Convert.ToInt16 Метод

Определение

Преобразует заданное значение в 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

Перегрузки

ToInt16(String, Int32)

Преобразует строковое представление числа с указанным основанием системы счисления в эквивалентное ему 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

ToInt16(String, IFormatProvider)

Преобразует заданное строковое представление числа в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком, учитывая указанные сведения об особенностях форматирования, связанных с языком и региональными параметрами.

ToInt16(Object, IFormatProvider)

Преобразует значение заданного объекта в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком, используя указанные сведения об особенностях форматирования, связанных с языком и региональными параметрами.

ToInt16(UInt64)

Преобразует значение заданного 64-битового целого числа без знака в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

ToInt16(UInt32)

Преобразует значение заданного 32-битового целого числа без знака в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

ToInt16(UInt16)

Преобразует значение заданного 16-битового целого числа без знака в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

ToInt16(String)

Преобразует заданное строковое представление числа в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

ToInt16(Single)

Преобразует значение заданного числа с плавающей запятой одиночной точности в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

ToInt16(SByte)

Преобразует значение заданного 8-битового целого числа со знаком в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

ToInt16(Int32)

Преобразует значение заданного 32-битового целого числа со знаком в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

ToInt16(Int64)

Преобразует значение заданного 64-битового целого числа со знаком в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

ToInt16(Int16)

Возвращает заданное 16-битовое целое число со знаком; фактическое преобразование не производится.

ToInt16(Double)

Преобразует значение заданного числа с плавающей запятой двойной точности в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

ToInt16(Decimal)

Преобразует значение заданного десятичного числа в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

ToInt16(DateTime)

При вызове этого метода всегда возникает исключение InvalidCastException.

ToInt16(Char)

Преобразует значение заданного символа Юникода в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

ToInt16(Byte)

Преобразует значение заданного 8-битового целого числа без знака в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

ToInt16(Boolean)

Преобразует заданное логическое значение в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

ToInt16(Object)

Преобразует значение заданного объекта в 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

ToInt16(String, Int32)

Преобразует строковое представление числа с указанным основанием системы счисления в эквивалентное ему 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

public:
 static short ToInt16(System::String ^ value, int fromBase);
public static short ToInt16 (string value, int fromBase);
public static short ToInt16 (string? value, int fromBase);
static member ToInt16 : string * int -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As String, fromBase As Integer) As Short

Параметры

value
String

Строка, содержащая преобразуемое число.

fromBase
Int32

Основание системы счисления, используемой для представления числа, заданного в параметре value, равное 2, 8, 10 или 16.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

16-разрядное знаковое целое число, которое эквивалентно значению параметра value, или 0 (нуль), если value имеет значение null.

Исключения

fromBase не равно 2, 8, 10 или 16.

-или-

value, представляющему число со знаком, не основанное на десятеричной системе счисления, предшествует знак минус.

value имеет значение Empty.

value содержит символ, который не является допустимой цифрой в основании, заданном параметром fromBase. Сообщение об исключении указывает, что отсутствуют цифры для преобразования, если первый символ в value недопустим; в противном случае сообщение указывает, что value содержит недопустимые конечные символы.

value, представляющему число со знаком, не основанное на десятеричной системе счисления, предшествует знак минус.

-или-

value представляет число, которое меньше Int16.MinValue или больше Int16.MaxValue.

Примеры

В следующем примере предпринимается попытка интерпретировать каждый элемент в массиве строк в виде шестнадцатеричной строки и преобразовать его в 16-разрядное целое число со знаком.

using System;

