'
// Look for students with Name match _e% pattern and take first two.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (SqlMethods.Like( student.Name, "_e%") )
    select student
    take 2
}
パターン一致が設定された LIKE
-- '[abc]%' matches strings where the first character is
-- 'a', 'b', 'c', 'A', 'B', or 'C'
SELECT * FROM Student
WHERE Student.Name LIKE '[abc]%'
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (SqlMethods.Like( student.Name, "[abc]%") )
    select student
}
除外パターンが設定された LIKE
-- '[^abc]%' matches strings where the first character is
-- not 'a', 'b', 'c', 'A', 'B', or 'C'
SELECT * FROM Student
WHERE Student.Name LIKE '[^abc]%'
// Look for students with name matching [^abc]%% pattern.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (SqlMethods.Like( student.Name, "[^abc]%") )
    select student
}
あるフィールドに対する LIKE ですが、別のフィールドを選択します。
SELECT StudentID AS ID FROM Student
WHERE Student.Name LIKE '[^abc]%'
query {
    for n in db.Student do
    where (SqlMethods.Like( n.Name, "[^abc]%") )
    select n.StudentID
}
部分文字列検索を使用する LIKE
SELECT * FROM Student
WHERE Student.Name like '%A%'
// Using Contains as a query filter.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (student.Name.Contains("a"))
    select student
}
2 つのテーブルを含むシンプルな JOIN
SELECT * FROM Student
JOIN CourseSelection
ON Student.StudentID = CourseSelection.StudentID
// Join Student and CourseSelection tables.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    join selection in db.CourseSelection
        on (student.StudentID = selection.StudentID)
    select (student, selection)
}
2 つのテーブルを含む LEFT JOIN
SELECT * FROM Student
LEFT JOIN CourseSelection
ON Student.StudentID = CourseSelection.StudentID
//Left Join Student and CourseSelection tables.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    leftOuterJoin selection in db.CourseSelection
        on (student.StudentID = selection.StudentID) into result
    for selection in result.DefaultIfEmpty() do
    select (student, selection)
}
COUNT を含む JOIN
SELECT COUNT( * ) FROM Student
JOIN CourseSelection
ON Student.StudentID = CourseSelection.StudentID
// Join with count.
query {
    for n in db.Student do
    join e in db.CourseSelection
        on (n.StudentID = e.StudentID)
    count
}
DISTINCT
SELECT DISTINCT StudentID FROM CourseSelection
// Join with distinct.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    join selection in db.CourseSelection
        on (student.StudentID = selection.StudentID)
    distinct
}
重複しない値の数。
SELECT DISTINCT COUNT(StudentID) FROM CourseSelection
// Join with distinct and count.
query {
    for n in db.Student do
    join e in db.CourseSelection
        on (n.StudentID = e.StudentID)
    distinct
    count
}
BETWEEN
SELECT * FROM Student
WHERE Student.Age BETWEEN 10 AND 15
// Selecting students with ages between 10 and 15.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (student.Age ?>= 10 && student.Age ?< 15)
    select student
}
OR
SELECT * FROM Student
WHERE Student.Age = 11 OR Student.Age = 12
// Selecting students with age that's either 11 or 12.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (student.Age.Value = 11 || student.Age.Value = 12)
    select student
}
順序付けを使用する OR
SELECT * FROM Student
WHERE Student.Age = 12 OR Student.Age = 13
ORDER BY Student.Age DESC
// Selecting students in a certain age range and sorting.
query {
    for n in db.Student do
    where (n.Age.Value = 12 || n.Age.Value = 13)
    sortByNullableDescending n.Age
    select n
}
TOPOR、順序付け。
SELECT TOP 2 student.Name FROM Student
WHERE Student.Age = 11 OR Student.Age = 12
ORDER BY Student.Name DESC
// Selecting students with certain ages,
// taking account of the possibility of nulls.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where
        ((student.Age.HasValue && student.Age.Value = 11) ||
         (student.Age.HasValue && student.Age.Value = 12))
    sortByDescending student.Name
    select student.Name
    take 2
}
2 つのクエリの UNION
SELECT * FROM Student
UNION
SELECT * FROM lastStudent

let query1 =
    query {
        for n in db.Student do
        select (n.Name, n.Age)
    }

let query2 =
    query {
        for n in db.LastStudent do
        select (n.Name, n.Age)
    }

query2.Union (query1)
2 つのクエリの積集合。
SELECT * FROM Student
INTERSECT
SELECT * FROM LastStudent

let query1 =
    query {
        for n in db.Student do
        select (n.Name, n.Age)
    }

let query2 =
    query {
        for n in db.LastStudent do
        select (n.Name, n.Age)
    }

