List<T>.Find(Predicate<T>) List<T>.Find(Predicate<T>) List<T>.Find(Predicate<T>) List<T>.Find(Predicate<T>) Method

Определение

Выполняет поиск элемента, удовлетворяющего условиям указанного предиката, и возвращает первое найденное вхождение в пределах всего списка List<T>.Searches for an element that matches the conditions defined by the specified predicate, and returns the first occurrence within the entire List<T>.

public:
 T Find(Predicate<T> ^ match);
public T Find (Predicate<T> match);
member this.Find : Predicate<'T> -> 'T
Public Function Find (match As Predicate(Of T)) As T

Параметры

match
Predicate<T> Predicate<T> Predicate<T> Predicate<T>

Делегат Predicate<T>, определяющий условия поиска элемента.The Predicate<T> delegate that defines the conditions of the element to search for.

Возвраты

T T T T

Первый элемент, удовлетворяющий условиям указанного предиката, если такой элемент найден; в противном случае — значение по умолчанию для типа T.The first element that matches the conditions defined by the specified predicate, if found; otherwise, the default value for type T.

Исключения

Свойство match имеет значение null.match is null.

Примеры

В следующем примере показан Find метод List<T> для, который содержит простой сложный объект.The following example demonstrates the Find method on a List<T> that contains a simple complex object.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
// Simple business object. A PartId is used to identify a part 
// but the part name can change. 
public class Part : IEquatable<Part>
{
    public string PartName { get; set; }
    public int PartId { get; set; }

    public override string ToString()
    {
        return "ID: " + PartId + "   Name: " + PartName;
    }
    public override bool Equals(object obj)
    {
        if (obj == null) return false;
        Part objAsPart = obj as Part;
        if (objAsPart == null) return false;
        else return Equals(objAsPart);
    }
    public override int GetHashCode()
    {
        return PartId;
    }
    public bool Equals(Part other)
    {
        if (other == null) return false;
        return (this.PartId.Equals(other.PartId));
    }
    // Should also override == and != operators.
}
public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        // Create a list of parts.
        List<Part> parts = new List<Part>();

        // Add parts to the list.
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "crank arm", PartId = 1234 });
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "chain ring", PartId = 1334 });
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "regular seat", PartId = 1434 });
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "banana seat", PartId = 1444 });
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "cassette", PartId = 1534 });
        parts.Add(new Part() { PartName = "shift lever", PartId = 1634 }); ;

        // Write out the parts in the list. This will call the overridden ToString method
        // in the Part class.
        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach (Part aPart in parts)
        {
            Console.WriteLine(aPart);
        }


        // Check the list for part #1734. This calls the IEquatable.Equals method
        // of the Part class, which checks the PartId for equality.
        Console.WriteLine("\nContains: Part with Id=1734: {0}",
            parts.Contains(new Part { PartId = 1734, PartName = "" }));

        // Find items where name contains "seat".
        Console.WriteLine("\nFind: Part where name contains \"seat\": {0}", 
            parts.Find(x => x.PartName.Contains("seat")));
        
        // Check if an item with Id 1444 exists.
        Console.WriteLine("\nExists: Part with Id=1444: {0}", 
            parts.Exists(x => x.PartId == 1444));

        /*This code example produces the following output:
        
        ID: 1234   Name: crank arm
        ID: 1334   Name: chain ring
        ID: 1434   Name: regular seat
        ID: 1444   Name: banana seat
        ID: 1534   Name: cassette
        ID: 1634   Name: shift lever

        Contains: Part with Id=1734: False

        Find: Part where name contains "seat": ID: 1434   Name: regular seat

        Exists: Part with Id=1444: True 
         */
    } 
}
Imports System.Collections.Generic
' Simple business object. A PartId is used to identify a part 
' but the part name can change. 
Public Class Part
    Implements IEquatable(Of Part)
    Public Property PartName() As String
        Get
            Return m_PartName
        End Get
        Set(value As String)
            m_PartName = Value
        End Set
    End Property
    Private m_PartName As String
    Public Property PartId() As Integer
        Get
            Return m_PartId
        End Get
        Set(value As Integer)
            m_PartId = Value
        End Set
    End Property
    Private m_PartId As Integer

