Convert.ToInt64 메서드

정의

지정된 값을 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

오버로드

ToInt64(String)

숫자의 지정된 문자열 표현을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(UInt16)

지정된 16비트 부호 없는 정수의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(UInt32)

지정된 32비트 부호 없는 정수의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(UInt64)

지정된 64비트 부호 없는 정수의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(Object)

지정된 개체의 값을 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(String, IFormatProvider)

지정된 문화권별 서식 지정 정보를 사용하여, 숫자의 지정된 문자열 표현을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(String, Int32)

지정된 기수로 나타낸 숫자에 대한 문자열 표현을 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(Single)

지정된 단정밀도 부동 소수점 숫자 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(Object, IFormatProvider)

지정된 문화권별 서식 지정 정보를 사용하여, 지정된 개체의 값을 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(SByte)

지정된 8비트 부호 있는 정수의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(Int16)

지정된 16비트 부호 있는 정수의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(Int64)

지정된 64비트 부호 있는 정수를 실제 변환 작업 없이 반환합니다.

ToInt64(Int32)

지정된 32비트 부호 있는 정수의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(Double)

지정된 배정밀도 부동 소수점 숫자 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(Decimal)

지정된 10진수 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(DateTime)

이 메서드를 호출하면 InvalidCastException이 항상 throw됩니다.

ToInt64(Char)

지정된 유니코드 문자의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(Byte)

지정된 8비트 부호 없는 정수의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(Boolean)

지정된 부울 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

ToInt64(String)

숫자의 지정된 문자열 표현을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(System::String ^ value);
public static long ToInt64 (string value);
public static long ToInt64 (string? value);
static member ToInt64 : string -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As String) As Long

매개 변수

value
String

변환할 숫자가 포함된 문자열입니다.

반환

Int64

value의 숫자에 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수이거나, valuenull이면 0입니다.

예외

value가 선택적 부호와 숫자 시퀀스(0~9)로 구성되어 있지 않습니다.

value은(는) MinValue보다 작거나 MaxValue보다 큰 숫자를 나타냅니다.

예제

다음 예제에서는 숫자 문자열 배열의 각 요소를 긴 정수로 변환하려고 시도합니다.

string[] values = { "One", "1.34e28", "-26.87", "-18", "-6.00",
                    " 0", "137", "1601.9", Int32.MaxValue.ToString() };
long result;

foreach (string value in values)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt64(value);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value '{1}' to the {2} value {3}.",
                        value.GetType().Name, value, result.GetType().Name, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException) {
      Console.WriteLine("{0} is outside the range of the Int64 type.", value);
   }
   catch (FormatException) {
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value '{1}' is not in a recognizable format.",
                        value.GetType().Name, value);
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    The String value 'One' is not in a recognizable format.
//    The String value '1.34e28' is not in a recognizable format.
//    The String value '-26.87' is not in a recognizable format.
//    Converted the String value '-18' to the Int64 value -18.
//    The String value '-6.00' is not in a recognizable format.
//    Converted the String value ' 0' to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the String value '137' to the Int64 value 137.
//    The String value '1601.9' is not in a recognizable format.
//    Converted the String value '2147483647' to the Int64 value 2147483647.
let values = 
    [| "One"; "1.34e28"; "-26.87"; "-18"; "-6.00"
       " 0"; "137"; "1601.9"; string Int32.MaxValue |]

for value in values do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt64 value
        printfn $"Converted the {value.GetType().Name} value {value} to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with
    | :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"{value} is outside the range of the Int64 type."
    | :? FormatException ->
        printfn $"The {value.GetType().Name} value '{value}' is not in a recognizable format."
// The example displays the following output:
//    The String value 'One' is not in a recognizable format.
//    The String value '1.34e28' is not in a recognizable format.
//    The String value '-26.87' is not in a recognizable format.
//    Converted the String value '-18' to the Int64 value -18.
//    The String value '-6.00' is not in a recognizable format.
//    Converted the String value ' 0' to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the String value '137' to the Int64 value 137.
//    The String value '1601.9' is not in a recognizable format.
//    Converted the String value '2147483647' to the Int64 value 2147483647.
Dim values() As String = { "One", "1.34e28", "-26.87", "-18", "-6.00", _
                           " 0", "137", "1601.9", Int32.MaxValue.ToString() }
Dim result As Long

For Each value As String In values
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt64(value)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value '{1}' to the {2} value {3}.", _
                        value.GetType().Name, value, result.GetType().Name, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("{0} is outside the range of the Int64 type.", value)
   Catch e As FormatException
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value '{1}' is not in a recognizable format.", _
                        value.GetType().Name, value)
   End Try
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    The String value 'One' is not in a recognizable format.
'    The String value '1.34e28' is not in a recognizable format.
'    The String value '-26.87' is not in a recognizable format.
'    Converted the String value '-18' to the Int64 value -18.
'    The String value '-6.00' is not in a recognizable format.
'    Converted the String value ' 0' to the Int64 value 0.
'    Converted the String value '137' to the Int64 value 137.
'    The String value '1601.9' is not in a recognizable format.
'    Converted the String value '2147483647' to the Int64 value 2147483647.

설명

메서드를 ToInt64(String) 사용하는 것은 메서드에 전달하는 value 것과 Int64.Parse(String) 같습니다. value 는 현재 문화권의 서식 규칙을 사용하여 해석됩니다.

변환이 실패하는 경우 예외를 처리하지 않으려는 경우 대신 메서드를 호출할 Int64.TryParse 수 있습니다. 변환이 성공했는지 실패했는지 여부를 나타내는 값을 반환 Boolean 합니다.

적용 대상

ToInt64(UInt16)

중요

이 API는 CLS 규격이 아닙니다.

지정된 16비트 부호 없는 정수의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(System::UInt16 value);
[System.CLSCompliant(false)]
public static long ToInt64 (ushort value);
[<System.CLSCompliant(false)>]
static member ToInt64 : uint16 -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As UShort) As Long

매개 변수

value
UInt16

변환할 16비트 부호 없는 정수입니다.

반환

Int64

value에 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수입니다.

특성

예제

다음 예제에서는 부호 없는 16비트 정수 배열의 각 요소를 긴 정수로 변환합니다.

ushort[] numbers = { UInt16.MinValue, 121, 340, UInt16.MaxValue };
long result;
foreach (ushort number in numbers)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt64(number);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.",
                        number.GetType().Name, number,
                        result.GetType().Name, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException) {
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int64 type.",
                        number.GetType().Name, number);
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the UInt16 value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the UInt16 value 121 to the Int64 value 121.
//    Converted the UInt16 value 340 to the Int64 value 340.
//    Converted the UInt16 value 65535 to the Int64 value 65535.
let numbers =
    [| UInt16.MinValue; 121us; 340us; UInt16.MaxValue |]

for number in numbers do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt64 number
        printfn $"Converted the {number.GetType().Name} value {number} to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"The {number.GetType().Name} value {number} is outside the range of the Int64 type."
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the UInt16 value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the UInt16 value 121 to the Int64 value 121.
//    Converted the UInt16 value 340 to the Int64 value 340.
//    Converted the UInt16 value 65535 to the Int64 value 65535.
Dim numbers() As UShort = { UInt16.MinValue, 121, 340, UInt16.MaxValue }
Dim result As Long
For Each number As UShort In numbers
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt64(number)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.", _
                        number.GetType().Name, number, _
                        result.GetType().Name, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int64 type.", _
                        number.GetType().Name, number)
   End Try
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    Converted the UInt16 value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
'    Converted the UInt16 value 121 to the Int64 value 121.
'    Converted the UInt16 value 340 to the Int64 value 340.
'    Converted the UInt16 value 65535 to the Int64 value 65535.

적용 대상

ToInt64(UInt32)

중요

이 API는 CLS 규격이 아닙니다.

지정된 32비트 부호 없는 정수의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(System::UInt32 value);
[System.CLSCompliant(false)]
public static long ToInt64 (uint value);
[<System.CLSCompliant(false)>]
static member ToInt64 : uint32 -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As UInteger) As Long

매개 변수

value
UInt32

변환할 32비트 부호 없는 정수입니다.

반환

Int64

value에 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수입니다.

특성

예제

다음 예제에서는 부호 없는 정수 배열의 각 요소를 긴 정수로 변환합니다.

uint[] numbers = { UInt32.MinValue, 121, 340, UInt32.MaxValue };
long result;
foreach (uint number in numbers)
{
   result = Convert.ToInt64(number);
   Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1:N0} to the {2} value {3:N0}.",
                     number.GetType().Name, number,
                     result.GetType().Name, result);
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the UInt32 value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the UInt32 value 121 to the Int64 value 121.
//    Converted the UInt32 value 340 to the Int64 value 340.
//    Converted the UInt32 value 4,294,967,295 to the Int64 value 4,294,967,295.
let numbers =
    [| UInt32.MinValue; 121u; 340u; UInt32.MaxValue |]

for number in numbers do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt64 number
        printfn $"Converted the {number.GetType().Name} value {number} to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"The {number.GetType().Name} value {number} is outside the range of the Int64 type."
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the UInt32 value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the UInt32 value 121 to the Int64 value 121.
//    Converted the UInt32 value 340 to the Int64 value 340.
//    The UInt32 value 4294967295 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
Dim numbers() As UInteger = { UInt32.MinValue, 121, 340, UInt32.MaxValue }
Dim result As Long
For Each number As UInteger In numbers
   result = Convert.ToInt64(number)
   Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1:N0} to the {2} value {3:N0}.", _
                     number.GetType().Name, number, _
                     result.GetType().Name, result)
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    Converted the UInt32 value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
'    Converted the UInt32 value 121 to the Int64 value 121.
'    Converted the UInt32 value 340 to the Int64 value 340.
'    Converted the UInt32 value 4,294,967,295 to the Int64 value 4,294,967,295.

적용 대상

ToInt64(UInt64)

중요

이 API는 CLS 규격이 아닙니다.

지정된 64비트 부호 없는 정수의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(System::UInt64 value);
[System.CLSCompliant(false)]
public static long ToInt64 (ulong value);
[<System.CLSCompliant(false)>]
static member ToInt64 : uint64 -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As ULong) As Long

매개 변수

value
UInt64

변환할 64비트 부호 없는 정수입니다.

반환

Int64

value에 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수입니다.

특성

예외

valueMaxValue보다 큰 경우

예제

다음 예제에서는 부호 없는 긴 정수 배열의 각 요소를 긴 정수로 변환하려고 시도합니다.

ulong[] numbers = { UInt64.MinValue, 121, 340, UInt64.MaxValue };
long result;
foreach (ulong number in numbers)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt64(number);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to a {2} value {3}.",
                        number.GetType().Name, number,
                        result.GetType().Name, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException) {
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int64 type.",
                        number.GetType().Name, number);
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the UInt64 value 0 to a Int32 value 0.
//    Converted the UInt64 value 121 to a Int32 value 121.
//    Converted the UInt64 value 340 to a Int32 value 340.
//    The UInt64 value 18446744073709551615 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
let numbers =
    [| UInt64.MinValue; 121uL; 340uL; UInt64.MaxValue |]

for number in numbers do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt64 number
        printfn $"Converted the {number.GetType().Name} value {number} to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"The {number.GetType().Name} value {number} is outside the range of the Int64 type."
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the UInt64 value 0 to a Int32 value 0.
//    Converted the UInt64 value 121 to a Int32 value 121.
//    Converted the UInt64 value 340 to a Int32 value 340.
//    The UInt64 value 18446744073709551615 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
Dim numbers() As ULong = { UInt64.MinValue, 121, 340, UInt64.MaxValue }
Dim result As Long

For Each number As ULong In numbers
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt64(number)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.", _
                        number.GetType().Name, number, _
                        result.GetType().Name, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int64 type.", _
                        number.GetType().Name, number)
   End Try
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    Converted the UInt64 value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
'    Converted the UInt64 value 121 to the Int64 value 121.
'    Converted the UInt64 value 340 to the Int64 value 340.
'    The UInt64 value 18446744073709551615 is outside the range of the Int64 type.

적용 대상

ToInt64(Object)

지정된 개체의 값을 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(System::Object ^ value);
public static long ToInt64 (object value);
public static long ToInt64 (object? value);
static member ToInt64 : obj -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As Object) As Long

매개 변수

value
Object

IConvertible 인터페이스를 구현하는 개체나 null입니다.

반환

Int64

value에 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수이거나, valuenull이면 0입니다.

예외

value가 적절한 형식이 아닙니다.

valueIConvertible 인터페이스를 구현하지 않습니다.

또는

이 변환은 지원되지 않습니다.

value은(는) MinValue보다 작거나 MaxValue보다 큰 숫자를 나타냅니다.