query1.Intersect(query2)
CASE 条件。
SELECT student.StudentID,
CASE Student.Age
  WHEN -1 THEN 100
  ELSE Student.Age
END,
Student.Age
FROM Student
// Using if statement to alter results for special value.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    select
        (if student.Age.HasValue && student.Age.Value = -1 then
             (student.StudentID, System.Nullable<int>(100), student.Age)
         else (student.StudentID, student.Age, student.Age))
}
複数のケース。
SELECT Student.StudentID,
CASE Student.Age
  WHEN -1 THEN 100
  WHEN 0 THEN 1000
  ELSE Student.Age
END,
Student.Age
FROM Student
// Using if statement to alter results for special values.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    select
        (if student.Age.HasValue && student.Age.Value = -1 then
             (student.StudentID, System.Nullable<int>(100), student.Age)
         elif student.Age.HasValue && student.Age.Value = 0 then
             (student.StudentID, System.Nullable<int>(1000), student.Age)
         else (student.StudentID, student.Age, student.Age))
}
複数のテーブル。
SELECT * FROM Student, Course
// Multiple table select.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    for course in db.Course do
    select (student, course)
}
複数の結合。
SELECT Student.Name, Course.CourseName
FROM Student
JOIN CourseSelection
ON CourseSelection.StudentID = Student.StudentID
JOIN Course
ON Course.CourseID = CourseSelection.CourseID
// Multiple joins.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    join courseSelection in db.CourseSelection
        on (student.StudentID = courseSelection.StudentID)
    join course in db.Course
        on (courseSelection.CourseID = course.CourseID)
    select (student.Name, course.CourseName)
}
複数の左外部結合。
SELECT Student.Name, Course.CourseName
FROM Student
LEFT OUTER JOIN CourseSelection
ON CourseSelection.StudentID = Student.StudentID
LEFT OUTER JOIN Course
ON Course.CourseID = CourseSelection.CourseID
// Using leftOuterJoin with multiple joins.
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    leftOuterJoin courseSelection in db.CourseSelection
        on (student.StudentID = courseSelection.StudentID) into g1
    for courseSelection in g1.DefaultIfEmpty() do
    leftOuterJoin course in db.Course
        on (courseSelection.CourseID = course.CourseID) into g2
    for course in g2.DefaultIfEmpty() do
    select (student.Name, course.CourseName)
}

次のコードを使用して、これらの例のサンプル データベースを作成できます。

SET ANSI_NULLS ON
GO
SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER ON
GO

USE [master];
GO

IF EXISTS (SELECT * FROM sys.databases WHERE name = 'MyDatabase')
DROP DATABASE MyDatabase;
GO

-- Create the MyDatabase database.
CREATE DATABASE MyDatabase COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS;
GO

-- Specify a simple recovery model
-- to keep the log growth to a minimum.
ALTER DATABASE MyDatabase
SET RECOVERY SIMPLE;
GO

USE MyDatabase;
GO

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[Course] (
[CourseID]   INT           NOT NULL,
[CourseName] NVARCHAR (50) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED ([CourseID] ASC)
);

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[Student] (
[StudentID] INT           NOT NULL,
[Name]      NVARCHAR (50) NOT NULL,
[Age]       INT           NULL,
PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED ([StudentID] ASC)
);

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[CourseSelection] (
[ID]        INT NOT NULL,
[StudentID] INT NOT NULL,
[CourseID]  INT NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED ([ID] ASC),
CONSTRAINT [FK_CourseSelection_ToTable] FOREIGN KEY ([StudentID]) REFERENCES [dbo].[Student] ([StudentID]) ON DELETE NO ACTION ON UPDATE NO ACTION,
CONSTRAINT [FK_CourseSelection_Course_1] FOREIGN KEY ([CourseID]) REFERENCES [dbo].[Course] ([CourseID]) ON DELETE NO ACTION ON UPDATE NO ACTION
);

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[LastStudent] (
[StudentID] INT           NOT NULL,
[Name]      NVARCHAR (50) NOT NULL,
[Age]       INT           NULL,
PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED ([StudentID] ASC)
);

-- Insert data into the tables.
USE MyDatabase
INSERT INTO Course (CourseID, CourseName)
VALUES(1, 'Algebra I');
INSERT INTO Course (CourseID, CourseName)
VALUES(2, 'Trigonometry');
INSERT INTO Course (CourseID, CourseName)
VALUES(3, 'Algebra II');
INSERT INTO Course (CourseID, CourseName)
VALUES(4, 'History');
INSERT INTO Course (CourseID, CourseName)
VALUES(5, 'English');
INSERT INTO Course (CourseID, CourseName)
VALUES(6, 'French');
INSERT INTO Course (CourseID, CourseName)
VALUES(7, 'Chinese');

INSERT INTO Student (StudentID, Name, Age)
VALUES(1, 'Abercrombie, Kim', 10);
INSERT INTO Student (StudentID, Name, Age)
VALUES(2, 'Abolrous, Hazen', 14);
INSERT INTO Student (StudentID, Name, Age)
VALUES(3, 'Hance, Jim', 12);
INSERT INTO Student (StudentID, Name, Age)
VALUES(4, 'Adams, Terry', 12);
INSERT INTO Student (StudentID, Name, Age)
VALUES(5, 'Hansen, Claus', 11);
INSERT INTO Student (StudentID, Name, Age)
VALUES(6, 'Penor, Lori', 13);
INSERT INTO Student (StudentID, Name, Age)
VALUES(7, 'Perham, Tom', 12);
INSERT INTO Student (StudentID, Name, Age)
VALUES(8, 'Peng, Yun-Feng', NULL);

INSERT INTO CourseSelection (ID, StudentID, CourseID)
VALUES(1, 1, 2);
INSERT INTO CourseSelection (ID, StudentID, CourseID)
VALUES(2, 1, 3);
INSERT INTO CourseSelection (ID, StudentID, CourseID)
VALUES(3, 1, 5);
INSERT INTO CourseSelection (ID, StudentID, CourseID)
VALUES(4, 2, 2);
INSERT INTO CourseSelection (ID, StudentID, CourseID)
VALUES(5, 2, 5);
INSERT INTO CourseSelection (ID, StudentID, CourseID)
VALUES(6, 2, 6);
INSERT INTO CourseSelection (ID, StudentID, CourseID)
VALUES(7, 2, 3);
INSERT INTO CourseSelection (ID, StudentID, CourseID)
VALUES(8, 3, 2);
INSERT INTO CourseSelection (ID, StudentID, CourseID)
VALUES(9, 3, 1);
INSERT INTO CourseSelection (ID, StudentID, CourseID)
VALUES(10, 4, 2);
INSERT INTO CourseSelection (ID, StudentID, CourseID)
VALUES(11, 4, 5);
INSERT INTO CourseSelection (ID, StudentID, CourseID)
VALUES(12, 4, 2);
INSERT INTO CourseSelection (ID, StudentID, CourseID)
VALUES(13, 5, 3);
INSERT INTO CourseSelection (ID, StudentID, CourseID)
VALUES(14, 5, 2);
INSERT INTO CourseSelection (ID, StudentID, CourseID)
VALUES(15, 7, 3);