    Public Overrides Function ToString() As String
        Return Convert.ToString("ID: " & PartId & "   Name: ") & PartName
    End Function
    Public Overrides Function Equals(obj As Object) As Boolean
        If obj Is Nothing Then
            Return False
        End If
        Dim objAsPart As Part = TryCast(obj, Part)
        If objAsPart Is Nothing Then
            Return False
        Else
            Return Equals(objAsPart)
        End If
    End Function
    Public Overrides Function GetHashCode() As Integer
        Return PartId
    End Function
    Public Overloads Function Equals(other As Part) As Boolean _
        Implements IEquatable(Of Part).Equals
        If other Is Nothing Then
            Return False
        End If
        Return (Me.PartId.Equals(other.PartId))
    End Function
    ' Should also override == and != operators.
End Class
Public Class Example
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        ' Create a list of parts.
        Dim parts As New List(Of Part)()

        ' Add parts to the list.
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "crank arm", _
             .PartId = 1234 _
        })
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "chain ring", _
             .PartId = 1334 _
        })
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "regular seat", _
             .PartId = 1434 _
        })
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "banana seat", _
             .PartId = 1444 _
        })
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "cassette", _
             .PartId = 1534 _
        })
        parts.Add(New Part() With { _
             .PartName = "shift lever", _
             .PartId = 1634 _
        })



        ' Write out the parts in the list. This will call the overridden ToString method
        ' in the Part class.
        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each aPart As Part In parts
            Console.WriteLine(aPart)
        Next


        ' Check the list for part #1734. This calls the IEquatable.Equals method
        ' of the Part class, which checks the PartId for equality.
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Contains: Part with Id=1734: {0}",
                          parts.Contains(New Part() With { _
             .PartId = 1734, _
             .PartName = "" _
        }))

        ' Find items where name contains "seat".
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Find: Part where name contains ""seat"": {0}",
                          parts.Find(Function(x) x.PartName.Contains("seat")))

        ' Check if an item with Id 1444 exists.
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Exists: Part with Id=1444: {0}",
                          parts.Exists(Function(x) x.PartId = 1444))

        'This code example produces the following output:
        '        
        '        ID: 1234   Name: crank arm
        '        ID: 1334   Name: chain ring
        '        ID: 1434   Name: regular seat
        '        ID: 1444   Name: banana seat
        '        ID: 1534   Name: cassette
        '        ID: 1634   Name: shift lever
        '
        '        Contains: Part with Id=1734: False
        '
        '        Find: Part where name contains "seat": ID: 1434   Name: regular seat
        '
        '        Exists: Part with Id=1444: True 
        '         

    End Sub
End Class

В следующем примере показаны методы Find для List<T> класса.The following example demonstrates the find methods for the List<T> class. Пример для List<T> класса содержит book объекты класса Book, используя данные из примера XML-файла: Книги (LINQ to XML).The example for the List<T> class contains book objects, of class Book, using the data from the Sample XML File: Books (LINQ to XML). Метод в примере использует LINQ to XML для анализа значений из XML в значения book свойств объектов. FillListThe FillList method in the example uses LINQ to XML to parse the values from the XML to property values of the book objects.

В следующей таблице описаны примеры, приведенные для методов Find.The following table describes the examples provided for the find methods.

МетодMethod ПримерExample
Find(Predicate<T>) Находит книгу по идентификатору с помощью IDToFind делегата предиката.Finds a book by an ID using the IDToFind predicate delegate.

C#в примере используется анонимный делегат.C# example uses an anonymous delegate.
FindAll(Predicate<T>) Найти все книги, свойство Genre которых имеет значение "Computer", FindComputer с помощью делегата предиката.Find all books that whose Genre property is "Computer" using the FindComputer predicate delegate.
FindLast(Predicate<T>) Находит последнюю книгу в коллекции с датой публикации до 2001, используя PubBefore2001 делегат предиката.Finds the last book in the collection that has a publish date before 2001, using the PubBefore2001 predicate delegate.