예제

다음 예제에서는 개체 배열의 각 요소를 긴 정수로 변환하려고 시도합니다.

object[] values = { true, -12, 163, 935, 'x', new DateTime(2009, 5, 12),
                    "104", "103.0", "-1",
                    "1.00e2", "One", 1.00e2, 16.3e42};
long result;

foreach (object value in values)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt64(value);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.",
                        value.GetType().Name, value,
                        result.GetType().Name, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException) {
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int64 type.",
                        value.GetType().Name, value);
   }
   catch (FormatException) {
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is not in a recognizable format.",
                        value.GetType().Name, value);
   }
   catch (InvalidCastException) {
      Console.WriteLine("No conversion to an Int64 exists for the {0} value {1}.",
                        value.GetType().Name, value);
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the Boolean value True to the Int64 value 1.
//    Converted the Int32 value -12 to the Int64 value -12.
//    Converted the Int32 value 163 to the Int64 value 163.
//    Converted the Int32 value 935 to the Int64 value 935.
//    Converted the Char value x to the Int64 value 120.
//    No conversion to an Int64 exists for the DateTime value 5/12/2009 12:00:00 AM.
//    Converted the String value 104 to the Int64 value 104.
//    The String value 103.0 is not in a recognizable format.
//    Converted the String value -1 to the Int64 value -1.
//    The String value 1.00e2 is not in a recognizable format.
//    The String value One is not in a recognizable format.
//    Converted the Double value 100 to the Int64 value 100.
//    The Double value 1.63E+43 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
let values: obj[] = 
    [| true; -12; 163; 935; 'x'; DateTime(2009, 5, 12)
       "104"; "103.0"; "-1"
       "1.00e2"; "One"; 1.00e2; 16.3e42 |]

for value in values do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt64 value
        printfn $"Converted the {value.GetType().Name} value {value} to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with 
    | :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"The {value.GetType().Name} value {value} is outside the range of the Int64 type."
    | :? FormatException ->
        printfn $"The {value.GetType().Name} value {value} is not in a recognizable format."
    | :? InvalidCastException ->
        printfn $"No conversion to an Int64 exists for the {value.GetType().Name} value {value}."
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the Boolean value True to the Int64 value 1.
//    Converted the Int32 value -12 to the Int64 value -12.
//    Converted the Int32 value 163 to the Int64 value 163.
//    Converted the Int32 value 935 to the Int64 value 935.
//    Converted the Char value x to the Int64 value 120.
//    No conversion to an Int64 exists for the DateTime value 5/12/2009 12:00:00 AM.
//    Converted the String value 104 to the Int64 value 104.
//    The String value 103.0 is not in a recognizable format.
//    Converted the String value -1 to the Int64 value -1.
//    The String value 1.00e2 is not in a recognizable format.
//    The String value One is not in a recognizable format.
//    Converted the Double value 100 to the Int64 value 100.
//    The Double value 1.63E+43 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
Dim values() As Object = { True, -12, 163, 935, "x"c, #5/12/2009#, _
                           "104", "103.0", "-1", _
                           "1.00e2", "One", 1.00e2, 16.3e42}
Dim result As Long

For Each value As Object In values
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt64(value)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.", _
                        value.GetType().Name, value, _
                        result.GetType().Name, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int64 type.", _
                        value.GetType().Name, value)
   Catch e As FormatException
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is not in a recognizable format.", _
                        value.GetType().Name, value)
   Catch e As InvalidCastException
      Console.WriteLine("No conversion to an Int64 exists for the {0} value {1}.", _
                        value.GetType().Name, value)

   End Try
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    Converted the Boolean value True to the Int64 value 1.
'    Converted the Int64 value -12 to the Int64 value -12.
'    Converted the Int64 value 163 to the Int64 value 163.
'    Converted the Int64 value 935 to the Int64 value 935.
'    Converted the Char value x to the Int64 value 120.
'    No conversion to an Int64 exists for the DateTime value 5/12/2009 12:00:00 AM.
'    Converted the String value 104 to the Int64 value 104.
'    The String value 103.0 is not in a recognizable format.
'    Converted the String value -1 to the Int64 value -1.
'    The String value 1.00e2 is not in a recognizable format.
'    The String value One is not in a recognizable format.
'    Converted the Double value 100 to the Int64 value 100.
'    The Double value 1.63E+43 is outside the range of the Int64 type.

설명

그렇지 않은 null경우 value 이 메서드는 기본 형식value의 구현에 IConvertible.ToInt64 대한 호출을 래핑합니다.

적용 대상

ToInt64(String, IFormatProvider)

지정된 문화권별 서식 지정 정보를 사용하여, 숫자의 지정된 문자열 표현을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(System::String ^ value, IFormatProvider ^ provider);
public static long ToInt64 (string value, IFormatProvider provider);
public static long ToInt64 (string? value, IFormatProvider? provider);
static member ToInt64 : string * IFormatProvider -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As String, provider As IFormatProvider) As Long

매개 변수

value
String

변환할 숫자가 포함된 문자열입니다.

provider
IFormatProvider

문화권별 형식 정보를 제공하는 개체입니다.

반환

Int64

value의 숫자에 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수이거나, valuenull이면 0입니다.

예외

value가 선택적 부호와 숫자 시퀀스(0~9)로 구성되어 있지 않습니다.

value은(는) MinValue보다 작거나 MaxValue보다 큰 숫자를 나타냅니다.

예제

다음 예제에서는 문자열 "pos"를 양수 기호로 인식하고 문자열 "neg"을 음수 기호로 인식하는 사용자 지정 NumberFormatInfo 개체를 정의합니다. 그런 다음 고정 문화권에 대해 이 공급자와 공급자를 모두 사용하여 숫자 문자열 배열의 NumberFormatInfo 각 요소를 정수로 변환하려고 시도합니다.

using System;
using System.Globalization;

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      // Create a NumberFormatInfo object and set the properties that
      // affect conversions using Convert.ToInt64(String, IFormatProvider).
      NumberFormatInfo customProvider = new NumberFormatInfo();
      customProvider.NegativeSign = "neg ";
      customProvider.PositiveSign = "pos ";

      // Create an array of providers with the custom provider and the
      // NumberFormatInfo object for the invariant culture.
      NumberFormatInfo[] providers = { customProvider,
                                       NumberFormatInfo.InvariantInfo };

      // Define an array of strings to parse.
      string[] numericStrings = { "123456789", "+123456789", "pos 123456789",
                                  "-123456789", "neg 123456789", "123456789.",
                                  "123,456,789", "(123456789)",
                                  "9223372036854775808", "-9223372036854775809" };

      for (int ctr = 0; ctr < 2; ctr++)
      {
         IFormatProvider provider = providers[ctr];
         Console.WriteLine(ctr == 0 ? "Custom Provider:" : "Invariant Culture:");
         foreach (string numericString in numericStrings)
         {
            Console.Write("   {0,-22} -->  ", numericString);
            try {
               Console.WriteLine("{0,22}", Convert.ToInt32(numericString, provider));
            }
            catch (FormatException) {
               Console.WriteLine("{0,22}", "Unrecognized Format");
            }
            catch (OverflowException) {
               Console.WriteLine("{0,22}", "Overflow");
            }
         }
         Console.WriteLine();
      }
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       Custom Provider:
//          123456789              -->               123456789
//          +123456789             -->     Unrecognized Format
//          pos 123456789          -->               123456789
//          -123456789             -->     Unrecognized Format
//          neg 123456789          -->              -123456789
//          123456789.             -->     Unrecognized Format
//          123,456,789            -->     Unrecognized Format
//          (123456789)            -->     Unrecognized Format
//          9223372036854775808    -->                Overflow
//          -9223372036854775809   -->     Unrecognized Format
//
//       Invariant Culture:
//          123456789              -->               123456789
//          +123456789             -->               123456789
//          pos 123456789          -->     Unrecognized Format
//          -123456789             -->              -123456789
//          neg 123456789          -->     Unrecognized Format
//          123456789.             -->     Unrecognized Format
//          123,456,789            -->     Unrecognized Format
//          (123456789)            -->     Unrecognized Format
//          9223372036854775808    -->                Overflow
//          -9223372036854775809   -->                Overflow
open System
open System.Globalization

// Create a NumberFormatInfo object and set the properties that
// affect conversions using Convert.ToInt64(String, IFormatProvider).
let customProvider = NumberFormatInfo()
customProvider.NegativeSign <- "neg "
customProvider.PositiveSign <- "pos "

// Create an array of providers with the custom provider and the
// NumberFormatInfo object for the invariant culture.
let providers =
    [| customProvider; NumberFormatInfo.InvariantInfo |]

// Define an array of strings to parse.
let numericStrings =
    [| "123456789"; "+123456789"; "pos 123456789"
       "-123456789"; "neg 123456789"; "123456789."
       "123,456,789"; "(123456789)"
       "9223372036854775808"; "-9223372036854775809" |]

for i = 0 to 2 do
    let provider = providers[i]
    printfn $"""{if i = 0 then "Custom Provider:" else "Invariant Culture:"}"""
    for numericString in numericStrings do
        printf $"   {numericString,-22} -->  "
        try
            printfn $"{Convert.ToInt32(numericString, provider),22}"
        with
        | :? FormatException ->
            printfn "%22s" "Unrecognized Format"
        | :? OverflowException ->
            printfn "%22s" "Overflow"
    printfn ""

// The example displays the following output:
//       Custom Provider:
//          123456789              -->               123456789
//          +123456789             -->     Unrecognized Format
//          pos 123456789          -->               123456789
//          -123456789             -->     Unrecognized Format
//          neg 123456789          -->              -123456789
//          123456789.             -->     Unrecognized Format
//          123,456,789            -->     Unrecognized Format
//          (123456789)            -->     Unrecognized Format
//          9223372036854775808    -->                Overflow
//          -9223372036854775809   -->     Unrecognized Format
//
//       Invariant Culture:
//          123456789              -->               123456789
//          +123456789             -->               123456789
//          pos 123456789          -->     Unrecognized Format
//          -123456789             -->              -123456789
//          neg 123456789          -->     Unrecognized Format
//          123456789.             -->     Unrecognized Format
//          123,456,789            -->     Unrecognized Format
//          (123456789)            -->     Unrecognized Format
//          9223372036854775808    -->                Overflow
//          -9223372036854775809   -->                Overflow
Imports System.Globalization

Public Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      ' Create a NumberFormatInfo object and set the properties that
      ' affect conversions using Convert.ToInt64(String, IFormatProvider).
      Dim customProvider As New NumberFormatInfo()
      customProvider.NegativeSign = "neg "
      customProvider.PositiveSign = "pos "

      ' Create an array of providers with the custom provider and the
      ' NumberFormatInfo object for the invariant culture.
      Dim providers() As NumberFormatInfo = {customProvider, _
                                             NumberFormatInfo.InvariantInfo }
      
      ' Define an array of strings to parse.
      Dim numericStrings() As String = { "123456789", "+123456789", _
                                         "pos 123456789", "-123456789", _
                                         "neg 123456789", "123456789.", _
                                         "123,456,789", "(123456789)", _
                                         "9223372036854775808", "-9223372036854775809" }

      For ctr As Integer = 0 to 1
         Dim provider As IFormatProvider = providers(ctr)
         Console.WriteLine(IIf(ctr = 0, "Custom Provider:", "Invariant Culture:"))
         For Each numericString As String In numericStrings
            Console.Write("   {0,-22} -->  ", numericString)
            Try
               Console.WriteLine("{0,22}", Convert.ToInt32(numericString, provider))
            Catch e As FormatException
               Console.WriteLine("{0,22}", "Unrecognized Format")
            Catch e As OverflowException
               Console.WriteLine("{0,22}", "Overflow")
            End Try
         Next
         Console.WriteLine()
      Next
   End Sub 
End Module 
' The example displays the following output:
'       Custom Provider:
'          123456789              -->               123456789
'          +123456789             -->     Unrecognized Format
'          pos 123456789          -->               123456789
'          -123456789             -->     Unrecognized Format
'          neg 123456789          -->              -123456789
'          123456789.             -->     Unrecognized Format
'          123,456,789            -->     Unrecognized Format
'          (123456789)            -->     Unrecognized Format
'          9223372036854775808    -->                Overflow
'          -9223372036854775809   -->     Unrecognized Format
'       
'       Invariant Culture:
'          123456789              -->               123456789
'          +123456789             -->               123456789
'          pos 123456789          -->     Unrecognized Format
'          -123456789             -->              -123456789
'          neg 123456789          -->     Unrecognized Format
'          123456789.             -->     Unrecognized Format
'          123,456,789            -->     Unrecognized Format
'          (123456789)            -->     Unrecognized Format
'          9223372036854775808    -->                Overflow
'          -9223372036854775809   -->                Overflow

설명

반환 값은 메서드를 호출한 Int64.Parse 결과입니다 value.

provider 는 개체를 IFormatProvider 가져오는 인스턴스입니다 NumberFormatInfo . 개체는 NumberFormatInfo 형식에 대한 value문화권별 정보를 제공합니다. 이 null``NumberFormatInfo 경우 provider 현재 문화권에 대한 문화권이 사용됩니다.

변환이 실패하는 경우 예외를 처리하지 않으려는 경우 대신 메서드를 호출할 Int64.TryParse 수 있습니다. 변환이 성공했는지 실패했는지 여부를 나타내는 값을 반환 Boolean 합니다.

적용 대상

ToInt64(String, Int32)

지정된 기수로 나타낸 숫자에 대한 문자열 표현을 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(System::String ^ value, int fromBase);
public static long ToInt64 (string value, int fromBase);
public static long ToInt64 (string? value, int fromBase);
static member ToInt64 : string * int -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As String, fromBase As Integer) As Long

매개 변수

value
String

변환할 숫자가 포함된 문자열입니다.

fromBase
Int32

value에 지정된 숫자의 기수로서 2, 8, 10 또는 16이어야 합니다.

반환

Int64

value의 숫자에 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수이거나, valuenull이면 0입니다.

예외

fromBase가 2, 8, 10 또는 16이 아닙니다.

또는

밑이 10이 아닌 부호 있는 숫자를 나타내고 음수 기호가 앞에 붙는value입니다.

value이(가) Empty인 경우

valuefromBase에 지정된 밑에서 유효한 숫자가 아닌 문자를 포함합니다. 예외 메시지는 value의 첫 문자가 유효하지 않은 경우 변환할 숫자가 없음을 나타내고, 유효한 경우 value에 잘못된 후행 문자가 있다고 나타냅니다.

밑이 10이 아닌 부호 있는 숫자를 나타내고 음수 기호가 앞에 붙는value입니다.

또는

value은(는) MinValue보다 작거나 MaxValue보다 큰 숫자를 나타냅니다.

설명

16인 경우 fromBase 매개 변수에 value 지정된 숫자의 접두사에 "0x" 또는 "0X"를 지정할 수 있습니다.

음수 기호는 기본이 아닌 10개의 ToInt64(String, Int32) 숫자 표현에 지원되지 않으므로 음수는 두 개의 보수 표현을 사용한다고 가정합니다. 즉, 메서드는 항상 긴 정수(비트 63)의 가장 높은 순서 이진 비트를 부호 비트로 해석합니다. 따라서 데이터 형식 범위를 Int64 벗어난 밑이 아닌 10개의 숫자가 예외를 throw하는 메서드 없이 값으로 변환되는 코드를 작성할 Int64 수 있습니다. 다음 예제에서는 16진수 문자열 표현으로 변환 MaxValue 한 다음 메서드를 호출합니다 ToInt64(String, Int32) . 메서드는 예외를 throw하는 대신 "0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF -1로 변환됩니다."라는 메시지를 표시합니다.