次のコードには、このトピックに記載されているサンプル コードが含まれています。

#if INTERACTIVE
#r "FSharp.Data.TypeProviders.dll"
#r "System.Data.dll"
#r "System.Data.Linq.dll"
#endif
open System
open Microsoft.FSharp.Data.TypeProviders
open System.Data.Linq.SqlClient
open System.Linq

type schema = SqlDataConnection<"Data Source=SERVER\INSTANCE;Initial Catalog=MyDatabase;Integrated Security=SSPI;">

let db = schema.GetDataContext()

let data = [1; 5; 7; 11; 18; 21]

type Nullable<'T when 'T : ( new : unit -> 'T) and 'T : struct and 'T :> ValueType > with
    member this.Print() =
        if this.HasValue then this.Value.ToString()
        else "NULL"

printfn "\ncontains query operator"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    select student.Age.Value
    contains 11
}
|> printfn "Is at least one student age 11? %b"

printfn "\ncount query operator"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    select student
    count
}
|> printfn "Number of students: %d"

printfn "\nlast query operator."
let num =
    query {
        for number in data do
        sortBy number
        last
    }
printfn "Last number: %d" num

open Microsoft.FSharp.Linq

printfn "\nlastOrDefault query operator."
query {
    for number in data do
    sortBy number
    lastOrDefault
}
|> printfn "lastOrDefault: %d"

printfn "\nexactlyOne query operator."
let student2 =
    query {
        for student in db.Student do
        where (student.StudentID = 1)
        select student
        exactlyOne
    }
printfn "Student with StudentID = 1 is %s" student2.Name

printfn "\nexactlyOneOrDefault query operator."
let student3 =
    query {
        for student in db.Student do
        where (student.StudentID = 1)
        select student
        exactlyOneOrDefault
    }
printfn "Student with StudentID = 1 is %s" student3.Name

printfn "\nheadOrDefault query operator."
let student4 =
    query {
        for student in db.Student do
        select student
        headOrDefault
    }
printfn "head student is %s" student4.Name

printfn "\nselect query operator."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "StudentID, Name: %d %s" student.StudentID student.Name)

printfn "\nwhere query operator."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (student.StudentID > 4)
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "StudentID, Name: %d %s" student.StudentID student.Name)

printfn "\nminBy query operator."
let student5 =
    query {
        for student in db.Student do
        minBy student.StudentID
    }

printfn "\nmaxBy query operator."
let student6 =
    query {
        for student in db.Student do
        maxBy student.StudentID
    }

printfn "\ngroupBy query operator."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    groupBy student.Age into g
    select (g.Key, g.Count())
}
|> Seq.iter (fun (age, count) -> printfn "Age: %s Count at that age: %d" (age.Print()) count)

printfn "\nsortBy query operator."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sortBy student.Name
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "StudentID, Name: %d %s" student.StudentID student.Name)

printfn "\nsortByDescending query operator."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sortByDescending student.Name
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "StudentID, Name: %d %s" student.StudentID student.Name)

printfn "\nthenBy query operator."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where student.Age.HasValue
    sortBy student.Age.Value
    thenBy student.Name
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "StudentID, Name: %d %s" student.Age.Value student.Name)

printfn "\nthenByDescending query operator."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where student.Age.HasValue
    sortBy student.Age.Value
    thenByDescending student.Name
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "StudentID, Name: %d %s" student.Age.Value student.Name)

printfn "\ngroupValBy query operator."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    groupValBy student.Name student.Age into g
    select (g, g.Key, g.Count())
}
|> Seq.iter (fun (group, age, count) ->
    printfn "Age: %s Count at that age: %d" (age.Print()) count
    group |> Seq.iter (fun name -> printfn "Name: %s" name))

printfn "\n sumByNullable query operator"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sumByNullable student.Age
}
|> (fun sum -> printfn "Sum of ages: %s" (sum.Print()))

printfn "\n minByNullable"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    minByNullable student.Age
}
|> (fun age -> printfn "Minimum age: %s" (age.Print()))

printfn "\n maxByNullable"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    maxByNullable student.Age
}
|> (fun age -> printfn "Maximum age: %s" (age.Print()))

printfn "\n averageBy"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    averageBy (float student.StudentID)
}
|> printfn "Average student ID: %f"

printfn "\n averageByNullable"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    averageByNullable (Nullable.float student.Age)
}
|> (fun avg -> printfn "Average age: %s" (avg.Print()))

printfn "\n find query operator"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    find (student.Name = "Abercrombie, Kim")
}
|> (fun student -> printfn "Found a match with StudentID = %d" student.StudentID)

printfn "\n all query operator"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    all (SqlMethods.Like(student.Name, "%,%"))
}
|> printfn "Do all students have a comma in the name? %b"

printfn "\n head query operator"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    head
}
|> (fun student -> printfn "Found the head student with StudentID = %d" student.StudentID)

