GenericParameterAttributes Enumeração

Definição

Descreve as restrições em um parâmetro de tipo genérico de um método ou tipo genérico.Describes the constraints on a generic type parameter of a generic type or method.

Esta enumeração tem um atributo FlagsAttribute que permite uma combinação bit a bit dos seus valores membros.

public enum class GenericParameterAttributes
[System.Flags]
public enum GenericParameterAttributes
type GenericParameterAttributes = 
Public Enum GenericParameterAttributes
Herança
GenericParameterAttributes
Atributos

Campos

Contravariant 2

O parâmetro de tipo genérico é contravariante.The generic type parameter is contravariant. Um parâmetro de tipo contravariante pode aparecer como um tipo de parâmetro em assinaturas de método.A contravariant type parameter can appear as a parameter type in method signatures.

Covariant 1

O parâmetro de tipo genérico é covariante.The generic type parameter is covariant. Um parâmetro de tipo covariante pode aparecer como o tipo resultante de um método, o tipo de um campo somente leitura, um tipo base declarado ou uma interface implementada.A covariant type parameter can appear as the result type of a method, the type of a read-only field, a declared base type, or an implemented interface.

DefaultConstructorConstraint 16

Um tipo poderá ser substituído para o parâmetro de tipo genérico somente se ele for um construtor sem parâmetro.A type can be substituted for the generic type parameter only if it has a parameterless constructor.

None 0

Não há nenhum sinalizador especial.There are no special flags.

NotNullableValueTypeConstraint 8

Um tipo poderá ser substituído para o parâmetro de tipo genérico somente se ele for um tipo de valor e não for anulável.A type can be substituted for the generic type parameter only if it is a value type and is not nullable.

ReferenceTypeConstraint 4

Um tipo poderá ser substituído para o parâmetro de tipo genérico somente se ele for um tipo de referência.A type can be substituted for the generic type parameter only if it is a reference type.

SpecialConstraintMask 28

Seleciona a combinação de todos os sinalizadores de restrição especiais.Selects the combination of all special constraint flags. Esse valor é o resultado do uso do OR lógico para combinar os seguintes sinalizadores: DefaultConstructorConstraint, ReferenceTypeConstraint e NotNullableValueTypeConstraint.This value is the result of using logical OR to combine the following flags: DefaultConstructorConstraint, ReferenceTypeConstraint, and NotNullableValueTypeConstraint.

VarianceMask 3

Seleciona a combinação de todos os sinalizadores de variação.Selects the combination of all variance flags. Esse valor é o resultado do uso do OR lógico para combinar os seguintes sinalizadores: Contravariant e Covariant.This value is the result of using logical OR to combine the following flags: Contravariant and Covariant.

Exemplos

O exemplo de código a seguir define um Test tipo genérico com dois parâmetros de tipo.The following code example defines a generic type Test with two type parameters. O segundo parâmetro de tipo tem uma restrição de classe base e uma restrição de tipo de referência.The second type parameter has a base class constraint and a reference type constraint. Quando o programa é executado, as restrições são examinadas usando Type.GenericParameterAttributes a propriedade e Type.GetGenericParameterConstraints o método.When the program executes, the constraints are examined using the Type.GenericParameterAttributes property and the Type.GetGenericParameterConstraints method.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;
using namespace System::Reflection;

// Define a sample interface to use as an interface constraint.
interface class ITest{};

// Define a base type to use as a class constraint.
public ref class Base{};

// Define the generic type to examine. The first generic type parameter,
// T, derives from the class Base and implements ITest. This demonstrates
// a base class constraint and an interface constraint. In the .NET
// Framework version 2.0, C++ has no way of expressing special constraints.
// See the C# example code.
//
generic <typename T, typename U>
   where T :  Base, ITest
ref class Test {};

// Define a type that derives from Base and implements interface
// ITest. This type satisfies the constraint on T in class Test.
public ref class Derived: public Base, public ITest {};

public ref class Example
{
public:
   static void Main()
   {
      // Create a constructed type from Test<T,U>, and from it
      // get the generic type definition.
      //
      Type^ def = Test::typeid;
      Console::WriteLine( L"\r\nExamining generic type {0}", def );
      
      // Get the type parameters of the generic type definition,
      // and display them.
      //
      for each (Type^ tp in def->GetGenericArguments())
      {
         Console::WriteLine( L"\r\nType parameter: {0}", tp);
         Console::WriteLine( L"\t{0}", 
            ListGenericParameterAttributes( tp ) );
         