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      string[] hexStrings = { "8000", "0FFF", "f000", "00A30", "D", "-13",
                              "9AC61", "GAD" };
      foreach (string hexString in hexStrings)
      {
         try {
            short number = Convert.ToInt16(hexString, 16);
            Console.WriteLine("Converted '{0}' to {1:N0}.", hexString, number);
         }
         catch (FormatException) {
            Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is not in the correct format for a hexadecimal number.",
                              hexString);
         }
         catch (OverflowException) {
            Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is outside the range of an Int16.", hexString);
         }
         catch (ArgumentException) {
            Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is invalid in base 16.", hexString);
         }
      }
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       Converted '8000' to -32,768.
//       Converted '0FFF' to 4,095.
//       Converted 'f000' to -4,096.
//       Converted '00A30' to 2,608.
//       Converted 'D' to 13.
//       '-13' is invalid in base 16.
//       '9AC61' is outside the range of an Int16.
//       'GAD' is not in the correct format for a hexadecimal number.
open System

let hexStrings = 
    [| "8000"; "0FFF"; "f000"; "00A30"
       "D"; "-13"; "9AC61"; "GAD" |]

for hexString in hexStrings do
    try
        let number = Convert.ToInt16(hexString, 16)
        printfn $"Converted '{hexString}' to {number:N0}."
    with
    | :? FormatException ->
        printfn $"'{hexString}' is not in the correct format for a hexadecimal number."
    | :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"'{hexString}' is outside the range of an Int16."
    | :? ArgumentException ->
        printfn $"'{hexString}' is invalid in base 16."
// The example displays the following output:
//       Converted '8000' to -32,768.
//       Converted '0FFF' to 4,095.
//       Converted 'f000' to -4,096.
//       Converted '00A30' to 2,608.
//       Converted 'D' to 13.
//       '-13' is invalid in base 16.
//       '9AC61' is outside the range of an Int16.
//       'GAD' is not in the correct format for a hexadecimal number.
Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim hexStrings() As String = { "8000", "0FFF", "f000", "00A30", "D", _
                                     "-13", "9AC61", "GAD" }
      For Each hexString As String In hexStrings
         Try
            Dim number As Short = Convert.ToInt16(hexString, 16)
            Console.WriteLine("Converted '{0}' to {1:N0}.", hexString, number)
         Catch e As FormatException
            Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is not in the correct format for a hexadecimal number.", _
                              hexString)
         Catch e As OverflowException
            Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is outside the range of an Int16.", hexString)
         Catch e As ArgumentException
            Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is invalid in base 16.", hexString)
         End Try
      Next                                            
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'       Converted '8000' to -32,768.
'       Converted '0FFF' to 4,095.
'       Converted 'f000' to -4,096.
'       Converted '00A30' to 2,608.
'       Converted 'D' to 13.
'       '-13' is invalid in base 16.
'       '9AC61' is outside the range of an Int16.
'       'GAD' is not in the correct format for a hexadecimal number.

Комментарии

Если fromBase значение равно 16, можно добавить префикс числа, указанного value параметром, с помощью 0x или 0X.

Так как отрицательный знак не поддерживается для небазовых 10 числовых представлений, метод предполагает, ToInt16(String, Int32) что отрицательные числа используют представление дополнения двух. Другими словами, метод всегда интерпретирует двоичный бит верхнего порядка целого числа (бит 15) в качестве бита знака. В результате можно написать код, в котором не базовое число 10, которое выходит за пределы диапазона Int16 типа данных, преобразуется Int16 в значение без вызова исключения методом. Следующий пример увеличивается Int16.MaxValue на один, преобразует результирующее число в шестнадцатеричное строковое представление, а затем вызывает ToInt16(String, Int32) метод. Вместо создания исключения метод отображает сообщение "0x8000 преобразуется в -32768".

// Create a hexadecimal value out of range of the Int16 type.
string value = Convert.ToString((int) short.MaxValue + 1, 16);
// Convert it back to a number.
try
{
   short number = Convert.ToInt16(value, 16);
   Console.WriteLine("0x{0} converts to {1}.", value, number);
}
catch (OverflowException)
{
   Console.WriteLine("Unable to convert '0x{0}' to a 16-bit integer.", value);
}
// Create a hexadecimal value out of range of the Int16 type.
let value = Convert.ToString(int Int16.MaxValue + 1, 16)
// Convert it back to a number.
try
    let number = Convert.ToInt16(value, 16)
    printfn $"0x{value} converts to {number}."
with :? OverflowException ->
    printfn $"Unable to convert '0x{value}' to a 16-bit integer."
' Create a hexadecimal value out of range of the Int16 type.
Dim value As String = Convert.ToString(CInt(Short.MaxValue) + 1, 16)
' Convert it back to a number.
Try
   Dim number As Short = Convert.ToInt16(value, 16)
   Console.WriteLine("0x{0} converts to {1}.", value, number)
Catch e As OverflowException
   Console.WriteLine("Unable to convert '0x{0}' to a 16-bit integer.", value)
End Try