printfn "\n nth query operator"
query {
    for numbers in data do
    nth 3
}
|> printfn "Third number is %d"

printfn "\n skip query operator"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    skip 1
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "StudentID = %d" student.StudentID)

printfn "\n skipWhile query operator"
query {
    for number in data do
    skipWhile (number < 3)
    select number
}
|> Seq.iter (fun number -> printfn "Number = %d" number)

printfn "\n sumBy query operator"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sumBy student.StudentID
}
|> printfn "Sum of student IDs: %d"

printfn "\n take query operator"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    select student
    take 2
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "StudentID = %d" student.StudentID)

printfn "\n takeWhile query operator"
query {
    for number in data do
    takeWhile (number < 10)
}
|> Seq.iter (fun number -> printfn "Number = %d" number)

printfn "\n sortByNullable query operator"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sortByNullable student.Age
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student ->
    printfn "StudentID, Name, Age: %d %s %s" student.StudentID student.Name (student.Age.Print()))

printfn "\n sortByNullableDescending query operator"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sortByNullableDescending student.Age
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student ->
    printfn "StudentID, Name, Age: %d %s %s" student.StudentID student.Name (student.Age.Print()))

printfn "\n thenByNullable query operator"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sortBy student.Name
    thenByNullable student.Age
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student ->
    printfn "StudentID, Name, Age: %d %s %s" student.StudentID student.Name (student.Age.Print()))

printfn "\n thenByNullableDescending query operator"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    sortBy student.Name
    thenByNullableDescending student.Age
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student ->
    printfn "StudentID, Name, Age: %d %s %s" student.StudentID student.Name (student.Age.Print()))

printfn "All students: "
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "%s %d %s" student.Name student.StudentID (student.Age.Print()))

printfn "\nCount of students: "
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    count
}
|> (fun count -> printfn "Student count: %d" count)

printfn "\nExists."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where
        (query {
            for courseSelection in db.CourseSelection do
            exists (courseSelection.StudentID = student.StudentID) })
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "%A" student.Name)

printfn "\n Group by age and count"
query {
    for n in db.Student do
    groupBy n.Age into g
    select (g.Key, g.Count())
}
|> Seq.iter (fun (age, count) -> printfn "%s %d" (age.Print()) count)

printfn "\n Group value by age."
query {
    for n in db.Student do
    groupValBy n.Age n.Age into g
    select (g.Key, g.Count())
}
|> Seq.iter (fun (age, count) -> printfn "%s %d" (age.Print()) count)

printfn "\nGroup students by age where age > 10."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    groupBy student.Age into g
    where (g.Key.HasValue && g.Key.Value > 10)
    select (g, g.Key)
}
|> Seq.iter (fun (students, age) ->
    printfn "Age: %s" (age.Value.ToString())
    students
    |> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "%s" student.Name))

printfn "\nGroup students by age and print counts of number of students at each age with more than 1 student."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    groupBy student.Age into group
    where (group.Count() > 1)
    select (group.Key, group.Count())
}
|> Seq.iter (fun (age, ageCount) ->
    printfn "Age: %s Count: %d" (age.Print()) ageCount)

printfn "\nGroup students by age and sum ages."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    groupBy student.Age into g
    let total = query { for student in g do sumByNullable student.Age }
    select (g.Key, g.Count(), total)
}
|> Seq.iter (fun (age, count, total) ->
    printfn "Age: %d" (age.GetValueOrDefault())
    printfn "Count: %d" count
    printfn "Total years: %s" (total.ToString()))

printfn "\nGroup students by age and count number of students at each age, and display all with count > 1 in descending order of count."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    groupBy student.Age into g
    where (g.Count() > 1)
    sortByDescending (g.Count())
    select (g.Key, g.Count())
}
|> Seq.iter (fun (age, myCount) ->
    printfn "Age: %s" (age.Print())
    printfn "Count: %d" myCount)

printfn "\n Select students from a set of IDs"
let idList = [1; 2; 5; 10]
let idQuery =
    query { for id in idList do select id }
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (idQuery.Contains(student.StudentID))
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student ->
    printfn "Name: %s" student.Name)

printfn "\nLook for students with Name match _e%% pattern and take first two."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (SqlMethods.Like( student.Name, "_e%") )
    select student
    take 2
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "%s" student.Name)

printfn "\nLook for students with Name matching [abc]%% pattern."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (SqlMethods.Like( student.Name, "[abc]%") )
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "%s" student.Name)

printfn "\nLook for students with name matching [^abc]%% pattern."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (SqlMethods.Like( student.Name, "[^abc]%") )
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "%s" student.Name)

printfn "\nLook for students with name matching [^abc]%% pattern and select ID."
query {
    for n in db.Student do
    where (SqlMethods.Like( n.Name, "[^abc]%") )
    select n.StudentID
}
|> Seq.iter (fun id -> printfn "%d" id)

printfn "\n Using Contains as a query filter."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (student.Name.Contains("a"))
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "%s" student.Name)

printfn "\nSearching for names from a list."
let names = [|"a";"b";"c"|]
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    if names.Contains (student.Name) then select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "%s" student.Name)

printfn "\nJoin Student and CourseSelection tables."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    join selection in db.CourseSelection
        on (student.StudentID = selection.StudentID)
    select (student, selection)
}
|> Seq.iter (fun (student, selection) -> printfn "%d %s %d" student.StudentID student.Name selection.CourseID)