// Create a hexadecimal value out of range of the long type.
string value = ulong.MaxValue.ToString("X");
// Use Convert.ToInt64 to convert it back to a number.
try
{
   long number = Convert.ToInt64(value, 16);
   Console.WriteLine("0x{0} converts to {1}.", value, number);
}
catch (OverflowException)
{
   Console.WriteLine("Unable to convert '0x{0}' to a long integer.", value);
}
// Create a hexadecimal value out of range of the long type.
let value = UInt64.MaxValue.ToString "X"
// Use Convert.ToInt64 to convert it back to a number.
try
    let number = Convert.ToInt64(value, 16)
    printfn $"0x{value} converts to {number}."
with :? OverflowException ->
    printfn $"Unable to convert '0x{value}' to a long integer."
' Create a hexadecimal value out of range of the Long type.
Dim value As String = ULong.MaxValue.ToString("X")
' Call Convert.ToInt64 to convert it back to a number.
Try
   Dim number As Long = Convert.ToInt64(value, 16)
   Console.WriteLine("0x{0} converts to {1}.", value, number)
Catch e As OverflowException
   Console.WriteLine("Unable to convert '0x{0}' to a long integer.", value)
End Try

이진 작업 또는 숫자 변환을 수행할 때 메서드가 특정 값을 해석하기 위해 적절한 숫자 표현을 사용하고 있는지 확인하는 것은 항상 개발자의 책임입니다. 다음 예제와 같이 16진수 문자열 표현으로 변환할 때 먼저 값이 부호 없는 형식을 나타내는지 또는 부호 있는 형식을 나타내는지 확인하여 메서드가 오버플로를 적절하게 처리하도록 할 수 있습니다. 원래 값이 부호 없는 형식이지만 정수로 다시 변환하면 부호 비트가 있는 값이 생성되면 예외를 throw합니다.

// Create a negative hexadecimal value out of range of the Byte type.
ulong sourceNumber = ulong.MaxValue;
bool isSigned = Math.Sign(Convert.ToDouble(sourceNumber.GetType().GetField("MinValue").GetValue(null))) == -1;
string value = sourceNumber.ToString("X");
long targetNumber;
try
{
   targetNumber = Convert.ToInt64(value, 16);
   if (! isSigned && ((targetNumber & 0x80000000) != 0))
      throw new OverflowException();
   else
      Console.WriteLine("0x{0} converts to {1}.", value, targetNumber);
}
catch (OverflowException)
{
   Console.WriteLine("Unable to convert '0x{0}' to a long integer.", value);
}
// Displays the following to the console:
//    Unable to convert '0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF' to a long integer.
// Create a negative hexadecimal value out of range of the Byte type.
let sourceNumber = UInt64.MaxValue
let isSigned = sign (Convert.ToDouble(sourceNumber.GetType().GetField("MinValue").GetValue null)) = -1
let value = sourceNumber.ToString "X"
try
    let targetNumber = Convert.ToInt64(value, 16)
    if not isSigned && targetNumber &&& 0x80000000L <> 0L then
        raise (OverflowException())
    else
        printfn $"0x{value} converts to {targetNumber}."
with :? OverflowException ->
    printfn $"Unable to convert '0x{value}' to a long integer."
// Displays the following to the console:
//    Unable to convert '0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF' to a long integer.
' Create a negative hexadecimal value out of range of the Long type.
Dim sourceNumber As ULong = ULong.MaxValue
Dim isSigned As Boolean = Math.Sign(sourceNumber.MinValue) = -1
Dim value As String = sourceNumber.ToString("X")
Dim targetNumber As Long
Try
   targetNumber = Convert.ToInt64(value, 16)
   If Not isSigned And ((targetNumber And &H8000000000) <> 0) Then
      Throw New OverflowException()
   Else 
      Console.WriteLine("0x{0} converts to {1}.", value, targetNumber)
   End If    
Catch e As OverflowException
   Console.WriteLine("Unable to convert '0x{0}' to a long integer.", value)
End Try 
' Displays the following to the console:
'    Unable to convert '0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF' to a long integer.

다음 예제에서는 문자열 배열의 각 요소를 16진수 문자열로 해석하고 긴 정수로 변환하려고 시도합니다.

using System;

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      string[] hexStrings = { "8000000000000000", "0FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF",
                              "f0000000000001000", "00A30", "D", "-13", "GAD" };
      foreach (string hexString in hexStrings)
      {
         try {
            long number = Convert.ToInt64(hexString, 16);
            Console.WriteLine("Converted '{0}' to {1:N0}.", hexString, number);
         }
         catch (FormatException) {
            Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is not in the correct format for a hexadecimal number.",
                              hexString);
         }
         catch (OverflowException) {
            Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is outside the range of an Int64.", hexString);
         }
         catch (ArgumentException) {
            Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is invalid in base 16.", hexString);
         }
      }
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       Converted '8000000000000000' to -9,223,372,036,854,775,808.
//       Converted '0FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF' to 1,152,921,504,606,846,975.
//       'f0000000000001000' is outside the range of an Int64.
//       Converted '00A30' to 2,608.
//       Converted 'D' to 13.
//       '-13' is invalid in base 16.
//       'GAD' is not in the correct format for a hexadecimal number.
open System

let hexStrings =
    [| "8000000000000000"; "0FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF"
       "f0000000000001000"; "00A30"; "D"; "-13"; "GAD" |]
for hexString in hexStrings do
    try
        let number = Convert.ToInt64(hexString, 16)
        printfn $"Converted '{hexString}' to {number:N0}."
    with
    | :? FormatException ->
        printfn $"'{hexString}' is not in the correct format for a hexadecimal number."
    | :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"'{hexString}' is outside the range of an Int64."
    | :? ArgumentException ->
        printfn $"'{hexString}' is invalid in base 16."
// The example displays the following output:
//       Converted '8000000000000000' to -9,223,372,036,854,775,808.
//       Converted '0FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF' to 1,152,921,504,606,846,975.
//       'f0000000000001000' is outside the range of an Int64.
//       Converted '00A30' to 2,608.
//       Converted 'D' to 13.
//       '-13' is invalid in base 16.
//       'GAD' is not in the correct format for a hexadecimal number.
Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim hexStrings() As String = { "8000000000000000", "0FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF", _
                                     "f0000000000001000", "00A30", "D", "-13", "GAD" }
      For Each hexString As String In hexStrings
         Try
            Dim number As Long = Convert.ToInt64(hexString, 16)
            Console.WriteLine("Converted '{0}' to {1:N0}.", hexString, number)
         Catch e As FormatException
            Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is not in the correct format for a hexadecimal number.", _
                              hexString)
         Catch e As OverflowException
            Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is outside the range of an Int64.", hexString)
         Catch e As ArgumentException
            Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is invalid in base 16.", hexString)
         End Try
      Next                                            
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'       Converted '8000000000000000' to -9,223,372,036,854,775,808.
'       Converted '0FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF' to 1,152,921,504,606,846,975.
'       'f0000000000001000' is outside the range of an Int64.
'       Converted '00A30' to 2,608.
'       Converted 'D' to 13.
'       '-13' is invalid in base 16.
'       'GAD' is not in the correct format for a hexadecimal number.

적용 대상

ToInt64(Single)

지정된 단정밀도 부동 소수점 숫자 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(float value);
public static long ToInt64 (float value);
static member ToInt64 : single -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As Single) As Long

매개 변수

value
Single

변환할 단정밀도 부동 소수점 숫자입니다.

반환

Int64

가장 가까운 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 반올림된 value입니다. value가 두 정수 사이의 값이면 짝수 값을 반환합니다. 예를 들어 4.5는 4로, 5.5는 6으로 변환됩니다.

예외

valueMaxValue보다 크거나 MinValue보다 작습니다.

예제

다음 예제에서는 값 배열의 Single 각 요소를 긴 정수로 변환하려고 시도합니다.

float[] values= { Single.MinValue, -1.38e10f, -1023.299f, -12.98f,
                  0f, 9.113e-16f, 103.919f, 17834.191f, Single.MaxValue };
long result;

foreach (float value in values)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt64(value);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.",
                        value.GetType().Name, value, result.GetType().Name, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException) {
      Console.WriteLine("{0} is outside the range of the Int64 type.", value);
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    -3.4028235E+38 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
//    Converted the Single value -1.38E+10 to the Int64 value -13799999488.
//    Converted the Single value -1023.299 to the Int64 value -1023.
//    Converted the Single value -12.98 to the Int64 value -13.
//    Converted the Single value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the Single value 9.113E-16 to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the Single value 103.919 to the Int64 value 104.
//    Converted the Single value 17834.191 to the Int64 value 17834.
//    3.4028235E+38 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
let values =
    [| Single.MinValue; -1.38e10f; -1023.299f; -12.98f
       0f; 9.113e-16f; 103.919f; 17834.191f; Single.MaxValue |]

for value in values do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt64 value
        printfn $"Converted the {value.GetType().Name} value {value} to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"{value} is outside the range of the Int64 type."
// The example displays the following output:
//    -3.40282346638529E+38 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
//    -13799999488 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
//    Converted the Double value -1023.29901123047 to the Int64 value -1023.
//    Converted the Double value -12.9799995422363 to the Int64 value -13.
//    Converted the Double value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the Double value 9.11299983940444E-16 to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the Double value 103.918998718262 to the Int64 value 104.
//    Converted the Double value 17834.19140625 to the Int64 value 17834.
//    3.40282346638529E+38 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
Dim values() As Single = { Single.MinValue, -1.38e10, -1023.299, -12.98, _
                           0, 9.113e-16, 103.919, 17834.191, Single.MaxValue }
Dim result As Long

For Each value As Single In values
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt64(value)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.", _
                        value.GetType().Name, value, result.GetType().Name, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("{0} is outside the range of the Int64 type.", value)
   End Try
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    -3.4028235E+38 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
'    Converted the Single value -1.38E+10 to the Int64 value -13799999488.
'    Converted the Single value -1023.299 to the Int64 value -1023.
'    Converted the Single value -12.98 to the Int64 value -13.
'    Converted the Single value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
'    Converted the Single value 9.113E-16 to the Int64 value 0.
'    Converted the Single value 103.919 to the Int64 value 104.
'    Converted the Single value 17834.191 to the Int64 value 17834.
'    3.4028235E+38 is outside the range of the Int64 type.

추가 정보

적용 대상

ToInt64(Object, IFormatProvider)

지정된 문화권별 서식 지정 정보를 사용하여, 지정된 개체의 값을 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(System::Object ^ value, IFormatProvider ^ provider);
public static long ToInt64 (object value, IFormatProvider provider);
public static long ToInt64 (object? value, IFormatProvider? provider);
static member ToInt64 : obj * IFormatProvider -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As Object, provider As IFormatProvider) As Long

매개 변수

value
Object

IConvertible 인터페이스를 구현하는 개체

provider
IFormatProvider

문화권별 형식 정보를 제공하는 개체입니다.

반환

Int64

value에 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수이거나, valuenull이면 0입니다.

예외

value가 적절한 형식이 아닙니다.

valueIConvertible 인터페이스를 구현하지 않습니다.

또는

이 변환은 지원되지 않습니다.

value은(는) MinValue보다 작거나 MaxValue보다 큰 숫자를 나타냅니다.

예제

다음 예제에서는 구현하는 클래스와 구현 IConvertible 하는 클래스를 정의합니다 IFormatProvider. 구현 IConvertible 하는 클래스의 개체에는 값 배열 Double 이 있습니다. 각 클래스의 개체가 메서드에 ToInt64 전달됩니다. 이 메서드는 평균을 계산하는 방법을 결정하기 위해 구현하는 개체를 사용하여 값 배열 Double 의 평균을 반환합니다 IFormatProvider .

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

// Define the types of averaging available in the class 
// implementing IConvertible.
public enum class AverageType : short
{
   None = 0,
   GeometricMean = 1,
   ArithmeticMean = 2,
   Median = 3
};


// Pass an instance of this class to methods that require an 
// IFormatProvider. The class instance determines the type of 
// average to calculate.
ref class AverageInfo: public IFormatProvider
{
protected:
   AverageType AvgType;

public:

   // Specify the type of averaging in the constructor.
   AverageInfo( AverageType avgType )
   {
      this->AvgType = avgType;
   }


   // This method returns a reference to the containing object 
   // if an object of AverageInfo type is requested. 
   virtual Object^ GetFormat( Type^ argType )
   {
      if ( argType == AverageInfo::typeid)
            return this;
      else
            return (Object^)0;
   }


   property AverageType TypeOfAverage 
   {

      // Use this property to set or get the type of averaging.
      AverageType get()
      {
         return this->AvgType;
      }

      void set( AverageType value )
      {
         this->AvgType = value;
      }

   }

};


// This class encapsulates an array of double values and implements 
// the IConvertible interface. Most of the IConvertible methods 
// return an average of the array elements in one of three types: 
// arithmetic mean, geometric mean, or median. 
ref class DataSet: public IConvertible
{
private:
   static Object^ null = nullptr;

protected:
   ArrayList^ data;
   AverageInfo^ defaultProvider;

   // This method unboxes a boxed double.
   double UnBoxDouble( Object^ obj )
   {
      return  *static_cast<double^>(obj);
   }


public:

   // Construct the object and add an initial list of values.
   // Create a default format provider.
   DataSet( ... array<Double>^values )
   {
      data = gcnew ArrayList( (Array^)values );
      defaultProvider = gcnew AverageInfo( AverageType::ArithmeticMean );
   }


   // Add additional values with this method.
   int Add( double value )
   {
      data->Add( value );
      return data->Count;
   }


   property double Item[ int ]
   {

      // Get, set, and add values with this indexer property.
      double get( int index )
      {
         if ( index >= 0 && index < data->Count )
                  return UnBoxDouble( data[ index ] );
         else
                  throw gcnew InvalidOperationException( "[DataSet.get] Index out of range." );
      }

      void set( int index, double value )
      {
         if ( index >= 0 && index < data->Count )
                  data[ index ] = value;
         else
         if ( index == data->Count )
                  data->Add( value );
         else
                  throw gcnew InvalidOperationException( "[DataSet.set] Index out of range." );
      }