C#в примере используется анонимный делегат.C# example uses an anonymous delegate.
FindIndex(Predicate<T>) Находит индекс первой компьютерной книги с помощью FindComputer делегата предиката.Finds the index of first computer book using the FindComputer predicate delegate.
FindLastIndex(Predicate<T>) Находит индекс последней компьютерной книги с помощью FindComputer делегата предиката.Finds the index of the last computer book using the FindComputer predicate delegate.
FindIndex(Int32, Int32, Predicate<T>) Находит индекс первой компьютерной книги во второй половине коллекции с помощью FindComputer делегата предиката.Finds the index of first computer book in the second half of the collection, using the FindComputer predicate delegate.
FindLastIndex(Int32, Int32, Predicate<T>) Находит индекс последней компьютерной книги во второй половине коллекции с помощью FindComputer делегата предиката.Finds the index of last computer book in the second half of the collection, using the FindComputer predicate delegate.
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Xml.Linq;

namespace Find
{
    class Program
    {
        private static string IDtoFind = "bk109";

        private static List<Book> Books = new List<Book>();
        public static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            FillList();
            
            // Find a book by its ID.
            Book result = Books.Find(
            delegate(Book bk)
            {
                return bk.ID == IDtoFind;
            }
            );
            if (result != null)
            {
                DisplayResult(result, "Find by ID: " + IDtoFind);   
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("\nNot found: {0}", IDtoFind);
            }


            // Find last book in collection published before 2001.
            result = Books.FindLast(
            delegate(Book bk)
            {
                DateTime year2001 = new DateTime(2001,01,01);
                return bk.Publish_date < year2001;
            });
            if (result != null)
            {
                DisplayResult(result, "Last book in collection published before 2001:");
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("\nNot found: {0}", IDtoFind);
            }


            // Find all computer books.
            List<Book> results = Books.FindAll(FindComputer);
            if (results.Count != 0)
            {
                DisplayResults(results, "All computer:");
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("\nNo books found.");
            }

            // Find all books under $10.00.
            results = Books.FindAll(
            delegate(Book bk)
            {
                return bk.Price < 10.00;
            }
            );
            if (results.Count != 0)
            {
                DisplayResults(results, "Books under $10:");
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("\nNo books found.");
            }
            

            // Find index values.
            Console.WriteLine();
            int ndx = Books.FindIndex(FindComputer);
            Console.WriteLine("Index of first computer book: {0}", ndx);
            ndx = Books.FindLastIndex(FindComputer);
            Console.WriteLine("Index of last computer book: {0}", ndx);

            int mid = Books.Count / 2;
            ndx = Books.FindIndex(mid, mid, FindComputer);
            Console.WriteLine("Index of first computer book in the second half of the collection: {0}", ndx);
            
            ndx = Books.FindLastIndex(Books.Count - 1, mid, FindComputer);
            Console.WriteLine("Index of last computer book in the second half of the collection: {0}", ndx);

        }





        // Populates the list with sample data.
        private static void FillList()
        {
            
            // Create XML elements from a source file.
            XElement xTree = XElement.Load(@"c:\temp\books.xml");

            // Create an enumerable collection of the elements.
            IEnumerable<XElement> elements = xTree.Elements();

            // Evaluate each element and set set values in the book object.
            foreach (XElement el in elements)
            {
                Book book = new Book();
                book.ID = el.Attribute("id").Value;
                IEnumerable<XElement> props = el.Elements();
                foreach (XElement p in props)
                {


                    if (p.Name.ToString().ToLower() == "author")
                    {
                        book.Author = p.Value;
                    }
                    else if (p.Name.ToString().ToLower() == "title")
                    {
                        book.Title = p.Value;
                    }
                    else if (p.Name.ToString().ToLower() == "genre")
                    {
                        book.Genre = p.Value;
                    }
                    else if (p.Name.ToString().ToLower() == "price")
                    {
                        book.Price = Convert.ToDouble(p.Value);
                    }
                    else if (p.Name.ToString().ToLower() == "publish_date")
                    {
                        book.Publish_date = Convert.ToDateTime(p.Value);
                    }
                    else if (p.Name.ToString().ToLower() == "description")
                    {
                        book.Description = p.Value;
                    }
                }