printfn "\nLeft Join Student and CourseSelection tables."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    leftOuterJoin selection in db.CourseSelection
        on (student.StudentID = selection.StudentID) into result
    for selection in result.DefaultIfEmpty() do
    select (student, selection)
}
|> Seq.iter (fun (student, selection) ->
    let selectionID, studentID, courseID =
        match selection with
        | null -> "NULL", "NULL", "NULL"
        | sel -> (sel.ID.ToString(), sel.StudentID.ToString(), sel.CourseID.ToString())
    printfn "%d %s %d %s %s %s" student.StudentID student.Name (student.Age.GetValueOrDefault()) selectionID studentID courseID)

printfn "\nJoin with count"
query {
    for n in db.Student do
    join e in db.CourseSelection
        on (n.StudentID = e.StudentID)
    count
}
|> printfn "%d"

printfn "\n Join with distinct."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    join selection in db.CourseSelection
        on (student.StudentID = selection.StudentID)
    distinct
}
|> Seq.iter (fun (student, selection) -> printfn "%s %d" student.Name selection.CourseID)

printfn "\n Join with distinct and count."
query {
    for n in db.Student do
    join e in db.CourseSelection
        on (n.StudentID = e.StudentID)
    distinct
    count
}
|> printfn "%d"

printfn "\n Selecting students with age between 10 and 15."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (student.Age.Value >= 10 && student.Age.Value < 15)
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "%s" student.Name)

printfn "\n Selecting students with age either 11 or 12."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where (student.Age.Value = 11 || student.Age.Value = 12)
    select student
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "%s" student.Name)

printfn "\n Selecting students in a certain age range and sorting."
query {
    for n in db.Student do
    where (n.Age.Value = 12 || n.Age.Value = 13)
    sortByNullableDescending n.Age
    select n
}
|> Seq.iter (fun student -> printfn "%s %s" student.Name (student.Age.Print()))

printfn "\n Selecting students with certain ages, taking account of possibility of nulls."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    where
        ((student.Age.HasValue && student.Age.Value = 11) ||
         (student.Age.HasValue && student.Age.Value = 12))
    sortByDescending student.Name
    select student.Name
    take 2
}
|> Seq.iter (fun name -> printfn "%s" name)

printfn "\n Union of two queries."
module Queries =
    let query1 = query {
        for n in db.Student do
        select (n.Name, n.Age)
    }

    let query2 = query {
        for n in db.LastStudent do
        select (n.Name, n.Age)
    }

    query2.Union (query1)
    |> Seq.iter (fun (name, age) -> printfn "%s %s" name (age.Print()))

printfn "\n Intersect of two queries."
module Queries2 =
    let query1 = query {
        for n in db.Student do
        select (n.Name, n.Age)
    }

    let query2 = query {
        for n in db.LastStudent do
        select (n.Name, n.Age)
    }

    query1.Intersect(query2)
    |> Seq.iter (fun (name, age) -> printfn "%s %s" name (age.Print()))

printfn "\n Using if statement to alter results for special value."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    select
        (if student.Age.HasValue && student.Age.Value = -1 then
            (student.StudentID, System.Nullable<int>(100), student.Age)
         else (student.StudentID, student.Age, student.Age))
}
|> Seq.iter (fun (id, value, age) -> printfn "%d %s %s" id (value.Print()) (age.Print()))

printfn "\n Using if statement to alter results special values."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    select
        (if student.Age.HasValue && student.Age.Value = -1 then
            (student.StudentID, System.Nullable<int>(100), student.Age)
         elif student.Age.HasValue && student.Age.Value = 0 then
            (student.StudentID, System.Nullable<int>(100), student.Age)
         else (student.StudentID, student.Age, student.Age))
}
|> Seq.iter (fun (id, value, age) -> printfn "%d %s %s" id (value.Print()) (age.Print()))

printfn "\n Multiple table select."
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    for course in db.Course do
    select (student, course)
}
|> Seq.iteri (fun index (student, course) ->
    if index = 0 then
        printfn "StudentID Name Age CourseID CourseName"
    printfn "%d %s %s %d %s" student.StudentID student.Name (student.Age.Print()) course.CourseID course.CourseName)

printfn "\nMultiple Joins"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    join courseSelection in db.CourseSelection
        on (student.StudentID = courseSelection.StudentID)
    join course in db.Course
        on (courseSelection.CourseID = course.CourseID)
    select (student.Name, course.CourseName)
}
|> Seq.iter (fun (studentName, courseName) -> printfn "%s %s" studentName courseName)

printfn "\nMultiple Left Outer Joins"
query {
    for student in db.Student do
    leftOuterJoin courseSelection in db.CourseSelection
        on (student.StudentID = courseSelection.StudentID) into g1
    for courseSelection in g1.DefaultIfEmpty() do
    leftOuterJoin course in db.Course
        on (courseSelection.CourseID = course.CourseID) into g2
    for course in g2.DefaultIfEmpty() do
    select (student.Name, course.CourseName)
}
|> Seq.iter (fun (studentName, courseName) -> printfn "%s %s" studentName courseName)

このコードが F# インタラクティブで実行される場合のすべての出力を次に示します。

--> Referenced 'C:\Program Files (x86)\Reference Assemblies\Microsoft\FSharp\3.0\Runtime\v4.0\Type Providers\FSharp.Data.TypeProviders.dll'

--> Referenced 'C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\System.Data.dll'