   }

   property int Count 
   {

      // This property returns the number of elements in the object.
      int get()
      {
         return data->Count;
      }

   }

protected:

   // This method calculates the average of the object's elements.
   double Average( AverageType avgType )
   {
      double SumProd;
      if ( data->Count == 0 )
            return 0.0;

      switch ( avgType )
      {
         case AverageType::GeometricMean:
            SumProd = 1.0;
            for ( int Index = 0; Index < data->Count; Index++ )
               SumProd *= UnBoxDouble( data[ Index ] );
            
            // This calculation will not fail with negative 
            // elements.
            return Math::Sign( SumProd ) * Math::Pow( Math::Abs( SumProd ), 1.0 / data->Count );

         case AverageType::ArithmeticMean:
            SumProd = 0.0;
            for ( int Index = 0; Index < data->Count; Index++ )
               SumProd += UnBoxDouble( data[ Index ] );
            return SumProd / data->Count;

         case AverageType::Median:
            if ( data->Count % 2 == 0 )
                        return (UnBoxDouble( data[ data->Count / 2 ] ) + UnBoxDouble( data[ data->Count / 2 - 1 ] )) / 2.0;
            else
                        return UnBoxDouble( data[ data->Count / 2 ] );

         default:
            return 0.0;
      }
   }


   // Get the AverageInfo object from the caller's format provider,
   // or use the local default.
   AverageInfo^ GetAverageInfo( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      AverageInfo^ avgInfo = nullptr;
      if ( provider != nullptr )
            avgInfo = static_cast<AverageInfo^>(provider->GetFormat( AverageInfo::typeid ));

      if ( avgInfo == nullptr )
            return defaultProvider;
      else
            return avgInfo;
   }


   // Calculate the average and limit the range.
   double CalcNLimitAverage( double min, double max, IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      
      // Get the format provider and calculate the average.
      AverageInfo^ avgInfo = GetAverageInfo( provider );
      double avg = Average( avgInfo->TypeOfAverage );
      
      // Limit the range, based on the minimum and maximum values 
      // for the type.
      return avg > max ? max : avg < min ? min : avg;
   }


public:

   // The following elements are required by IConvertible.
   // None of these conversion functions throw exceptions. When
   // the data is out of range for the type, the appropriate
   // MinValue or MaxValue is used.
   virtual TypeCode GetTypeCode()
   {
      return TypeCode::Object;
   }

   virtual bool ToBoolean( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      
      // ToBoolean is false if the dataset is empty.
      if ( data->Count <= 0 )
            return false;
      // For median averaging, ToBoolean is true if any 
      // non-discarded elements are nonzero.
      else
      
      // For median averaging, ToBoolean is true if any 
      // non-discarded elements are nonzero.
      if ( AverageType::Median == GetAverageInfo( provider )->TypeOfAverage )
      {
         if ( data->Count % 2 == 0 )
                  return (UnBoxDouble( data[ data->Count / 2 ] ) != 0.0 || UnBoxDouble( data[ data->Count / 2 - 1 ] ) != 0.0);
         else
                  return UnBoxDouble( data[ data->Count / 2 ] ) != 0.0;
      }
      // For arithmetic or geometric mean averaging, ToBoolean is 
      // true if any element of the dataset is nonzero.  
      else
      {
         for ( int Index = 0; Index < data->Count; Index++ )
            if ( UnBoxDouble( data[ Index ] ) != 0.0 )
                        return true;
         return false;
      }
   }

   virtual Byte ToByte( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToByte( CalcNLimitAverage( Byte::MinValue, Byte::MaxValue, provider ) );
   }

   virtual Char ToChar( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToChar( Convert::ToUInt16( CalcNLimitAverage( Char::MinValue, Char::MaxValue, provider ) ) );
   }


   // Convert to DateTime by adding the calculated average as 
   // seconds to the current date and time. A valid DateTime is 
   // always returned.
   virtual DateTime ToDateTime( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      double seconds = Average( GetAverageInfo( provider )->TypeOfAverage );
      try
      {
         return DateTime::Now.AddSeconds( seconds );
      }
      catch ( ArgumentOutOfRangeException^ ) 
      {
         return seconds < 0.0 ? DateTime::MinValue : DateTime::MaxValue;
      }

   }

   virtual Decimal ToDecimal( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      
      // The Double conversion rounds Decimal.MinValue and 
      // Decimal.MaxValue to invalid Decimal values, so the 
      // following limits must be used.
      return Convert::ToDecimal( CalcNLimitAverage(  -79228162514264330000000000000.0, 79228162514264330000000000000.0, provider ) );
   }

   virtual double ToDouble( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Average( GetAverageInfo( provider )->TypeOfAverage );
   }

   virtual short ToInt16( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToInt16( CalcNLimitAverage( Int16::MinValue, Int16::MaxValue, provider ) );
   }

   virtual int ToInt32( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToInt32( CalcNLimitAverage( Int32::MinValue, Int32::MaxValue, provider ) );
   }

   virtual __int64 ToInt64( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      
      // The Double conversion rounds Int64.MinValue and 
      // Int64.MaxValue to invalid Int64 values, so the following 
      // limits must be used.
      return Convert::ToInt64( CalcNLimitAverage(  -9223372036854775000, 9223372036854775000, provider ) );
   }

   virtual signed char ToSByte( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToSByte( CalcNLimitAverage( SByte::MinValue, SByte::MaxValue, provider ) );
   }

   virtual float ToSingle( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToSingle( CalcNLimitAverage( Single::MinValue, Single::MaxValue, provider ) );
   }

   virtual UInt16 ToUInt16( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToUInt16( CalcNLimitAverage( UInt16::MinValue, UInt16::MaxValue, provider ) );
   }

   virtual UInt32 ToUInt32( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToUInt32( CalcNLimitAverage( UInt32::MinValue, UInt32::MaxValue, provider ) );
   }

   virtual UInt64 ToUInt64( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      
      // The Double conversion rounds UInt64.MaxValue to an invalid
      // UInt64 value, so the following limit must be used.
      return Convert::ToUInt64( CalcNLimitAverage( 0, 18446744073709550000.0, provider ) );
   }

   virtual Object^ ToType( Type^ conversionType, IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ChangeType( Average( GetAverageInfo( provider )->TypeOfAverage ), conversionType );
   }

   virtual String^ ToString( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      AverageType avgType = GetAverageInfo( provider )->TypeOfAverage;
      return String::Format( "( {0}: {1:G10} )", avgType, Average( avgType ) );
   }

};


// Display a DataSet with three different format providers.
void DisplayDataSet( DataSet^ ds )
{
   IFormatProvider^ null = nullptr;
   String^ fmt = "{0,-12}{1,20}{2,20}{3,20}";
   AverageInfo^ median = gcnew AverageInfo( AverageType::Median );
   AverageInfo^ geMean = gcnew AverageInfo( AverageType::GeometricMean );
   
   // Display the dataset elements.
   if ( ds->Count > 0 )
   {
      Console::Write( "\nDataSet: [{0}", ds->Item[ 0 ] );
      for ( int iX = 1; iX < ds->Count; iX++ )
         Console::Write( ", {0}", ds->Item[ iX ] );
      Console::WriteLine( "]\n" );
   }

   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "Convert::", "Default", "Geometric Mean", "Median" );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "---------", "-------", "--------------", "------" );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToBoolean", Convert::ToBoolean( ds, null ), Convert::ToBoolean( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToBoolean( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToByte", Convert::ToByte( ds, null ), Convert::ToByte( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToByte( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToChar", Convert::ToChar( ds, null ), Convert::ToChar( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToChar( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( "{0,-12}{1,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}"
   "{2,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}{3,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}", "ToDateTime", Convert::ToDateTime( ds, null ), Convert::ToDateTime( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToDateTime( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToDecimal", Convert::ToDecimal( ds, null ), Convert::ToDecimal( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToDecimal( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToDouble", Convert::ToDouble( ds, null ), Convert::ToDouble( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToDouble( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt16", Convert::ToInt16( ds, null ), Convert::ToInt16( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToInt16( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt32", Convert::ToInt32( ds, null ), Convert::ToInt32( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToInt32( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt64", Convert::ToInt64( ds, null ), Convert::ToInt64( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToInt64( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToSByte", Convert::ToSByte( ds, null ), Convert::ToSByte( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToSByte( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToSingle", Convert::ToSingle( ds, null ), Convert::ToSingle( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToSingle( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt16", Convert::ToUInt16( ds, null ), Convert::ToUInt16( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToUInt16( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt32", Convert::ToUInt32( ds, null ), Convert::ToUInt32( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToUInt32( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt64", Convert::ToUInt64( ds, null ), Convert::ToUInt64( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToUInt64( ds, median ) );
}

int main()
{
   Console::WriteLine( "This example of the "
   "Convert::To<Type>( Object*, IFormatProvider* ) methods "
   "\ngenerates the following output. The example "
   "displays the values \nreturned by the methods, "
   "using several IFormatProvider objects.\n" );
   
   // To call a [ParamArray] method in C++, you cannot just
   // list the parameters, you need to build an array.
   array<Double>^dataElem = gcnew array<Double>(6);
   dataElem[ 0 ] = 10.5;
   dataElem[ 1 ] = 22.2;
   dataElem[ 2 ] = 45.9;
   dataElem[ 3 ] = 88.7;
   dataElem[ 4 ] = 156.05;
   dataElem[ 5 ] = 297.6;
   DataSet^ ds1 = gcnew DataSet( dataElem );
   DisplayDataSet( ds1 );
   dataElem = gcnew array<Double>(5);
   dataElem[ 0 ] = 359999.95;
   dataElem[ 1 ] = 425000;
   dataElem[ 2 ] = 499999.5;
   dataElem[ 3 ] = 775000;
   dataElem[ 4 ] = 1695000;
   DataSet^ ds2 = gcnew DataSet( dataElem );
   DisplayDataSet( ds2 );
}

/*
This example of the Convert::To<Type>( Object*, IFormatProvider* ) methods
generates the following output. The example displays the values
returned by the methods, using several IFormatProvider objects.

DataSet: [10.5, 22.2, 45.9, 88.7, 156.05, 297.6]

Convert::                Default      Geometric Mean              Median
---------                -------      --------------              ------
ToBoolean                   True                True                True
ToByte                       103                  59                  67
ToChar                         g                   ;                   C
ToDateTime   2003-05-13 15:30:23 2003-05-13 15:29:39 2003-05-13 15:29:47
ToDecimal       103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
ToDouble        103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
ToInt16                      103                  59                  67
ToInt32                      103                  59                  67
ToInt64                      103                  59                  67
ToSByte                      103                  59                  67
ToSingle                103.4917            59.43321                67.3
ToUInt16                     103                  59                  67
ToUInt32                     103                  59                  67
ToUInt64                     103                  59                  67

DataSet: [359999.95, 425000, 499999.5, 775000, 1695000]

Convert::                Default      Geometric Mean              Median
---------                -------      --------------              ------
ToBoolean                   True                True                True
ToByte                       255                 255                 255
ToChar                         ?                   ?                   ?
ToDateTime   2003-05-22 08:05:19 2003-05-20 22:54:57 2003-05-19 10:21:59
ToDecimal              750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
ToDouble               750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
ToInt16                    32767               32767               32767
ToInt32                   751000              631577              500000
ToInt64                   751000              631577              500000
ToSByte                      127                 127                 127
ToSingle                750999.9            631577.3            499999.5
ToUInt16                   65535               65535               65535
ToUInt32                  751000              631577              500000
ToUInt64                  751000              631577              500000
*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

// Define the types of averaging available in the class
// implementing IConvertible.
public enum AverageType : short
{
    None = 0,
    GeometricMean = 1,
    ArithmeticMean = 2,
    Median = 3
};

// Pass an instance of this class to methods that require an
// IFormatProvider. The class instance determines the type of
// average to calculate.
public class AverageInfo : IFormatProvider
{
    protected AverageType AvgType;

    // Specify the type of averaging in the constructor.
    public AverageInfo( AverageType avgType )
    {
        this.AvgType = avgType;
    }

    // This method returns a reference to the containing object
    // if an object of AverageInfo type is requested.
    public object GetFormat( Type argType )
    {
        if ( argType == typeof( AverageInfo ) )
            return this;
        else
            return null;
    }

    // Use this property to set or get the type of averaging.
    public AverageType TypeOfAverage
    {
        get { return this.AvgType; }
        set { this.AvgType = value; }
    }
}

// This class encapsulates an array of double values and implements
// the IConvertible interface. Most of the IConvertible methods
// return an average of the array elements in one of three types:
// arithmetic mean, geometric mean, or median.
public class DataSet : IConvertible
{
    protected ArrayList     data;
    protected AverageInfo   defaultProvider;

    // Construct the object and add an initial list of values.
    // Create a default format provider.
    public DataSet( params double[ ] values )
    {
        data = new ArrayList( values );
        defaultProvider =
            new AverageInfo( AverageType.ArithmeticMean );
    }

    // Add additional values with this method.
    public int Add( double value )
    {
        data.Add( value );
        return data.Count;
    }

    // Get, set, and add values with this indexer property.
    public double this[ int index ]
    {
        get
        {
            if( index >= 0 && index < data.Count )
                return (double)data[ index ];
            else
                throw new InvalidOperationException(
                    "[DataSet.get] Index out of range." );
        }
        set
        {
            if( index >= 0 && index < data.Count )
                data[ index ] = value;

            else if( index == data.Count )
                data.Add( value );
            else
                throw new InvalidOperationException(
                    "[DataSet.set] Index out of range." );
        }
    }

    // This property returns the number of elements in the object.
    public int Count
    {
        get { return data.Count; }
    }

    // This method calculates the average of the object's elements.
    protected double Average( AverageType avgType )
    {
        double  SumProd;

        if( data.Count == 0 )
            return 0.0;

        switch( avgType )
        {
            case AverageType.GeometricMean:

                SumProd = 1.0;
                for( int Index = 0; Index < data.Count; Index++ )
                    SumProd *= (double)data[ Index ];

                // This calculation will not fail with negative
                // elements.
                return Math.Sign( SumProd ) * Math.Pow(
                    Math.Abs( SumProd ), 1.0 / data.Count );

            case AverageType.ArithmeticMean:

                SumProd = 0.0;
                for( int Index = 0; Index < data.Count; Index++ )
                    SumProd += (double)data[ Index ];

                return SumProd / data.Count;

            case AverageType.Median:

                if( data.Count % 2 == 0 )
                    return ( (double)data[ data.Count / 2 ] +
                        (double)data[ data.Count / 2 - 1 ] ) / 2.0;
                else
                    return (double)data[ data.Count / 2 ];

            default:
                return 0.0;
        }
    }

    // Get the AverageInfo object from the caller's format provider,
    // or use the local default.
    protected AverageInfo GetAverageInfo( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        AverageInfo avgInfo = null;

        if( provider != null )
            avgInfo = (AverageInfo)provider.GetFormat(
                typeof( AverageInfo ) );

        if ( avgInfo == null )
            return defaultProvider;
        else
            return avgInfo;
    }

    // Calculate the average and limit the range.
    protected double CalcNLimitAverage( double min, double max,
        IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        // Get the format provider and calculate the average.
        AverageInfo avgInfo = GetAverageInfo( provider );
        double avg = Average( avgInfo.TypeOfAverage );

        // Limit the range, based on the minimum and maximum values
        // for the type.
        return avg > max ? max : avg < min ? min : avg;
    }

    // The following elements are required by IConvertible.