При выполнении двоичных операций или числовых преобразований разработчик всегда обязан убедиться, что метод использует соответствующее числовое представление для интерпретации определенного значения. Как показано в следующем примере, можно убедиться, что метод обрабатывает переполнения соответствующим образом, сначала извлекая знак числового значения перед преобразованием его в шестнадцатеричное строковое представление. Создайте исключение, если исходное значение было положительным, но преобразование обратно в целое число дает отрицательное значение.

// Create a hexadecimal value out of range of the Short type.
int sourceNumber = (int) short.MaxValue + 1;
bool isNegative = (Math.Sign(sourceNumber) == -1);
string value = Convert.ToString(sourceNumber, 16);
short targetNumber;
try
{
   targetNumber = Convert.ToInt16(value, 16);
   if (! isNegative && ((targetNumber & 0x8000) != 0))
      throw new OverflowException();
   else
      Console.WriteLine("0x{0} converts to {1}.", value, targetNumber);
}
catch (OverflowException)
{
   Console.WriteLine("Unable to convert '0x{0}' to a 16-bit integer.", value);
}
// Displays the following to the console:
//    Unable to convert '0x8000' to a 16-bit integer.
// Create a hexadecimal value out of range of the Short type.
let sourceNumber = int Int16.MaxValue + 1
let isNegative = sign sourceNumber = -1
let value = Convert.ToString(sourceNumber, 16)
try
    let targetNumber = Convert.ToInt16(value, 16)
    if not isNegative && targetNumber &&& 0x8000s <> 0s then
        raise (OverflowException())
    else
        printfn $"0x{value} converts to {targetNumber}."
with :? OverflowException ->
    printfn $"Unable to convert '0x{value}' to a 16-bit integer."
// Displays the following to the console:
//    Unable to convert '0x8000' to a 16-bit integer.
' Create a hexadecimal value out of range of the Short type.
Dim sourceNumber As Integer = CInt(Short.MaxValue) + 1
Dim isNegative As Boolean = (Math.Sign(sourceNumber) = -1)
Dim value As String = Convert.ToString(sourceNumber, 16)
Dim targetNumber As Short
Try
   targetNumber = Convert.ToInt16(value, 16)
   If Not isNegative And ((targetNumber And &H8000) <> 0) Then
      Throw New OverflowException()
   Else 
      Console.WriteLine("0x{0} converts to {1}.", value, targetNumber)
   End If    
Catch e As OverflowException
   Console.WriteLine("Unable to convert '0x{0}' to a 16-bit integer.", value)
End Try 
' Displays the following to the console:
'    Unable to convert '0x8000' to a 16-bit integer.

Применяется к

ToInt16(String, IFormatProvider)

Преобразует заданное строковое представление числа в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком, учитывая указанные сведения об особенностях форматирования, связанных с языком и региональными параметрами.

public:
 static short ToInt16(System::String ^ value, IFormatProvider ^ provider);
public static short ToInt16 (string value, IFormatProvider provider);
public static short ToInt16 (string? value, IFormatProvider? provider);
static member ToInt16 : string * IFormatProvider -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As String, provider As IFormatProvider) As Short

Параметры

value
String

Строка, содержащая преобразуемое число.

provider
IFormatProvider

Объект, предоставляющий сведения о форматировании для определенного языка и региональных параметров.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

16-разрядное знаковое целое число, которое эквивалентно значению параметра value, или 0 (нуль), если value имеет значение null.

Исключения

value не состоит из необязательного знака, за которым следует последовательность цифр (0–9).

value представляет число, которое меньше Int16.MinValue или больше Int16.MaxValue.