--> Referenced 'C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\System.Data.Linq.dll'

contains query operator
Binding session to 'C:\Users\ghogen\AppData\Local\Temp\tmp5E3C.dll'...
Binding session to 'C:\Users\ghogen\AppData\Local\Temp\tmp611A.dll'...
Is at least one student age 11? true

count query operator
Number of students: 8

last query operator.
Last number: 21

lastOrDefault query operator.
lastOrDefault: 21

exactlyOne query operator.
Student with StudentID = 1 is Abercrombie, Kim

exactlyOneOrDefault query operator.
Student with StudentID = 1 is Abercrombie, Kim

headOrDefault query operator.
head student is Abercrombie, Kim

select query operator.
StudentID, Name: 1 Abercrombie, Kim
StudentID, Name: 2 Abolrous, Hazen
StudentID, Name: 3 Hance, Jim
StudentID, Name: 4 Adams, Terry
StudentID, Name: 5 Hansen, Claus
StudentID, Name: 6 Penor, Lori
StudentID, Name: 7 Perham, Tom
StudentID, Name: 8 Peng, Yun-Feng

where query operator.
StudentID, Name: 5 Hansen, Claus
StudentID, Name: 6 Penor, Lori
StudentID, Name: 7 Perham, Tom
StudentID, Name: 8 Peng, Yun-Feng

minBy query operator.

maxBy query operator.

groupBy query operator.
Age: NULL Count at that age: 1
Age: 10 Count at that age: 1
Age: 11 Count at that age: 1
Age: 12 Count at that age: 3
Age: 13 Count at that age: 1
Age: 14 Count at that age: 1

sortBy query operator.
StudentID, Name: 1 Abercrombie, Kim
StudentID, Name: 2 Abolrous, Hazen
StudentID, Name: 4 Adams, Terry
StudentID, Name: 3 Hance, Jim
StudentID, Name: 5 Hansen, Claus
StudentID, Name: 8 Peng, Yun-Feng
StudentID, Name: 6 Penor, Lori
StudentID, Name: 7 Perham, Tom

sortByDescending query operator.
StudentID, Name: 7 Perham, Tom
StudentID, Name: 6 Penor, Lori
StudentID, Name: 8 Peng, Yun-Feng
StudentID, Name: 5 Hansen, Claus
StudentID, Name: 3 Hance, Jim
StudentID, Name: 4 Adams, Terry
StudentID, Name: 2 Abolrous, Hazen
StudentID, Name: 1 Abercrombie, Kim

thenBy query operator.
StudentID, Name: 10 Abercrombie, Kim
StudentID, Name: 11 Hansen, Claus
StudentID, Name: 12 Adams, Terry
StudentID, Name: 12 Hance, Jim
StudentID, Name: 12 Perham, Tom
StudentID, Name: 13 Penor, Lori
StudentID, Name: 14 Abolrous, Hazen

thenByDescending query operator.
StudentID, Name: 10 Abercrombie, Kim
StudentID, Name: 11 Hansen, Claus
StudentID, Name: 12 Perham, Tom
StudentID, Name: 12 Hance, Jim
StudentID, Name: 12 Adams, Terry
StudentID, Name: 13 Penor, Lori
StudentID, Name: 14 Abolrous, Hazen

groupValBy query operator.
Age: NULL Count at that age: 1
Name: Peng, Yun-Feng
Age: 10 Count at that age: 1
Name: Abercrombie, Kim
Age: 11 Count at that age: 1
Name: Hansen, Claus
Age: 12 Count at that age: 3
Name: Hance, Jim
Name: Adams, Terry
Name: Perham, Tom
Age: 13 Count at that age: 1
Name: Penor, Lori
Age: 14 Count at that age: 1
Name: Abolrous, Hazen

sumByNullable query operator
Sum of ages: 84

minByNullable
Minimum age: 10

maxByNullable
Maximum age: 14

averageBy
Average student ID: 4.500000

averageByNullable
Average age: 12

find query operator
Found a match with StudentID = 1

all query operator
Do all students have a comma in the name? true

head query operator
Found the head student with StudentID = 1

nth query operator
Third number is 11

skip query operator
StudentID = 2
StudentID = 3
StudentID = 4
StudentID = 5
StudentID = 6
StudentID = 7
StudentID = 8

skipWhile query operator
Number = 5
Number = 7
Number = 11
Number = 18
Number = 21

sumBy query operator
Sum of student IDs: 36

take query operator
StudentID = 1
StudentID = 2

takeWhile query operator
Number = 1
Number = 5
Number = 7

sortByNullable query operator
StudentID, Name, Age: 8 Peng, Yun-Feng NULL
StudentID, Name, Age: 1 Abercrombie, Kim 10
StudentID, Name, Age: 5 Hansen, Claus 11
StudentID, Name, Age: 7 Perham, Tom 12
StudentID, Name, Age: 3 Hance, Jim 12
StudentID, Name, Age: 4 Adams, Terry 12
StudentID, Name, Age: 6 Penor, Lori 13
StudentID, Name, Age: 2 Abolrous, Hazen 14

sortByNullableDescending query operator
StudentID, Name, Age: 2 Abolrous, Hazen 14
StudentID, Name, Age: 6 Penor, Lori 13
StudentID, Name, Age: 7 Perham, Tom 12
StudentID, Name, Age: 3 Hance, Jim 12
StudentID, Name, Age: 4 Adams, Terry 12
StudentID, Name, Age: 5 Hansen, Claus 11
StudentID, Name, Age: 1 Abercrombie, Kim 10
StudentID, Name, Age: 8 Peng, Yun-Feng NULL

thenByNullable query operator
StudentID, Name, Age: 1 Abercrombie, Kim 10
StudentID, Name, Age: 2 Abolrous, Hazen 14
StudentID, Name, Age: 4 Adams, Terry 12
StudentID, Name, Age: 3 Hance, Jim 12
StudentID, Name, Age: 5 Hansen, Claus 11
StudentID, Name, Age: 8 Peng, Yun-Feng NULL
StudentID, Name, Age: 6 Penor, Lori 13
StudentID, Name, Age: 7 Perham, Tom 12