    // None of these conversion functions throw exceptions. When
    // the data is out of range for the type, the appropriate
    // MinValue or MaxValue is used.
    public TypeCode GetTypeCode( )
    {
        return TypeCode.Object;
    }

    public bool ToBoolean( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        // ToBoolean is false if the dataset is empty.
        if( data.Count <= 0 )
        {
            return false;
        }

        // For median averaging, ToBoolean is true if any
        // non-discarded elements are nonzero.
        else if( AverageType.Median ==
            GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage )
        {
            if (data.Count % 2 == 0 )
                return ( (double)data[ data.Count / 2 ] != 0.0 ||
                    (double)data[ data.Count / 2 - 1 ] != 0.0 );
            else
                return (double)data[ data.Count / 2 ] != 0.0;
        }

        // For arithmetic or geometric mean averaging, ToBoolean is
        // true if any element of the dataset is nonzero.
        else
        {
            for( int Index = 0; Index < data.Count; Index++ )
                if( (double)data[ Index ] != 0.0 )
                    return true;
            return false;
        }
    }

    public byte ToByte( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToByte( CalcNLimitAverage(
            Byte.MinValue, Byte.MaxValue, provider ) );
    }

    public char ToChar( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToChar( Convert.ToUInt16( CalcNLimitAverage(
            Char.MinValue, Char.MaxValue, provider ) ) );
    }

    // Convert to DateTime by adding the calculated average as
    // seconds to the current date and time. A valid DateTime is
    // always returned.
    public DateTime ToDateTime( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        double seconds =
            Average( GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage );
        try
        {
            return DateTime.Now.AddSeconds( seconds );
        }
        catch( ArgumentOutOfRangeException )
        {
            return seconds < 0.0 ? DateTime.MinValue : DateTime.MaxValue;
        }
    }

    public decimal ToDecimal( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        // The Double conversion rounds Decimal.MinValue and
        // Decimal.MaxValue to invalid Decimal values, so the
        // following limits must be used.
        return Convert.ToDecimal( CalcNLimitAverage(
            -79228162514264330000000000000.0,
            79228162514264330000000000000.0, provider ) );
    }

    public double ToDouble( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Average( GetAverageInfo(provider).TypeOfAverage );
    }

    public short ToInt16( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToInt16( CalcNLimitAverage(
            Int16.MinValue, Int16.MaxValue, provider ) );
    }

    public int ToInt32( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToInt32( CalcNLimitAverage(
            Int32.MinValue, Int32.MaxValue, provider ) );
    }

    public long ToInt64( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        // The Double conversion rounds Int64.MinValue and
        // Int64.MaxValue to invalid Int64 values, so the following
        // limits must be used.
        return Convert.ToInt64( CalcNLimitAverage(
            -9223372036854775000, 9223372036854775000, provider ) );
    }

    public SByte ToSByte( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToSByte( CalcNLimitAverage(
            SByte.MinValue, SByte.MaxValue, provider ) );
    }

    public float ToSingle( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToSingle( CalcNLimitAverage(
            Single.MinValue, Single.MaxValue, provider ) );
    }

    public UInt16 ToUInt16( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToUInt16( CalcNLimitAverage(
            UInt16.MinValue, UInt16.MaxValue, provider ) );
    }

    public UInt32 ToUInt32( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToUInt32( CalcNLimitAverage(
            UInt32.MinValue, UInt32.MaxValue, provider ) );
    }

    public UInt64 ToUInt64( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        // The Double conversion rounds UInt64.MaxValue to an invalid
        // UInt64 value, so the following limit must be used.
        return Convert.ToUInt64( CalcNLimitAverage(
            0, 18446744073709550000.0, provider ) );
    }

    public object ToType( Type conversionType,
        IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ChangeType( Average(
            GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage ),
            conversionType );
    }

    public string ToString( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        AverageType avgType = GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage;
        return String.Format( "( {0}: {1:G10} )", avgType,
            Average( avgType ) );
    }
}

class IConvertibleProviderDemo
{
    // Display a DataSet with three different format providers.
    public static void DisplayDataSet( DataSet ds )
    {
        string      fmt    = "{0,-12}{1,20}{2,20}{3,20}";
        AverageInfo median = new AverageInfo( AverageType.Median );
        AverageInfo geMean =
            new AverageInfo( AverageType.GeometricMean );

         // Display the dataset elements.
        if( ds.Count > 0 )
        {
            Console.Write( "\nDataSet: [{0}", ds[ 0 ] );
            for( int iX = 1; iX < ds.Count; iX++ )
                Console.Write( ", {0}", ds[ iX ] );
            Console.WriteLine( "]\n" );
        }

        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "Convert.", "Default",
            "Geometric Mean", "Median");
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "--------", "-------",
            "--------------", "------");
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToBoolean",
            Convert.ToBoolean( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToBoolean( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToBoolean( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToByte",
            Convert.ToByte( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToByte( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToByte( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToChar",
            Convert.ToChar( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToChar( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToChar( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( "{0,-12}{1,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}" +
            "{2,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}{3,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}",
            "ToDateTime", Convert.ToDateTime( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToDateTime( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToDateTime( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToDecimal",
            Convert.ToDecimal( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToDecimal( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToDecimal( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToDouble",
            Convert.ToDouble( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToDouble( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToDouble( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt16",
            Convert.ToInt16( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToInt16( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToInt16( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt32",
            Convert.ToInt32( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToInt32( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToInt32( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt64",
            Convert.ToInt64( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToInt64( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToInt64( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToSByte",
            Convert.ToSByte( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToSByte( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToSByte( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToSingle",
            Convert.ToSingle( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToSingle( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToSingle( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt16",
            Convert.ToUInt16( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToUInt16( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToUInt16( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt32",
            Convert.ToUInt32( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToUInt32( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToUInt32( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt64",
            Convert.ToUInt64( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToUInt64( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToUInt64( ds, median ) );
    }

    public static void Main( )
    {
        Console.WriteLine( "This example of " +
            "the Convert.To<Type>( object, IFormatProvider ) methods " +
            "\ngenerates the following output. The example " +
            "displays the values \nreturned by the methods, " +
            "using several IFormatProvider objects.\n" );

        DataSet ds1 = new DataSet(
            10.5, 22.2, 45.9, 88.7, 156.05, 297.6 );
        DisplayDataSet( ds1 );

        DataSet ds2 = new DataSet(
            359999.95, 425000, 499999.5, 775000, 1695000 );
        DisplayDataSet( ds2 );
    }
}

/*
This example of the Convert.To<Type>( object, IFormatProvider ) methods
generates the following output. The example displays the values
returned by the methods, using several IFormatProvider objects.

DataSet: [10.5, 22.2, 45.9, 88.7, 156.05, 297.6]

Convert.                 Default      Geometric Mean              Median
--------                 -------      --------------              ------
ToBoolean                   True                True                True
ToByte                       103                  59                  67
ToChar                         g                   ;                   C
ToDateTime   2003-05-13 15:04:12 2003-05-13 15:03:28 2003-05-13 15:03:35
ToDecimal       103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
ToDouble        103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
ToInt16                      103                  59                  67
ToInt32                      103                  59                  67
ToInt64                      103                  59                  67
ToSByte                      103                  59                  67
ToSingle                103.4917            59.43321                67.3
ToUInt16                     103                  59                  67
ToUInt32                     103                  59                  67
ToUInt64                     103                  59                  67

DataSet: [359999.95, 425000, 499999.5, 775000, 1695000]

Convert.                 Default      Geometric Mean              Median
--------                 -------      --------------              ------
ToBoolean                   True                True                True
ToByte                       255                 255                 255
ToChar                         ?                   ?                   ?
ToDateTime   2003-05-22 07:39:08 2003-05-20 22:28:45 2003-05-19 09:55:48
ToDecimal              750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
ToDouble               750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
ToInt16                    32767               32767               32767
ToInt32                   751000              631577              500000
ToInt64                   751000              631577              500000
ToSByte                      127                 127                 127
ToSingle                750999.9            631577.3            499999.5
ToUInt16                   65535               65535               65535
ToUInt32                  751000              631577              500000
ToUInt64                  751000              631577              500000
*/
open System
open System.Collections

// Define the types of averaging available in the class
// implementing IConvertible.
type AverageType =
    | None = 0s
    | GeometricMean = 1s
    | ArithmeticMean = 2s
    | Median = 3s

// Pass an instance of this class to methods that require an
// IFormatProvider. The class instance determines the type of
// average to calculate.
[<AllowNullLiteral>]
type AverageInfo(avgType: AverageType) =
    // Use this property to set or get the type of averaging.
    member val TypeOfAverage = avgType with get, set 
    
    interface IFormatProvider with
        // This method returns a reference to the containing object
        // if an object of AverageInfo type is requested.
        member this.GetFormat(argType: Type) =
            if argType = typeof<AverageInfo> then
                this
            else
                null

// This class encapsulates an array of double values and implements
// the IConvertible interface. Most of the IConvertible methods
// an average of the array elements in one of three types:
// arithmetic mean, geometric mean, or median.
type DataSet([<ParamArray>] values: double[]) =
    let data = ResizeArray values
    let defaultProvider =
        AverageInfo AverageType.ArithmeticMean

    // Add additional values with this method.
    member _.Add(value: double) =
        data.Add value
        data.Count

    // Get, set, and add values with this indexer property.
    member _.Item
        with get (index) =
            if index >= 0 && index < data.Count then
                data[index]
            else
                raise (InvalidOperationException "[DataSet.get] Index out of range.")
        and set index value =
            if index >= 0 && index < data.Count then
                data[index] <- value
            elif index = data.Count then
                data.Add value
            else
                raise (InvalidOperationException "[DataSet.set] Index out of range.")

    // This property returns the number of elements in the object.
    member _.Count =
        data.Count

    // This method calculates the average of the object's elements.
    member _.Average(avgType: AverageType) =
        if data.Count = 0 then
            0.0
        else
            match avgType with
            | AverageType.GeometricMean ->
                let sumProd =
                    Seq.reduce ( * ) data
                
                // This calculation will not fail with negative
                // elements.
                (sign sumProd |> float) * Math.Pow(abs sumProd, 1.0 / (float data.Count))

            | AverageType.ArithmeticMean ->
                Seq.average data

            | AverageType.Median ->
                if data.Count % 2 = 0 then
                    (data[data.Count / 2] + data[data.Count / 2 - 1]) / 2.0
                else
                    data[ data.Count / 2]
            | _ ->
                0.0

    // Get the AverageInfo object from the caller's format provider,
    // or use the local default.
    member _.GetAverageInfo(provider: IFormatProvider) =
        let avgInfo =
            if provider <> null then
                provider.GetFormat typeof<AverageInfo> :?> AverageInfo
            else 
                null

        if avgInfo = null then
            defaultProvider
        else
            avgInfo

    // Calculate the average and limit the range.
    member this.CalcNLimitAverage(min: double, max: double, provider: IFormatProvider) =
        // Get the format provider and calculate the average.
        let avgInfo = this.GetAverageInfo provider
        let avg = this.Average avgInfo.TypeOfAverage

        // Limit the range, based on the minimum and maximum values
        // for the type.
        if avg > max then max elif avg < min then min else avg

    // The following elements are required by IConvertible.
    interface IConvertible with
        // None of these conversion functions throw exceptions. When
        // the data is out of range for the type, the appropriate
        // MinValue or MaxValue is used.
        member _.GetTypeCode() =
            TypeCode.Object

        member this.ToBoolean(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            // ToBoolean is false if the dataset is empty.
            if data.Count <= 0 then
                false

            // For median averaging, ToBoolean is true if any
            // non-discarded elements are nonzero.
            elif AverageType.Median = this.GetAverageInfo(provider).TypeOfAverage then
                if data.Count % 2 = 0 then
                    (data[data.Count / 2] <> 0.0 || data[data.Count / 2 - 1] <> 0.0)
                else
                    data[data.Count / 2] <> 0.0