         // List the base class and interface constraints. The
         // constraints do not appear in any particular order. If
         // there are no class or interface constraints, an empty
         // array is returned.
         //
         for each (Type^ constraint in tp->GetGenericParameterConstraints())
         {
            Console::WriteLine( L"\t{0}", constraint );
         }
      }
   }

private:

   // List the variance and special constraint flags. 
   //
   static String^ ListGenericParameterAttributes( Type^ t )
   {
      String^ retval;
      GenericParameterAttributes gpa = t->GenericParameterAttributes;

      // Select the variance flag.
      GenericParameterAttributes variance =
         static_cast<GenericParameterAttributes>(
            gpa & GenericParameterAttributes::VarianceMask );

      if ( variance == GenericParameterAttributes::None )
            retval = L"No variance flag;";
      else
      {
         if ( (variance & GenericParameterAttributes::Covariant) !=
               GenericParameterAttributes::None )
            retval = L"Covariant;";
         else
            retval = L"Contravariant;";
      }

      // Select the special constraint flags.
      GenericParameterAttributes constraints =
         static_cast<GenericParameterAttributes>(
            gpa & GenericParameterAttributes::SpecialConstraintMask);

      if ( constraints == GenericParameterAttributes::None )
            retval = String::Concat( retval, L" No special constraints" );
      else
      {
         if ( (constraints & GenericParameterAttributes::ReferenceTypeConstraint) !=
               GenericParameterAttributes::None )
            retval = String::Concat( retval, L" ReferenceTypeConstraint" );

         if ( (constraints & GenericParameterAttributes::NotNullableValueTypeConstraint) !=
               GenericParameterAttributes::None )
            retval = String::Concat( retval, L" NotNullableValueTypeConstraint" );

         if ( (constraints & GenericParameterAttributes::DefaultConstructorConstraint) !=
               GenericParameterAttributes::None )
            retval = String::Concat( retval, L" DefaultConstructorConstraint" );
      }

      return retval;
   }
};

int main()
{
   Example::Main();
}

/* This example produces the following output:

Examining generic type Test`2[T,U]

Type parameter: T
        No variance flag; No special constraints
        Base
        ITest

Type parameter: U
        No variance flag; No special constraints
 */
using System;
using System.Reflection;

// Define a sample interface to use as an interface constraint.
public interface ITest {}

// Define a base type to use as a base class constraint.
public class Base {}

// Define the generic type to examine. The first generic type parameter,
// T, derives from the class Base and implements ITest. This demonstrates
// a base class constraint and an interface constraint. The second generic 
// type parameter, U, must be a reference type (class) and must have a 
// default constructor (new()). This demonstrates special constraints.
//
public class Test<T,U> 
    where T : Base, ITest 
    where U : class, new() {}

// Define a type that derives from Base and implements ITest. This type
// satisfies the constraints on T in class Test.
public class Derived : Base, ITest {}

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        // To get the generic type definition, omit the type
        // arguments but retain the comma to indicate the number
        // of type arguments. 
        //
        Type def = typeof(Test<,>);
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nExamining generic type {0}", def);

        // Get the type parameters of the generic type definition,
        // and display them.
        //
        Type[] defparams = def.GetGenericArguments();
        foreach (Type tp in defparams)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("\r\nType parameter: {0}", tp.Name);
            Console.WriteLine("\t{0}", 
                ListGenericParameterAttributes(tp));

            // List the base class and interface constraints. The
            // constraints are returned in no particular order. If 
            // there are no class or interface constraints, an empty
            // array is returned.
            //
            Type[] tpConstraints = tp.GetGenericParameterConstraints();
            foreach (Type tpc in tpConstraints)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("\t{0}", tpc);
            }
        }
    }

    // List the variance and special constraint flags. 
    //
    private static string ListGenericParameterAttributes(Type t)
    {
        string retval;
        GenericParameterAttributes gpa = t.GenericParameterAttributes;
        GenericParameterAttributes variance = gpa & 
            GenericParameterAttributes.VarianceMask;

        // Select the variance flags.
        if (variance == GenericParameterAttributes.None)
            retval = "No variance flag;";
        else
        {
            if ((variance & GenericParameterAttributes.Covariant) != 0)
                retval = "Covariant;";
            else
                retval = "Contravariant;";
        }

        // Select 
        GenericParameterAttributes constraints = gpa & 
            GenericParameterAttributes.SpecialConstraintMask;

        if (constraints == GenericParameterAttributes.None)
            retval += " No special constraints";
        else
        {
            if ((constraints & GenericParameterAttributes.ReferenceTypeConstraint) != 0)
                retval += " ReferenceTypeConstraint";
            if ((constraints & GenericParameterAttributes.NotNullableValueTypeConstraint) != 0)
                retval += " NotNullableValueTypeConstraint";
            if ((constraints & GenericParameterAttributes.DefaultConstructorConstraint) != 0)
                retval += " DefaultConstructorConstraint";
        }

        return retval;
    }
}
/* This example produces the following output:

Examining generic type Test`2[T,U]

Type parameter: T
        No variance flag; no special constraints.
        Base
        ITest

Type parameter: U
        No variance flag; ReferenceTypeConstraint DefaultConstructorConstraint
 */
Imports System.Reflection

' Define a sample interface to use as an interface constraint.
Public Interface ITest
End Interface 

' Define a base type to use as a base class constraint.
Public Class Base
End Class 

' Define the generic type to examine. The first generic type parameter,
' T, derives from the class Base and implements ITest. This demonstrates
' a base class constraint and an interface constraint. The second generic 
' type parameter, U, must be a reference type (Class) and must have a 
' default constructor (New). This demonstrates special constraints.
'
Public Class Test(Of T As {Base, ITest}, U As {New, Class}) 
End Class

' Define a type that derives from Base and implements ITtest. This type
' satisfies the constraints on T in class Test.
Public Class Derived
    Inherits Base
    Implements ITest
End Class 

Public Class Example
    
    Public Shared Sub Main() 
        ' To get the generic type definition, omit the type
        ' arguments but retain the comma to indicate the number
        ' of type arguments. 
        '
        Dim def As Type = GetType(Test(Of ,))
        Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & "Examining generic type {0}", def)
        
        ' Get the type parameters of the generic type definition,
        ' and display them.
        '
        Dim defparams() As Type = def.GetGenericArguments()
        For Each tp As Type In defparams

            Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & "Type parameter: {0}", tp.Name)
            Console.WriteLine(vbTab & ListGenericParameterAttributes(tp))
            
            ' List the base class and interface constraints. The
            ' constraints do not appear in any particular order. An
            ' empty array is returned if there are no constraints.
            '
            Dim tpConstraints As Type() = _
                tp.GetGenericParameterConstraints()
            For Each tpc As Type In  tpConstraints
                Console.WriteLine(vbTab & tpc.ToString())
            Next tpc
        Next tp
    
    End Sub 
    
    ' List the variance and special constraint flags.
    '
    Private Shared Function ListGenericParameterAttributes(ByVal t As Type) As String 
        Dim retval As String
        Dim gpa As GenericParameterAttributes = t.GenericParameterAttributes

        ' Select the variance flags.
        Dim variance As GenericParameterAttributes = _
            gpa And GenericParameterAttributes.VarianceMask
        
        If variance = GenericParameterAttributes.None Then
            retval = "No variance flag;"
        Else
            If (variance And GenericParameterAttributes.Covariant) <> 0 Then
                retval = "Covariant;"
            Else
                retval = "Contravariant;"
            End If
        End If 

        ' Select the constraint flags.
        Dim constraints As GenericParameterAttributes = _
            gpa And GenericParameterAttributes.SpecialConstraintMask
        
        If constraints = GenericParameterAttributes.None Then
            retval &= " no special constraints."
        Else
            If (constraints And GenericParameterAttributes.ReferenceTypeConstraint) <> 0 Then
                retval &= " ReferenceTypeConstraint"
            End If
            If (constraints And GenericParameterAttributes.NotNullableValueTypeConstraint) <> 0 Then
                retval &= " NotNullableValueTypeConstraint"
            End If
            If (constraints And GenericParameterAttributes.DefaultConstructorConstraint) <> 0 Then
                retval &= " DefaultConstructorConstraint"
            End If
        End If 
        Return retval
    
    End Function 
End Class 
' This example produces the following output:
'
'Examining generic type Test`2[T,U]
'
'Type parameter: T
'        No variance flag; no special constraints.
'        Base
'        ITest
'
'Type parameter: U
'        No variance flag; ReferenceTypeConstraint DefaultConstructorConstraint
' 

Comentários

Os membros da GenericParameterAttributes enumeração são divididos em dois grupos, no grupo de variações e no grupo de restrições especiais.The members of the GenericParameterAttributes enumeration are divided into two groups, the variance group and the special constraints group. Para testar um GenericParameterAttributes valor para sinalizadores de variação, primeiro execute uma operação and bit a bit com VarianceMask.To test a GenericParameterAttributes value for variance flags, first perform a bitwise AND operation with VarianceMask. Se o resultado for None, não haverá nenhum sinalizador de variação.If the result is None, there are no variance flags. Da mesma forma, use SpecialConstraintMask para testar sinalizadores de restrição.Similarly, use SpecialConstraintMask to test for constraint flags.

Aplica-se a