Примеры

В следующем примере преобразуются строковые представления 16-разрядных целых чисел с ToInt16 помощью метода с помощью IFormatProvider объекта.

// Example of the Convert::ToInt16( String* ) and 
// Convert::ToInt16( String*, IFormatProvider* ) methods.
using namespace System;
using namespace System::Globalization;
const __wchar_t * protoFmt = L"{0,-20}{1,-20}{2}";

// Get the exception type name; remove the namespace prefix.
String^ GetExceptionType( Exception^ ex )
{
   String^ exceptionType = ex->GetType()->ToString();
   return exceptionType->Substring( exceptionType->LastIndexOf( '.' ) + 1 );
}

void ConvertToInt16( String^ numericStr, IFormatProvider^ provider )
{
   Object^ defaultValue;
   Object^ providerValue;
   
   // Convert numericStr to Int16 without a format provider.
   try
   {
      defaultValue = Convert::ToInt16( numericStr );
   }
   catch ( Exception^ ex ) 
   {
      defaultValue = GetExceptionType( ex );
   }

   
   // Convert numericStr to Int16 with a format provider.
   try
   {
      providerValue = Convert::ToInt16( numericStr, provider );
   }
   catch ( Exception^ ex ) 
   {
      providerValue = GetExceptionType( ex );
   }

   Console::WriteLine( gcnew String( protoFmt ), numericStr, defaultValue, providerValue );
}

int main()
{
   
   // Create a NumberFormatInfo object and set several of its
   // properties that apply to numbers.
   NumberFormatInfo^ provider = gcnew NumberFormatInfo;
   
   // These properties affect the conversion.
   provider->NegativeSign = "neg ";
   provider->PositiveSign = "pos ";
   
   // These properties do not affect the conversion.
   // The input string cannot have decimal and group separators.
   provider->NumberDecimalSeparator = ".";
   provider->NumberGroupSeparator = ",";
   array<Int32>^sizes = {3};
   provider->NumberGroupSizes = sizes;
   provider->NumberNegativePattern = 0;
   Console::WriteLine( "This example of\n"
   "  Convert::ToInt16( String* ) and \n"
   "  Convert::ToInt16( String*, IFormatProvider* ) "
   "\ngenerates the following output. It converts "
   "several strings to \nshort values, using "
   "default formatting or a NumberFormatInfo object.\n" );
   Console::WriteLine( gcnew String( protoFmt ), "String to convert", "Default/exception", "Provider/exception" );
   Console::WriteLine( gcnew String( protoFmt ), "-----------------", "-----------------", "------------------" );
   
   // Convert strings, with and without an IFormatProvider.
   ConvertToInt16( "12345", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "+12345", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "pos 12345", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "-12345", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "neg 12345", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "12345.", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "12,345", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "(12345)", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "32768", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "-32769", provider );
}

/*
This example of
  Convert::ToInt16( String* ) and
  Convert::ToInt16( String*, IFormatProvider* )
generates the following output. It converts several strings to
short values, using default formatting or a NumberFormatInfo object.

String to convert   Default/exception   Provider/exception
-----------------   -----------------   ------------------
12345               12345               12345
+12345              12345               FormatException
pos 12345           FormatException     12345
-12345              -12345              FormatException
neg 12345           FormatException     -12345
12345.              FormatException     FormatException
12,345              FormatException     FormatException
(12345)             FormatException     FormatException
32768               OverflowException   OverflowException
-32769              OverflowException   FormatException
*/
// Example of the Convert.ToInt16( string ) and
// Convert.ToInt16( string, IFormatProvider ) methods.
using System;
using System.Globalization;

class ToInt16ProviderDemo
{
    static string format = "{0,-20}{1,-20}{2}";

     // Get the exception type name; remove the namespace prefix.
    static string GetExceptionType( Exception ex )
    {
        string exceptionType = ex.GetType( ).ToString( );
        return exceptionType.Substring(
            exceptionType.LastIndexOf( '.' ) + 1 );
    }

    static void ConvertToInt16( string numericStr,
        IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        object defaultValue;
        object providerValue;