            // For arithmetic or geometric mean averaging, ToBoolean is
            // true if any element of the dataset is nonzero.
            else
                Seq.exists (fun x -> x <> 0.0) data

        member this.ToByte(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToByte(this.CalcNLimitAverage(float Byte.MinValue, float Byte.MaxValue, provider) )

        member this.ToChar(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToChar(Convert.ToUInt16(this.CalcNLimitAverage(float Char.MinValue, float Char.MaxValue, provider) ) )

        // Convert to DateTime by adding the calculated average as
        // seconds to the current date and time. A valid DateTime is
        // always returned.
        member this.ToDateTime(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            let seconds = this.Average(this.GetAverageInfo(provider).TypeOfAverage)
            try
                DateTime.Now.AddSeconds seconds
            with :? ArgumentOutOfRangeException ->
                if seconds < 0.0 then DateTime.MinValue else DateTime.MaxValue

        member this.ToDecimal(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            // The Double conversion rounds Decimal.MinValue and
            // Decimal.MaxValue to invalid Decimal values, so the
            // following limits must be used.
            Convert.ToDecimal(this.CalcNLimitAverage(-79228162514264330000000000000.0, 79228162514264330000000000000.0, provider) )

        member this.ToDouble(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            this.Average(this.GetAverageInfo(provider).TypeOfAverage)

        member this.ToInt16(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToInt16(this.CalcNLimitAverage(float Int16.MinValue, float Int16.MaxValue, provider) )

        member this.ToInt32(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToInt32(this.CalcNLimitAverage(Int32.MinValue, Int32.MaxValue, provider) )

        member this.ToInt64(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            // The Double conversion rounds Int64.MinValue and
            // Int64.MaxValue to invalid Int64 values, so the following
            // limits must be used.
            Convert.ToInt64(this.CalcNLimitAverage(-9223372036854775000., 9223372036854775000., provider) )

        member this.ToSByte(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToSByte(this.CalcNLimitAverage(float SByte.MinValue, float SByte.MaxValue, provider) )

        member this.ToSingle(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToSingle(this.CalcNLimitAverage(float Single.MinValue, float Single.MaxValue, provider) )

        member this.ToUInt16(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToUInt16(this.CalcNLimitAverage(float UInt16.MinValue, float UInt16.MaxValue, provider) )

        member this.ToUInt32(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToUInt32(this.CalcNLimitAverage(float UInt32.MinValue, float UInt32.MaxValue, provider) )

        member this.ToUInt64(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            // The Double conversion rounds UInt64.MaxValue to an invalid
            // UInt64 value, so the following limit must be used.
            Convert.ToUInt64(this.CalcNLimitAverage(0, 18446744073709550000.0, provider) )

        member this.ToType(conversionType: Type, provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ChangeType(this.Average(this.GetAverageInfo(provider).TypeOfAverage), conversionType)

        member this.ToString(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            let avgType = this.GetAverageInfo(provider).TypeOfAverage
            $"( {avgType}: {this.Average avgType:G10} )"                

// Display a DataSet with three different format providers.
let displayDataSet (ds: DataSet) =
    let fmt obj1 obj2 obj3 obj4 = printfn $"{obj1,-12}{obj2,20}{obj3,20}{obj4,20}"
    let median = AverageInfo AverageType.Median
    let geMean =
        AverageInfo AverageType.GeometricMean

    // Display the dataset elements.
    if ds.Count > 0 then
        printf $"\nDataSet: [{ds[0]}"
        for i = 1 to ds.Count - 1 do
            printf $", {ds[i]}"
        printfn "]\n"

    fmt "Convert." "Default" "Geometric Mean" "Median"
    fmt "--------" "-------" "--------------" "------"
    fmt "ToBoolean"
        (Convert.ToBoolean(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToBoolean(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToBoolean(ds, median))
    fmt "ToByte"
        (Convert.ToByte(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToByte(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToByte(ds, median))
    fmt "ToChar"
        (Convert.ToChar(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToChar(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToChar(ds, median))
    printfn $"""{"ToDateTime",-12}{Convert.ToDateTime(ds, null).ToString "20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"}{Convert.ToDateTime(ds, geMean).ToString "20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"}{Convert.ToDateTime(ds, median).ToString "20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"}"""

    fmt "ToDecimal"
        (Convert.ToDecimal(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToDecimal(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToDecimal(ds, median))
    fmt "ToDouble"
        (Convert.ToDouble(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToDouble(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToDouble(ds, median))
    fmt "ToInt16"
        (Convert.ToInt16(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToInt16(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToInt16(ds, median))
    fmt "ToInt32"
        (Convert.ToInt32(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToInt32(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToInt32(ds, median))
    fmt "ToInt64"
        (Convert.ToInt64(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToInt64(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToInt64(ds, median))
    fmt "ToSByte"
        (Convert.ToSByte(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToSByte(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToSByte(ds, median))
    fmt "ToSingle"
        (Convert.ToSingle(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToSingle(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToSingle(ds, median))
    fmt "ToUInt16"
        (Convert.ToUInt16(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToUInt16(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToUInt16(ds, median))
    fmt "ToUInt32"
        (Convert.ToUInt32(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToUInt32(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToUInt32(ds, median))
    fmt "ToUInt64"
        (Convert.ToUInt64(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToUInt64(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToUInt64(ds, median))

printfn
    """This example of the Convert.To<Type>( object, IFormatprovider) methods 
generates the following output. The example displays the values 
returned by the methods, using several IFormatProvider objects.
"""

let ds1 = DataSet(10.5, 22.2, 45.9, 88.7, 156.05, 297.6)
displayDataSet ds1

let ds2 = DataSet(359999.95, 425000, 499999.5, 775000, 1695000)
displayDataSet ds2

// This example of the Convert.To<Type>( object, IFormatprovider) methods
// generates the following output. The example displays the values
// returned by the methods, using several IFormatProvider objects.
//
// DataSet: [10.5, 22.2, 45.9, 88.7, 156.05, 297.6]
//
// Convert.                 Default      Geometric Mean              Median
// --------                 -------      --------------              ------
// ToBoolean                   True                True                True
// ToByte                       103                  59                  67
// ToChar                         g                   ;                   C
// ToDateTime   2003-05-13 15:04:12 2003-05-13 15:03:28 2003-05-13 15:03:35
// ToDecimal       103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
// ToDouble        103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
// ToInt16                      103                  59                  67
// ToInt32                      103                  59                  67
// ToInt64                      103                  59                  67
// ToSByte                      103                  59                  67
// ToSingle                103.4917            59.43321                67.3
// ToUInt16                     103                  59                  67
// ToUInt32                     103                  59                  67
// ToUInt64                     103                  59                  67
//
// DataSet: [359999.95, 425000, 499999.5, 775000, 1695000]
//
// Convert.                 Default      Geometric Mean              Median
// --------                 -------      --------------              ------
// ToBoolean                   True                True                True
// ToByte                       255                 255                 255
// ToChar                         ?                   ?                   ?
// ToDateTime   2003-05-22 07:39:08 2003-05-20 22:28:45 2003-05-19 09:55:48
// ToDecimal              750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
// ToDouble               750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
// ToInt16                    32767               32767               32767
// ToInt32                   751000              631577              500000
// ToInt64                   751000              631577              500000
// ToSByte                      127                 127                 127
// ToSingle                750999.9            631577.3            499999.5
// ToUInt16                   65535               65535               65535
// ToUInt32                  751000              631577              500000
// ToUInt64                  751000              631577              500000
Imports System.Collections

Module IConvertibleProviderDemo

    ' Define the types of averaging available in the class 
    ' implementing IConvertible.
    Enum AverageType as Short
        None = 0
        GeometricMean = 1
        ArithmeticMean = 2
        Median = 3
    End Enum

    ' Pass an instance of this class to methods that require an 
    ' IFormatProvider. The class instance determines the type of 
    ' average to calculate.
    Public Class AverageInfo
        Implements IFormatProvider

        Protected  AvgType      As AverageType

        ' Specify the type of averaging in the constructor.
        Public Sub New( avgType As AverageType )
            Me.AvgType = avgType
        End Sub

        ' This method returns a reference to the containing object 
        ' if an object of AverageInfo type is requested. 
        Public Function GetFormat( argType As Type ) As Object _
            Implements IFormatProvider.GetFormat

            If argType Is GetType( AverageInfo ) Then
                Return Me
            Else
                Return Nothing
            End If
        End Function 

        ' Use this property to set or get the type of averaging.
        Public Property TypeOfAverage( ) As AverageType
            Get
                Return Me.AvgType
            End Get
            Set( ByVal value as AverageType )
                Me.AvgType = value
            End Set
        End Property
    End Class 

    ' This class encapsulates an array of Double values and implements 
    ' the IConvertible interface. Most of the IConvertible methods 
    ' return an average of the array elements in one of three types: 
    ' arithmetic mean, geometric mean, or median. 
    Public Class DataSet
        Implements IConvertible

        Protected data              As ArrayList
        Protected defaultProvider   As AverageInfo
           
        ' Construct the object and add an initial list of values.
        ' Create a default format provider.
        Public Sub New( ParamArray values( ) As Double )
            data = New ArrayList( values )
            defaultProvider = New AverageInfo( _
                AverageType.ArithmeticMean )  
        End Sub
           
        ' Add additional values with this method.
        Public Function Add( value As Double ) As Integer
            data.Add( value )
            Return data.Count
        End Function
           
        ' Get, set, and add values with this indexer property.
        Default Public Property Item(index As Integer) As Double
            Get
                If index >= 0 AndAlso index < data.Count Then
                    Return System.Convert.ToDouble( data( index ) )
                Else
                    Throw New InvalidOperationException( _
                        "[DataSet.get] Index out of range." )
                End If
            End Get
            Set
                If index >= 0 AndAlso index < data.Count Then
                    data( index ) = value
                 
                ElseIf index = data.Count Then
                    data.Add( value )
                Else
                    Throw New InvalidOperationException( _
                        "[DataSet.set] Index out of range." )
                End If
            End Set
        End Property
          
        ' This property returns the number of elements in the object.
        Public ReadOnly Property Count( ) As Integer
            Get
                Return data.Count
            End Get
        End Property

        ' This method calculates the average of the object's elements.
        Protected Function Average( ByVal avgType As AverageType ) As Double

            Dim SumProd As Double 
            Dim Index   As Integer

            If data.Count = 0 Then Return 0.0

            Select Case avgType
                
                Case AverageType.GeometricMean

                    SumProd = 1.0
                    For Index = 0 To data.Count - 1
                        SumProd *= data( Index )
                    Next Index
                    
                    ' This calculation will not fail with negative 
                    ' elements.
                    Return Math.Sign( SumProd ) * Math.Pow( _
                        Math.Abs( SumProd ), 1.0 / data.Count )

                Case AverageType.ArithmeticMean

                    SumProd = 0.0
                    For Index = 0 To data.Count - 1
                        SumProd += data( Index )
                    Next Index

                    Return SumProd / data.Count 

                Case AverageType.Median

                    If data.Count Mod 2 = 0 Then
                        Return ( data( data.Count \ 2 ) + _
                            data( data.Count \ 2 - 1 ) ) / 2.0
                    Else
                        Return data( data.Count \ 2 ) 
                    End If
            End Select
        End Function

        ' Get the AverageInfo object from the caller's format 
        ' provider, or use the local default.
        Protected Function GetAverageInfo( _
            provider As IFormatProvider ) As AverageInfo

            Dim avgInfo As AverageInfo = Nothing

            If Not provider Is Nothing Then
                avgInfo = provider.GetFormat( GetType( AverageInfo ) )
            End If

            Return IIf( avgInfo Is Nothing, defaultProvider, avgInfo )
            
        End Function           

        ' Calculate the average and limit the range.
        Protected Function CalcNLimitAverage( min As Double, _
            max As Double, provider as IFormatProvider ) As Double

            ' Get the format provider and calculate the average.
            Dim avgInfo As AverageInfo = GetAverageInfo( provider )
            Dim avg As Double = Average( avgInfo.TypeOfAverage )

            ' Limit the range, based on the minimum and maximum values 
            ' for the type.
            Return IIf( avg > max, max, IIf( avg < min, min, avg ) )

        End Function

        ' The following elements are required by IConvertible.