                Books.Add(book);

            }

            DisplayResults(Books, "All books:");

        }

        // Explicit predicate delegate.
        private static bool FindComputer(Book bk)
        {

            if (bk.Genre == "Computer")
            {
                return true;
            }
	    else
            {
                return false;
            }

        }

        private static void DisplayResult(Book result, string title)
        {
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine(title);
            Console.WriteLine("\n{0}\t{1}\t{2}\t{3}\t{4}\t{5}", result.ID,
                result.Author, result.Title, result.Genre, result.Price,
                result.Publish_date.ToShortDateString());
            Console.WriteLine();


        }

        private static void DisplayResults(List<Book> results, string title)
        {
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine(title);
            foreach (Book b in results)
            {

                Console.Write("\n{0}\t{1}\t{2}\t{3}\t{4}\t{5}", b.ID,
                    b.Author, b.Title, b.Genre, b.Price,
                    b.Publish_date.ToShortDateString());
            }
            Console.WriteLine();

        }

    }

    public class Book
    {
        public string ID { get; set; }
        public string Author { get; set; }
        public string Title { get; set; }
        public string Genre { get; set; }
        public double Price { get; set; }
        public DateTime Publish_date { get; set; }
        public string Description { get; set; }
    }
}
Imports System.Collections.Generic
Imports System.Linq
Imports System.Xml.Linq
Module Module1

    Private IDToFind As String = "bk109"

    Public Books As New List(Of Book)


    Sub Main()

        FillList()

        ' Find a book by its ID.
        Dim result As Book = Books.Find(AddressOf FindID)
        If result IsNot Nothing Then
            DisplayResult(result, "Find by ID: " & IDToFind)
        Else

            Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & "Not found: " & IDToFind)
        End If
        Console.WriteLine()

        ' Find last book in collection that has a publish date before 2001.
        result = Books.FindLast(AddressOf PubBefore2001)
        If result IsNot Nothing Then
            DisplayResult(result, "Last book in collection published before 2001:")
        Else
            Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & "Not found: " & IDToFind)
        End If
        Console.WriteLine()

        ' Find all computer books.
        Dim results As List(Of Book) = Books.FindAll(AddressOf FindComputer)
        If results.Count <> 0 Then
            DisplayResults(results, "All computer books:")
        Else
            Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & "No books found.")
        End If
        Console.WriteLine()


        ' Find all books under $10.00.
        results = Books.FindAll(AddressOf FindUnderTen)
        If results.Count <> 0 Then
            DisplayResults(results, "Books under $10:")
        Else
            Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & "No books found.")
        End If
        Console.WriteLine()

        ' Find index values.
        Console.WriteLine()
        Dim ndx As Integer = Books.FindIndex(AddressOf FindComputer)
        Console.WriteLine("Index of first computer book: " & ndx)
        ndx = Books.FindLastIndex(AddressOf FindComputer)
        Console.WriteLine("Index of last computer book: " & ndx)

        Dim mid As Integer = Books.Count / 2
        ndx = Books.FindIndex(mid, mid, AddressOf FindComputer)
        Console.WriteLine("Index of first computer book in the second half of the collection: " & ndx)



        ndx = Books.FindLastIndex(Books.Count - 1, mid, AddressOf FindComputer)
        Console.WriteLine("Index of last computer book in the second half of the collection: " & ndx)


    End Sub



    Private Sub FillList()

        ' Create XML elements from a source file.
        Dim xTree As XElement = XElement.Load("c:\temp\books.xml")

        ' Create an enumerable collection of the elements.
        Dim elements As IEnumerable(Of XElement) = xTree.Elements