thenByNullableDescending query operator
StudentID, Name, Age: 1 Abercrombie, Kim 10
StudentID, Name, Age: 2 Abolrous, Hazen 14
StudentID, Name, Age: 4 Adams, Terry 12
StudentID, Name, Age: 3 Hance, Jim 12
StudentID, Name, Age: 5 Hansen, Claus 11
StudentID, Name, Age: 8 Peng, Yun-Feng NULL
StudentID, Name, Age: 6 Penor, Lori 13
StudentID, Name, Age: 7 Perham, Tom 12
All students:
Abercrombie, Kim 1 10
Abolrous, Hazen 2 14
Hance, Jim 3 12
Adams, Terry 4 12
Hansen, Claus 5 11
Penor, Lori 6 13
Perham, Tom 7 12
Peng, Yun-Feng 8 NULL

Count of students:
Student count: 8

Exists.
"Abercrombie, Kim"
"Abolrous, Hazen"
"Hance, Jim"
"Adams, Terry"
"Hansen, Claus"
"Perham, Tom"

Group by age and count
NULL 1
10 1
11 1
12 3
13 1
14 1

Group value by age.
NULL 1
10 1
11 1
12 3
13 1
14 1

Group students by age where age > 10.
Age: 11
Hansen, Claus
Age: 12
Hance, Jim
Adams, Terry
Perham, Tom
Age: 13
Penor, Lori
Age: 14
Abolrous, Hazen

Group students by age and print counts of number of students at each age with more than 1 student.
Age: 12 Count: 3

Group students by age and sum ages.
Age: 0
Count: 1
Total years:
Age: 10
Count: 1
Total years: 10
Age: 11
Count: 1
Total years: 11
Age: 12
Count: 3
Total years: 36
Age: 13
Count: 1
Total years: 13
Age: 14
Count: 1
Total years: 14

Group students by age and count number of students at each age, and display all with count > 1 in descending order of count.
Age: 12
Count: 3

Select students from a set of IDs
Name: Abercrombie, Kim
Name: Abolrous, Hazen
Name: Hansen, Claus

Look for students with Name match _e% pattern and take first two.
Penor, Lori
Perham, Tom

Look for students with Name matching [abc]% pattern.
Abercrombie, Kim
Abolrous, Hazen
Adams, Terry

Look for students with name matching [^abc]% pattern.
Hance, Jim
Hansen, Claus
Penor, Lori
Perham, Tom
Peng, Yun-Feng

Look for students with name matching [^abc]% pattern and select ID.
3
5
6
7
8

Using Contains as a query filter.
Abercrombie, Kim
Abolrous, Hazen
Hance, Jim
Adams, Terry
Hansen, Claus
Perham, Tom

Searching for names from a list.

Join Student and CourseSelection tables.
2 Abolrous, Hazen 2
3 Hance, Jim 3
5 Hansen, Claus 5
2 Abolrous, Hazen 2
5 Hansen, Claus 5
6 Penor, Lori 6
3 Hance, Jim 3
2 Abolrous, Hazen 2
1 Abercrombie, Kim 1
2 Abolrous, Hazen 2
5 Hansen, Claus 5
2 Abolrous, Hazen 2
3 Hance, Jim 3
2 Abolrous, Hazen 2
3 Hance, Jim 3

Left Join Student and CourseSelection tables.
1 Abercrombie, Kim 10 9 3 1
2 Abolrous, Hazen 14 1 1 2
2 Abolrous, Hazen 14 4 2 2
2 Abolrous, Hazen 14 8 3 2
2 Abolrous, Hazen 14 10 4 2
2 Abolrous, Hazen 14 12 4 2
2 Abolrous, Hazen 14 14 5 2
3 Hance, Jim 12 2 1 3
3 Hance, Jim 12 7 2 3
3 Hance, Jim 12 13 5 3
3 Hance, Jim 12 15 7 3
4 Adams, Terry 12 NULL NULL NULL
5 Hansen, Claus 11 3 1 5
5 Hansen, Claus 11 5 2 5
5 Hansen, Claus 11 11 4 5
6 Penor, Lori 13 6 2 6
7 Perham, Tom 12 NULL NULL NULL
8 Peng, Yun-Feng 0 NULL NULL NULL

Join with count
15

Join with distinct.
Abercrombie, Kim 2
Abercrombie, Kim 3
Abercrombie, Kim 5
Abolrous, Hazen 2
Abolrous, Hazen 5
Abolrous, Hazen 6
Abolrous, Hazen 3
Hance, Jim 2
Hance, Jim 1
Adams, Terry 2
Adams, Terry 5
Adams, Terry 2
Hansen, Claus 3
Hansen, Claus 2
Perham, Tom 3

Join with distinct and count.
15

Selecting students with age between 10 and 15.
Abercrombie, Kim
Abolrous, Hazen
Hance, Jim
Adams, Terry
Hansen, Claus
Penor, Lori
Perham, Tom

Selecting students with age either 11 or 12.
Hance, Jim
Adams, Terry
Hansen, Claus
Perham, Tom

Selecting students in a certain age range and sorting.
Penor, Lori 13
Perham, Tom 12
Hance, Jim 12
Adams, Terry 12

Selecting students with certain ages, taking account of possibility of nulls.
Hance, Jim
Adams, Terry

Union of two queries.
Abercrombie, Kim 10
Abolrous, Hazen 14
Hance, Jim 12
Adams, Terry 12
Hansen, Claus 11
Penor, Lori 13
Perham, Tom 12
Peng, Yun-Feng NULL

Intersect of two queries.