        ' None of these conversion functions throw exceptions. When
        ' the data is out of range for the type, the appropriate
        ' MinValue or MaxValue is used.
        Public Function GetTypeCode( ) As TypeCode _
            Implements IConvertible.GetTypeCode
            Return TypeCode.Object
        End Function

        Function ToBoolean( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            Boolean Implements IConvertible.ToBoolean

            ' ToBoolean is false if the dataset is empty.
            If data.Count <= 0 Then
                Return False

            ' For median averaging, ToBoolean is true if any 
            ' non-discarded elements are nonzero.
            ElseIf AverageType.Median = _
                GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage Then

                If data.Count Mod 2 = 0 Then
                    Return ( data( data.Count \ 2 ) <> 0.0 Or _
                        data( data.Count \ 2 - 1 ) <> 0.0 )
                Else
                    Return data( data.Count \ 2 ) <> 0.0
                End If

            ' For arithmetic or geometric mean averaging, ToBoolean is 
            ' true if any element of the dataset is nonzero.  
            Else
                Dim Index As Integer
                For Index = 0 To data.Count - 1
                    If data( Index ) <> 0.0 Then Return True
                Next Index
                Return False
            End If
        End Function

        Function ToByte( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As Byte _
            Implements IConvertible.ToByte
            Return Convert.ToByte( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                Byte.MinValue, Byte.MaxValue, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToChar( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As Char _
            Implements IConvertible.ToChar
            Return Convert.ToChar( Convert.ToUInt16( _
                CalcNLimitAverage( 0.0, &HFFFF, provider ) ) )
        End Function

        ' Convert to DateTime by adding the calculated average as 
        ' seconds to the current date and time. A valid DateTime is 
        ' always returned.
        Function ToDateTime( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            DateTime Implements IConvertible.ToDateTime
            Dim seconds As Double = Average( _
                GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage )
            Try
                Return DateTime.Now.AddSeconds( seconds )
            Catch ex As ArgumentOutOfRangeException 
                Return IIf( seconds < 0.0, DateTime.MinValue, _
                    DateTime.MaxValue )
            End Try
        End Function

        Function ToDecimal( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            Decimal Implements IConvertible.ToDecimal

            ' The Double conversion rounds Decimal.MinValue and
            ' Decimal.MaxValue to invalid Decimal values, so the 
            ' following limits must be used.
            Return Convert.ToDecimal( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                -79228162514264330000000000000.0, _
                79228162514264330000000000000.0, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToDouble( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider) As _
            Double Implements IConvertible.ToDouble
            Return Average( GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage )
        End Function

        Function ToInt16( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            Short Implements IConvertible.ToInt16
            Return Convert.ToInt16( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                Int16.MinValue, Int16.MaxValue, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToInt32( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            Integer Implements IConvertible.ToInt32
            Return Convert.ToInt32( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                Int32.MinValue, Int32.MaxValue, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToInt64( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As Long _
            Implements IConvertible.ToInt64

            ' The Double conversion rounds Int64.MinValue and 
            ' Int64.MaxValue to invalid Long values, so the following 
            ' limits must be used.
            Return Convert.ToInt64( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                -9223372036854775000, 9223372036854775000, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToSByte( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            SByte Implements IConvertible.ToSByte

            ' SByte.MinValue and SByte.MaxValue are not defined in
            ' Visual Basic.
            Return Convert.ToSByte( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                -128, 127, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToSingle( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            Single Implements IConvertible.ToSingle
            Return Convert.ToSingle( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                Single.MinValue, Single.MaxValue, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToUInt16( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            UInt16 Implements IConvertible.ToUInt16

            ' UInt16.MinValue and UInt16.MaxValue are not defined in 
            ' Visual Basic.
            Return Convert.ToUInt16( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                0, &HFFFF, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToUInt32( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            UInt32 Implements IConvertible.ToUInt32

            ' UInt32.MinValue and UInt32.MaxValue are not defined in 
            ' Visual Basic.
            Return Convert.ToUInt32( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                0, 4294967295, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToUInt64( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            UInt64 Implements IConvertible.ToUInt64

            ' UInt64.MinValue and UInt64.MaxValue are not defined in 
            ' Visual Basic. The Double conversion would have rounded 
            ' UInt64.MaxValue, so the following limit must be used.
            Return Convert.ToUInt64( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                0, 18446744073709550000.0, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToType( ByVal conversionType As Type, _
            ByVal provider As IFormatProvider) As Object _
            Implements IConvertible.ToType
            Return Convert.ChangeType( Average( GetAverageInfo( _
                provider ).TypeOfAverage ), conversionType )
        End Function

        Overloads Function ToString( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider _
            ) As String Implements IConvertible.ToString
            Dim avgType as AverageType = _
                GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage
            Return String.Format( "( {0}: {1:G10} )", avgType, _
                Average( avgType ) )
        End Function
    End Class
   
    ' Display a DataSet with three different format providers.
    Sub DisplayDataSet( ds As DataSet )

        Dim fmt    As String      = "{0,-12}{1,20}{2,20}{3,20}"
        Dim median As AverageInfo = New AverageInfo( AverageType.Median )
        Dim geMean As AverageInfo = _
            New AverageInfo( AverageType.GeometricMean )
        Dim iX     As Integer

        ' Display the dataset elements.
        If ds.Count > 0 Then
            Console.Write( vbCrLf & "DataSet: [{0}", ds( 0 ) )
            For iX = 1 To ds.Count - 1
                Console.Write( ", {0}", ds( iX ) )
            Next iX
            Console.WriteLine( "]" & vbCrLf )
        End If

        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "Convert.", "Default", _
            "Geometric Mean", "Median" )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "--------", "-------", _
            "--------------", "------" )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToBoolean", _
            Convert.ToBoolean( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToBoolean( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToBoolean( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToByte", _
            Convert.ToByte( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToByte( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToByte( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToChar", _
            Convert.ToChar( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToChar( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToChar( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( "{0,-12}{1,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}" & _
            "{2,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}{3,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}", _
            "ToDateTime", Convert.ToDateTime( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToDateTime( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToDateTime( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToDecimal", _
            Convert.ToDecimal( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToDecimal( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToDecimal( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToDouble", _
            Convert.ToDouble( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToDouble( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToDouble( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt16", _
            Convert.ToInt16( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToInt16( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToInt16( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt32", _
            Convert.ToInt32( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToInt32( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToInt32( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt64", _
            Convert.ToInt64( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToInt64( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToInt64( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToSByte", _
            Convert.ToSByte( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToSByte( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToSByte( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToSingle", _
            Convert.ToSingle( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToSingle( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToSingle( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt16", _
            Convert.ToUInt16( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToUInt16( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToUInt16( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt32", _
            Convert.ToUInt32( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToUInt32( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToUInt32( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt64", _
            Convert.ToUInt64( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToUInt64( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToUInt64( ds, median ) )
    End Sub
   
    Sub Main( )
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "This example of the Convert.To<Type>( Object, " & _
            "IFormatProvider ) methods " & vbCrLf & "generates " & _
            "the following output. The example displays the " & _
            "values " & vbCrLf & "returned by the methods, " & _
            "using several IFormatProvider objects." & vbCrLf )
          
        Dim ds1 As New DataSet( 10.5, 22.2, 45.9, 88.7, 156.05, 297.6 )
        DisplayDataSet( ds1 )
          
        Dim ds2 As New DataSet( _
            359999.95, 425000, 499999.5, 775000, 1695000 )
        DisplayDataSet( ds2 )
    End Sub 
End Module 

' This example of the Convert.To<Type>( Object, IFormatProvider ) methods
' generates the following output. The example displays the values
' returned by the methods, using several IFormatProvider objects.
' 
' DataSet: [10.5, 22.2, 45.9, 88.7, 156.05, 297.6]
' 
' Convert.                 Default      Geometric Mean              Median
' --------                 -------      --------------              ------
' ToBoolean                   True                True                True
' ToByte                       103                  59                  67
' ToChar                         g                   ;                   C
' ToDateTime   2003-05-13 14:52:53 2003-05-13 14:52:09 2003-05-13 14:52:17
' ToDecimal       103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
' ToDouble        103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
' ToInt16                      103                  59                  67
' ToInt32                      103                  59                  67
' ToInt64                      103                  59                  67
' ToSByte                      103                  59                  67
' ToSingle                103.4917            59.43321                67.3
' ToUInt16                     103                  59                  67
' ToUInt32                     103                  59                  67
' ToUInt64                     103                  59                  67
' 
' DataSet: [359999.95, 425000, 499999.5, 775000, 1695000]
' 
' Convert.                 Default      Geometric Mean              Median
' --------                 -------      --------------              ------
' ToBoolean                   True                True                True
' ToByte                       255                 255                 255
' ToChar                         ?                   ?                   ?
' ToDateTime   2003-05-22 07:27:49 2003-05-20 22:17:27 2003-05-19 09:44:29
' ToDecimal              750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
' ToDouble               750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
' ToInt16                    32767               32767               32767
' ToInt32                   751000              631577              500000
' ToInt64                   751000              631577              500000
' ToSByte                      127                 127                 127
' ToSingle                750999.9            631577.3            499999.5
' ToUInt16                   65535               65535               65535
' ToUInt32                  751000              631577              500000
' ToUInt64                  751000              631577              500000

설명

반환 값은 기본 형식의 메서드를 IConvertible.ToInt64 호출한 결과입니다 value.

provider 을 사용하면 사용자가 해당 내용에 대한 문화권별 변환 정보를 지정할 수 있습니다 value. 예를 들어 숫자를 나타내는 경우 value String 해당 숫자를 provider 나타내는 데 사용되는 표기법에 대한 문화권별 정보를 제공할 수 있습니다.

기본 형식은 무시 provider합니다. 그러나 인터페이스를 구현하는 사용자 정의 형식인 경우 value 매개 변수를 IConvertible 사용할 수 있습니다.

적용 대상

ToInt64(SByte)

중요

이 API는 CLS 규격이 아닙니다.

지정된 8비트 부호 있는 정수의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(System::SByte value);
[System.CLSCompliant(false)]
public static long ToInt64 (sbyte value);
[<System.CLSCompliant(false)>]
static member ToInt64 : sbyte -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As SByte) As Long

매개 변수

value
SByte

변환할 8비트 부호 있는 정수입니다.

반환

Int64

value에 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수입니다.

특성

예제

다음 예제에서는 서명된 바이트 배열의 각 요소를 긴 정수로 변환합니다.

sbyte[] numbers = { SByte.MinValue, -1, 0, 10, SByte.MaxValue };
long result;

foreach (sbyte number in numbers)
{
   result = Convert.ToInt64(number);
   Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.",
                     number.GetType().Name, number,
                     result.GetType().Name, result);
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       Converted the SByte value -128 to the Int64 value -128.
//       Converted the SByte value -1 to the Int64 value -1.
//       Converted the SByte value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
//       Converted the SByte value 10 to the Int64 value 10.
//       Converted the SByte value 127 to the Int64 value 127.
let numbers =
    [| SByte.MinValue; -1y; 0y; 10y; SByte.MaxValue |]

for number in numbers do
    let result = Convert.ToInt64 number
    printfn $"Converted the {number.GetType().Name} value {number} to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
// The example displays the following output:
//       Converted the SByte value -128 to the Int64 value -128.
//       Converted the SByte value -1 to the Int64 value -1.
//       Converted the SByte value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
//       Converted the SByte value 10 to the Int64 value 10.
//       Converted the SByte value 127 to the Int64 value 127.
Dim numbers() As SByte = { SByte.MinValue, -1, 0, 10, SByte.MaxValue }
Dim result As Long

For Each number As SByte In numbers
   result = Convert.ToInt64(number)
   Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.", _
                     number.GetType().Name, number, _
                     result.GetType().Name, result)
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'       Converted the SByte value -128 to the Int64 value -128.
'       Converted the SByte value -1 to the Int64 value -1.
'       Converted the SByte value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
'       Converted the SByte value 10 to the Int64 value 10.
'       Converted the SByte value 127 to the Int64 value 127.

적용 대상

ToInt64(Int16)

지정된 16비트 부호 있는 정수의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(short value);
public static long ToInt64 (short value);
static member ToInt64 : int16 -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As Short) As Long

매개 변수

value
Int16

변환할 16비트 부호 있는 정수입니다.

반환

Int64

value에 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수입니다.

예제

다음 예제에서는 16비트 정수 배열의 각 요소를 긴 정수로 변환합니다.

short[] numbers= { Int16.MinValue, -1, 0, 121, 340, Int16.MaxValue };
long result;

foreach (short number in numbers)
{
   result = Convert.ToInt64(number);
   Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to a {2} value {3}.",
                        number.GetType().Name, number,
                        result.GetType().Name, result);
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the Int16 value -32768 to a Int32 value -32768.
//    Converted the Int16 value -1 to a Int32 value -1.
//    Converted the Int16 value 0 to a Int32 value 0.
//    Converted the Int16 value 121 to a Int32 value 121.
//    Converted the Int16 value 340 to a Int32 value 340.
//    Converted the Int16 value 32767 to a Int32 value 32767.
let numbers = 
    [| Int16.MinValue; -1s; 0s; 121s; 340s; Int16.MaxValue |]

for number in numbers do
    let result = Convert.ToInt64 number
    printfn $"Converted the {number.GetType().Name} value {number} to a {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the Int16 value -32768 to a Int64 value -32768.
//    Converted the Int16 value -1 to a Int64 value -1.
//    Converted the Int16 value 0 to a Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the Int16 value 121 to a Int64 value 121.
//    Converted the Int16 value 340 to a Int64 value 340.
//    Converted the Int16 value 32767 to a Int64 value 32767.
Dim numbers() As Short = { Int16.MinValue, -1, 0, 121, 340, Int16.MaxValue }
Dim result As Long

For Each number As Short In numbers
   result = Convert.ToInt64(number)
   Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.", _
                        number.GetType().Name, number, _
                        result.GetType().Name, result)
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    Converted the Int16 value -32768 to the Int64 value -32768.
'    Converted the Int16 value -1 to the Int64 value -1.
'    Converted the Int16 value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
'    Converted the Int16 value 121 to the Int64 value 121.
'    Converted the Int16 value 340 to the Int64 value 340.
'    Converted the Int16 value 32767 to the Int64 value 32767.

적용 대상

ToInt64(Int64)

지정된 64비트 부호 있는 정수를 실제 변환 작업 없이 반환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(long value);
public static long ToInt64 (long value);
static member ToInt64 : int64 -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As Long) As Long

매개 변수

value
Int64

64비트 부호 있는 정수입니다.

반환

Int64

value를 변경하지 않고 반환합니다.

예제

다음 예제에서는 정수 배열의 각 요소를 긴 정수로 변환합니다.

int[] numbers = { Int32.MinValue, -1, 0, 121, 340, Int32.MaxValue };
long result;
foreach (int number in numbers)
{
   result = Convert.ToInt64(number);
   Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.",
                     number.GetType().Name, number,
                     result.GetType().Name, result);
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the Int32 value -2147483648 to the Int64 value -2147483648.
//    Converted the Int32 value -1 to the Int64 value -1.
//    Converted the Int32 value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the Int32 value 121 to the Int64 value 121.
//    Converted the Int32 value 340 to the Int64 value 340.
//    Converted the Int32 value 2147483647 to the Int64 value 2147483647.
let numbers =
    [| Int32.MinValue; -1; 0; 121; 340; Int32.MaxValue |]

for number in numbers do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt64 number
        printfn $"Converted the {number.GetType().Name} value {number} to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"The {number.GetType().Name} value {number} is outside the range of the Int64 type."
// The example displays the following output:
//    The Int64 value -9223372036854775808 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
//    Converted the Int32 value -1 to the Int64 value -1.
//    Converted the Int32 value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the Int32 value 121 to the Int64 value 121.
//    Converted the Int32 value 340 to the Int64 value 340.
//    The Int64 value 9223372036854775807 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
Dim numbers() As Integer = { Int32.MinValue, -1, 0, 121, 340, Int32.MaxValue }
Dim result As Long
For Each number As Integer In numbers
   result = Convert.ToInt64(number)
   Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.", _
                     number.GetType().Name, number, _
                     result.GetType().Name, result)
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    Converted the Int32 value -2147483648 to the Int64 value -2147483648.
'    Converted the Int32 value -1 to the Int64 value -1.
'    Converted the Int32 value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
'    Converted the Int32 value 121 to the Int64 value 121.
'    Converted the Int32 value 340 to the Int64 value 340.
'    Converted the Int32 value 2147483647 to the Int64 value 2147483647.