        ' Evaluate each element and set values in the book object.
        For Each el As XElement In elements
            Dim Book As New Book()
            Book.ID = el.Attribute("id").Value
            Dim props As IEnumerable(Of XElement) = el.Elements
            For Each p As XElement In props
                If p.Name.ToString.ToLower = "author" Then
                    Book.Author = p.Value
                End If
                If p.Name.ToString.ToLower = "title" Then
                    Book.Title = p.Value
                End If
                If p.Name.ToString.ToLower = "genre" Then
                    Book.Genre = p.Value
                End If
                If p.Name.ToString.ToLower = "price" Then
                    Book.Price = Convert.ToDouble(p.Value)
                End If
                If p.Name.ToString.ToLower = "publish_date" Then
                    Book.Publish_date = Convert.ToDateTime(p.Value)
                End If
                If p.Name.ToString.ToLower = "description" Then
                    Book.Description = p.Value
                End If
            Next
            Books.Add(Book)
        Next

        DisplayResults(Books, "All books:")
        Console.WriteLine()

    End Sub

    ' Predicate delegates for
    ' Find and FindAll methods.
    Private Function FindID(ByVal bk As Book) As Boolean
        If bk.ID = IDToFind Then
            Return True
        Else
            Return False
        End If
    End Function
    Private Function FindComputer(ByVal bk As Book) As Boolean
        If bk.Genre = "Computer" Then
            Return True
        Else
            Return False
        End If
    End Function
    Private Function FindUnderTen(ByVal bk As Book) As Boolean
        Dim tendollars As Double = 10.0
        If bk.Price < tendollars Then
            Return True
        Else
            Return False
        End If
    End Function
    Private Function PubBefore2001(ByVal bk As Book) As Boolean
        Dim year2001 As DateTime = New DateTime(2001, 1, 1)
        Return bk.Publish_date < year2001
    End Function
    Private Sub DisplayResult(ByVal result As Book, ByVal title As String)
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine(title)
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & result.ID & vbTab & result.Author & _
                          vbTab & result.Title & vbTab & result.Genre & _
                          vbTab & result.Publish_date & vbTab & result.Price)
        Console.WriteLine()
    End Sub
    Private Sub DisplayResults(ByVal results As List(Of Book), ByVal title As String)
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine(title)
        For Each b As Book In results
            Console.Write(vbLf & b.ID & vbTab & b.Author & _
                              vbTab & b.Title & vbTab & b.Genre & _
                              vbTab & b.Publish_date & vbTab & b.Price)
        Next
        Console.WriteLine()
    End Sub

    Public Class Book
        Public ID As String
        Public Author As String
        Public Title As String
        Public Genre As String
        Public Price As Double
        Public Publish_date As DateTime
        Public Description As String
    End Class


End Module

Комментарии

— Это делегат метода, который возвращает true значение, если переданный ему объект соответствует условиям, определенным в делегате. Predicate<T>The Predicate<T> is a delegate to a method that returns true if the object passed to it matches the conditions defined in the delegate. Элементы текущего List<T> объекта передаются Predicate<T> в делегат List<T>, перемещаясь вперед в, начиная с первого элемента и заканчивая последним элементом.The elements of the current List<T> are individually passed to the Predicate<T> delegate, moving forward in the List<T>, starting with the first element and ending with the last element. Обработка останавливается при обнаружении соответствия.Processing is stopped when a match is found.

Важно!

При поиске в списке типов значений убедитесь, что значение по умолчанию для типа не соответствует предикату поиска.When searching a list containing value types, make sure the default value for the type does not satisfy the search predicate. В противном случае невозможно отличить значение по умолчанию, указывающее, что совпадений не найдено, и элемент списка, который имеет значение по умолчанию для типа.Otherwise, there is no way to distinguish between a default value indicating that no match was found and a list element that happens to have the default value for the type. Если значение по умолчанию удовлетворяет предикату поиска, используйте FindIndex вместо него метод.If the default value satisfies the search predicate, use the FindIndex method instead.

Этот метод выполняет линейный поиск. Таким образом, этот метод является операцией O (n), ** где n Count—.This method performs a linear search; therefore, this method is an O(n) operation, where n is Count.

Применяется к

Дополнительно