Using if statement to alter results for special value.
1 10 10
2 14 14
3 12 12
4 12 12
5 11 11
6 13 13
7 12 12
8 NULL NULL

Using if statement to alter results special values.
1 10 10
2 14 14
3 12 12
4 12 12
5 11 11
6 13 13
7 12 12
8 NULL NULL

Multiple table select.
StudentID Name Age CourseID CourseName
1 Abercrombie, Kim 10 1 Algebra I
2 Abolrous, Hazen 14 1 Algebra I
3 Hance, Jim 12 1 Algebra I
4 Adams, Terry 12 1 Algebra I
5 Hansen, Claus 11 1 Algebra I
6 Penor, Lori 13 1 Algebra I
7 Perham, Tom 12 1 Algebra I
8 Peng, Yun-Feng NULL 1 Algebra I
1 Abercrombie, Kim 10 2 Trigonometry
2 Abolrous, Hazen 14 2 Trigonometry
3 Hance, Jim 12 2 Trigonometry
4 Adams, Terry 12 2 Trigonometry
5 Hansen, Claus 11 2 Trigonometry
6 Penor, Lori 13 2 Trigonometry
7 Perham, Tom 12 2 Trigonometry
8 Peng, Yun-Feng NULL 2 Trigonometry
1 Abercrombie, Kim 10 3 Algebra II
2 Abolrous, Hazen 14 3 Algebra II
3 Hance, Jim 12 3 Algebra II
4 Adams, Terry 12 3 Algebra II
5 Hansen, Claus 11 3 Algebra II
6 Penor, Lori 13 3 Algebra II
7 Perham, Tom 12 3 Algebra II
8 Peng, Yun-Feng NULL 3 Algebra II
1 Abercrombie, Kim 10 4 History
2 Abolrous, Hazen 14 4 History
3 Hance, Jim 12 4 History
4 Adams, Terry 12 4 History
5 Hansen, Claus 11 4 History
6 Penor, Lori 13 4 History
7 Perham, Tom 12 4 History
8 Peng, Yun-Feng NULL 4 History
1 Abercrombie, Kim 10 5 English
2 Abolrous, Hazen 14 5 English
3 Hance, Jim 12 5 English
4 Adams, Terry 12 5 English
5 Hansen, Claus 11 5 English
6 Penor, Lori 13 5 English
7 Perham, Tom 12 5 English
8 Peng, Yun-Feng NULL 5 English
1 Abercrombie, Kim 10 6 French
2 Abolrous, Hazen 14 6 French
3 Hance, Jim 12 6 French
4 Adams, Terry 12 6 French
5 Hansen, Claus 11 6 French
6 Penor, Lori 13 6 French
7 Perham, Tom 12 6 French
8 Peng, Yun-Feng NULL 6 French
1 Abercrombie, Kim 10 7 Chinese
2 Abolrous, Hazen 14 7 Chinese
3 Hance, Jim 12 7 Chinese
4 Adams, Terry 12 7 Chinese
5 Hansen, Claus 11 7 Chinese
6 Penor, Lori 13 7 Chinese
7 Perham, Tom 12 7 Chinese
8 Peng, Yun-Feng NULL 7 Chinese

Multiple Joins
Abercrombie, Kim Trigonometry
Abercrombie, Kim Algebra II
Abercrombie, Kim English
Abolrous, Hazen Trigonometry
Abolrous, Hazen English
Abolrous, Hazen French
Abolrous, Hazen Algebra II
Hance, Jim Trigonometry
Hance, Jim Algebra I
Adams, Terry Trigonometry
Adams, Terry English
Adams, Terry Trigonometry
Hansen, Claus Algebra II
Hansen, Claus Trigonometry
Perham, Tom Algebra II

Multiple Left Outer Joins
Abercrombie, Kim Trigonometry
Abercrombie, Kim Algebra II
Abercrombie, Kim English
Abolrous, Hazen Trigonometry
Abolrous, Hazen English
Abolrous, Hazen French
Abolrous, Hazen Algebra II
Hance, Jim Trigonometry
Hance, Jim Algebra I
Adams, Terry Trigonometry
Adams, Terry English
Adams, Terry Trigonometry
Hansen, Claus Algebra II
Hansen, Claus Trigonometry
Penor, Lori
Perham, Tom Algebra II
Peng, Yun-Feng

type schema
val db : schema.ServiceTypes.SimpleDataContextTypes.MyDatabase1
val student : System.Data.Linq.Table<schema.ServiceTypes.Student>
val data : int list = [1; 5; 7; 11; 18; 21]
type Nullable<'T
                when 'T : (new : unit ->  'T) and 'T : struct and
                     'T :> System.ValueType> with
  member Print : unit -> string
val num : int = 21
val student2 : schema.ServiceTypes.Student
val student3 : schema.ServiceTypes.Student
val student4 : schema.ServiceTypes.Student
val student5 : int = 1
val student6 : int = 8
val idList : int list = [1; 2; 5; 10]
val idQuery : seq<int>
val names : string [] = [|"a"; "b"; "c"|]
module Queries = begin
  val query1 : System.Linq.IQueryable<string * System.Nullable<int>>
  val query2 : System.Linq.IQueryable<string * System.Nullable<int>>
end
module Queries2 = begin
  val query1 : System.Linq.IQueryable<string * System.Nullable<int>>
  val query2 : System.Linq.IQueryable<string * System.Nullable<int>>
end

関連項目