적용 대상

ToInt64(Int32)

지정된 32비트 부호 있는 정수의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(int value);
public static long ToInt64 (int value);
static member ToInt64 : int -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As Integer) As Long

매개 변수

value
Int32

변환할 32비트 부호 있는 정수입니다.

반환

Int64

value에 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수입니다.

적용 대상

ToInt64(Double)

지정된 배정밀도 부동 소수점 숫자 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(double value);
public static long ToInt64 (double value);
static member ToInt64 : double -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As Double) As Long

매개 변수

value
Double

변환할 배정밀도 부동 소수점 숫자입니다.

반환

Int64

가장 가까운 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 반올림된 value입니다. value가 두 정수 사이의 값이면 짝수 값을 반환합니다. 예를 들어 4.5는 4로, 5.5는 6으로 변환됩니다.

예외

valueMaxValue보다 크거나 MinValue보다 작습니다.

예제

다음 예제에서는 값 배열의 Double 각 요소를 긴 정수로 변환하려고 시도합니다.

double[] values= { Double.MinValue, -1.38e10, -1023.299, -12.98,
                   0, 9.113e-16, 103.919, 17834.191, Double.MaxValue };
long result;

foreach (double value in values)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt64(value);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value '{1}' to the {2} value {3}.",
                        value.GetType().Name, value,
                        result.GetType().Name, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException) {
      Console.WriteLine("{0} is outside the range of the Int64 type.", value);
   }
}
//    -1.7976931348623157E+308 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
//    Converted the Double value '-13800000000' to the Int64 value -13800000000.
//    Converted the Double value '-1023.299' to the Int64 value -1023.
//    Converted the Double value '-12.98' to the Int64 value -13.
//    Converted the Double value '0' to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the Double value '9.113E-16' to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the Double value '103.919' to the Int64 value 104.
//    Converted the Double value '17834.191' to the Int64 value 17834.
//    1.7976931348623157E+308 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
let values = 
    [| Double.MinValue; -1.38e10; -1023.299; -12.98
       0; 9.113e-16; 103.919; 17834.191; Double.MaxValue |]

for value in values do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt64 value
        printfn $"Converted the {value.GetType().Name} value '{value}' to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"{value} is outside the range of the Int64 type."
//    -1.79769313486232E+308 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
//    -13800000000 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
//    Converted the Double value '-1023.299' to the Int64 value -1023.
//    Converted the Double value '-12.98' to the Int64 value -13.
//    Converted the Double value '0' to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the Double value '9.113E-16' to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the Double value '103.919' to the Int64 value 104.
//    Converted the Double value '17834.191' to the Int64 value 17834.
//    1.79769313486232E+308 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
Dim values() As Double = { Double.MinValue, -1.38e10, -1023.299, -12.98, _
                           0, 9.113e-16, 103.919, 17834.191, Double.MaxValue }
Dim result As Long

For Each value As Double In values
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt64(value)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value '{1}' to the {2} value {3}.", _
                        value.GetType().Name, value, _
                        result.GetType().Name, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("{0} is outside the range of the Int64 type.", value)
   End Try
Next
'    -1.79769313486232E+308 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
'    Converted the Double value '-13800000000' to the Int64 value -13800000000.
'    Converted the Double value '-1023.299' to the Int64 value -1023.
'    Converted the Double value '-12.98' to the Int64 value -13.
'    Converted the Double value '0' to the Int64 value 0.
'    Converted the Double value '9.113E-16' to the Int64 value 0.
'    Converted the Double value '103.919' to the Int64 value 104.
'    Converted the Double value '17834.191' to the Int64 value 17834.
'    1.79769313486232E+308 is outside the range of the Int64 type.

추가 정보

적용 대상

ToInt64(Decimal)

지정된 10진수 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(System::Decimal value);
public static long ToInt64 (decimal value);
static member ToInt64 : decimal -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As Decimal) As Long

매개 변수

value
Decimal

변환할 10진수입니다.

반환

Int64

가장 가까운 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 반올림된 value입니다. value가 두 정수 사이의 값이면 짝수 값을 반환합니다. 예를 들어 4.5는 4로, 5.5는 6으로 변환됩니다.

예외

valueMaxValue보다 크거나 MinValue보다 작습니다.

예제

다음 예제에서는 값 배열의 Decimal 각 요소를 긴 정수로 변환하려고 시도합니다.

decimal[] values= { Decimal.MinValue, -1034.23m, -12m, 0m, 147m,
                    199.55m, 9214.16m, Decimal.MaxValue };
long result;

foreach (decimal value in values)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt64(value);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value '{1}' to the {2} value {3}.",
                        value.GetType().Name, value,
                        result.GetType().Name, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException) {
      Console.WriteLine("{0} is outside the range of the Int64 type.",
                        value);
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    -79228162514264337593543950335 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
//    Converted the Decimal value '-1034.23' to the Int64 value -1034.
//    Converted the Decimal value '-12' to the Int64 value -12.
//    Converted the Decimal value '0' to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the Decimal value '147' to the Int64 value 147.
//    Converted the Decimal value '199.55' to the Int64 value 200.
//    Converted the Decimal value '9214.16' to the Int64 value 9214.
//    79228162514264337593543950335 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
let values = 
    [| Decimal.MinValue; -1034.23m; -12m; 0m; 147m
       199.55m; 9214.16m; Decimal.MaxValue |]

for value in values do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt64 value
        printfn $"Converted the {value.GetType().Name} value '{value}' to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"{value} is outside the range of the Int64 type."
// The example displays the following output:
//    -79228162514264337593543950335 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
//    Converted the Decimal value '-1034.23' to the Int64 value -1034.
//    Converted the Decimal value '-12' to the Int64 value -12.
//    Converted the Decimal value '0' to the Int64 value 0.
//    Converted the Decimal value '147' to the Int64 value 147.
//    Converted the Decimal value '199.55' to the Int64 value 200.
//    Converted the Decimal value '9214.16' to the Int64 value 9214.
//    79228162514264337593543950335 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
Dim values() As Decimal = { Decimal.MinValue, -1034.23d, -12d, 0d, 147d, _
                            199.55d, 9214.16d, Decimal.MaxValue }
Dim result As Long

For Each value As Decimal In values
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt64(value)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value '{1}' to the {2} value {3}.", _
                        value.GetType().Name, value, _
                        result.GetType().Name, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("{0} is outside the range of the Int64 type.", _
                        value)
   End Try
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    -79228162514264337593543950335 is outside the range of the Int64 type.
'    Converted the Decimal value '-1034.23' to the Int64 value -1034.
'    Converted the Decimal value '-12' to the Int64 value -12.
'    Converted the Decimal value '0' to the Int64 value 0.
'    Converted the Decimal value '147' to the Int64 value 147.
'    Converted the Decimal value '199.55' to the Int64 value 200.
'    Converted the Decimal value '9214.16' to the Int64 value 9214.
'    79228162514264337593543950335 is outside the range of the Int64 type.

추가 정보

적용 대상

ToInt64(DateTime)

이 메서드를 호출하면 InvalidCastException이 항상 throw됩니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(DateTime value);
public static long ToInt64 (DateTime value);
static member ToInt64 : DateTime -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As DateTime) As Long

매개 변수

value
DateTime

변환할 날짜 및 시간 값입니다.

반환

Int64

이 변환은 지원되지 않습니다. 값이 반환되지 않습니다.

예외

이 변환은 지원되지 않습니다.

적용 대상

ToInt64(Char)

지정된 유니코드 문자의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(char value);
public static long ToInt64 (char value);
static member ToInt64 : char -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As Char) As Long

매개 변수

value
Char

변환할 유니코드 문자입니다.

반환

Int64

value에 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수입니다.

예제

다음 예제에서는 배열의 각 요소를 Char 긴 정수로 변환합니다.

char[] chars = { 'a', 'z', '\u0007', '\u03FF',
                 '\u7FFF', '\uFFFE' };
long result;

foreach (char ch in chars)
{
   result = Convert.ToInt64(ch);
   Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value '{1}' to the {2} value {3}.",
                     ch.GetType().Name, ch,
                     result.GetType().Name, result);
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       Converted the Char value 'a' to the Int64 value 97.
//       Converted the Char value 'z' to the Int64 value 122.
//       Converted the Char value '' to the Int64 value 7.
//       Converted the Char value 'Ͽ' to the Int64 value 1023.
//       Converted the Char value '翿' to the Int64 value 32767.
//       Converted the Char value '￾' to the Int64 value 65534.
let chars = 
    [| 'a'; 'z'; '\u0007'; '\u03FF'; '\u7FFF'; '\uFFFE' |]

for ch in chars do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt64 ch
        printfn $"Converted the {ch.GetType().Name} value '{ch}' to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"Unable to convert u+{int ch:X4} to an Int32."
// The example displays the following output:
//       Converted the Char value 'a' to the Int64 value 97.
//       Converted the Char value 'z' to the Int64 value 122.
//       Converted the Char value '' to the Int64 value 7.
//       Converted the Char value 'Ͽ' to the Int64 value 1023.
//       Converted the Char value '翿' to the Int64 value 32767.
//       Converted the Char value '￾' to the Int64 value 65534.
Dim chars() As Char = { "a"c, "z"c, ChrW(7), ChrW(1023), _
                        ChrW(Short.MaxValue), ChrW(&hFFFE) }
Dim result As Long

For Each ch As Char in chars
   result = Convert.ToInt64(ch)
   Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value '{1}' to the {2} value {3}.", _
                     ch.GetType().Name, ch, _
                     result.GetType().Name, result)
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'       Converted the Char value 'a' to the Int64 value 97.
'       Converted the Char value 'z' to the Int64 value 122.
'       Converted the Char value '' to the Int64 value 7.
'       Converted the Char value 'Ͽ' to the Int64 value 1023.
'       Converted the Char value '翿' to the Int64 value 32767.
'       Converted the Char value '￾' to the Int64 value 65534.

적용 대상

ToInt64(Byte)

지정된 8비트 부호 없는 정수의 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(System::Byte value);
public static long ToInt64 (byte value);
static member ToInt64 : byte -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As Byte) As Long

매개 변수

value
Byte

변환할 8비트 부호 없는 정수입니다.

반환

Int64

value에 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수입니다.

예제

다음 예제에서는 바이트 배열의 각 요소를 긴 정수로 변환합니다.

byte[] bytes = { Byte.MinValue, 14, 122, Byte.MaxValue};
long result;

foreach (byte byteValue in bytes)
{
   result = Convert.ToInt64(byteValue);
   Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.",
                     byteValue.GetType().Name, byteValue,
                     result.GetType().Name, result);
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       Converted the Byte value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
//       Converted the Byte value 14 to the Int64 value 14.
//       Converted the Byte value 122 to the Int64 value 122.
//       Converted the Byte value 255 to the Int64 value 255.
let bytes = 
    [| Byte.MinValue; 14uy; 122uy; Byte.MaxValue |]

for byteValue in bytes do
    let result = Convert.ToInt64 byteValue
    printfn $"Converted the {byteValue.GetType().Name} value {byteValue} to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
// The example displays the following output:
//       Converted the Byte value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
//       Converted the Byte value 14 to the Int64 value 14.
//       Converted the Byte value 122 to the Int64 value 122.
//       Converted the Byte value 255 to the Int64 value 255.
Dim bytes() As Byte = { Byte.MinValue, 14, 122, Byte.MaxValue}
Dim result As Long

For Each byteValue As Byte In bytes
   result = Convert.ToInt64(byteValue)
   Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.", _
                     byteValue.GetType().Name, byteValue, _
                     result.GetType().Name, result)
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    Converted the Byte value 0 to the Int64 value 0.
'    Converted the Byte value 14 to the Int64 value 14.
'    Converted the Byte value 122 to the Int64 value 122.
'    Converted the Byte value 255 to the Int64 value 255.

적용 대상

ToInt64(Boolean)

지정된 부울 값을 해당하는 64비트 부호 있는 정수로 변환합니다.

public:
 static long ToInt64(bool value);
public static long ToInt64 (bool value);
static member ToInt64 : bool -> int64
Public Shared Function ToInt64 (value As Boolean) As Long

매개 변수

value
Boolean

변환할 부울 값입니다.

반환

Int64

valuetrue이면 숫자 1을 반환하고, 그렇지 않으면 0을 반환합니다.

예제

다음 예제에서는 값을 true false 긴 정수로 변환 Boolean 합니다.

bool falseFlag = false;
bool trueFlag = true;

Console.WriteLine("{0} converts to {1}.", falseFlag,
                  Convert.ToInt64(falseFlag));
Console.WriteLine("{0} converts to {1}.", trueFlag,
                  Convert.ToInt64(trueFlag));
// The example displays the following output:
//       False converts to 0.
//       True converts to 1.
let falseFlag = false
let trueFlag = true

printfn $"{falseFlag} converts to {Convert.ToInt64 falseFlag}."
printfn $"{trueFlag} converts to {Convert.ToInt64 trueFlag}."
// The example displays the following output:
//       False converts to 0.
//       True converts to 1.
Dim falseFlag As Boolean = False
Dim trueFlag As Boolean = True

Console.WriteLine("{0} converts to {1}.", falseFlag, _
                  Convert.ToInt64(falseFlag))
Console.WriteLine("{0} converts to {1}.", trueFlag, _
                  Convert.ToInt64(trueFlag))
' The example displays the following output:
'       False converts to 0.
'       True converts to 1.

적용 대상