        // Convert numericStr to Int16 without a format provider.
        try
        {
            defaultValue = Convert.ToInt16( numericStr );
        }
        catch( Exception ex )
        {
            defaultValue = GetExceptionType( ex );
        }

        // Convert numericStr to Int16 with a format provider.
        try
        {
            providerValue = Convert.ToInt16( numericStr, provider );
        }
        catch( Exception ex )
        {
            providerValue = GetExceptionType( ex );
        }

        Console.WriteLine( format, numericStr,
            defaultValue, providerValue );
    }

    public static void Main( )
    {
        // Create a NumberFormatInfo object and set several of its
        // properties that apply to numbers.
        NumberFormatInfo provider = new NumberFormatInfo();

        // These properties affect the conversion.
        provider.NegativeSign = "neg ";
        provider.PositiveSign = "pos ";

        // These properties do not affect the conversion.
        // The input string cannot have decimal and group separators.
        provider.NumberDecimalSeparator = ".";
        provider.NumberGroupSeparator = ",";
        provider.NumberGroupSizes = new int[ ] { 3 };
        provider.NumberNegativePattern = 0;

        Console.WriteLine("This example of\n" +
            "  Convert.ToInt16( string ) and \n" +
            "  Convert.ToInt16( string, IFormatProvider ) " +
            "\ngenerates the following output. It converts " +
            "several strings to \nshort values, using " +
            "default formatting or a NumberFormatInfo object.\n" );
        Console.WriteLine( format, "String to convert",
            "Default/exception", "Provider/exception" );
        Console.WriteLine( format, "-----------------",
            "-----------------", "------------------" );

        // Convert strings, with and without an IFormatProvider.
        ConvertToInt16( "12345", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "+12345", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "pos 12345", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "-12345", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "neg 12345", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "12345.", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "12,345", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "(12345)", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "32768", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "-32769", provider );
    }
}

/*
This example of
  Convert.ToInt16( string ) and
  Convert.ToInt16( string, IFormatProvider )
generates the following output. It converts several strings to
short values, using default formatting or a NumberFormatInfo object.

String to convert   Default/exception   Provider/exception
-----------------   -----------------   ------------------
12345               12345               12345
+12345              12345               FormatException
pos 12345           FormatException     12345
-12345              -12345              FormatException
neg 12345           FormatException     -12345
12345.              FormatException     FormatException
12,345              FormatException     FormatException
(12345)             FormatException     FormatException
32768               OverflowException   OverflowException
-32769              OverflowException   FormatException
*/
// Example of the Convert.ToInt16( string ) and
// Convert.ToInt16( string, IFormatProvider ) methods.
open System
open System.Globalization

let format obj1 obj2 obj3 = printfn $"{obj1,-20}{obj2,-20}{obj3}"

// Get the exception type name; remove the namespace prefix.
let getExceptionType (ex: exn) =
    let exceptionType = ex.GetType() |> string
    exceptionType.Substring(exceptionType.LastIndexOf '.' + 1)

let convertToInt16 (numericStr: string) (provider: IFormatProvider) =
    // Convert numericStr to Int16 without a format provider.
    let defaultValue = 
        try
            Convert.ToInt16 numericStr
            |> string
        with ex ->
            getExceptionType ex

    // Convert numericStr to Int16 with a format provider.
    let providerValue = 
        try
            Convert.ToInt16(numericStr, provider)
            |> string
        with ex ->
            getExceptionType ex

    format numericStr defaultValue providerValue

// Create a NumberFormatInfo object and set several of its
// properties that apply to numbers.
let provider = NumberFormatInfo()

// These properties affect the conversion.
provider.NegativeSign <- "neg "
provider.PositiveSign <- "pos "

// These properties do not affect the conversion.
// The input string cannot have decimal and group separators.
provider.NumberDecimalSeparator <- "."
provider.NumberGroupSeparator <- ","
provider.NumberGroupSizes <- [| 3 |]
provider.NumberNegativePattern <- 0

printfn
    """This example of
  Convert.ToInt16( string ) and 
  Convert.ToInt16( string, IFormatProvider ) 
generates the following output. It converts several strings to 
short values, using default formatting or a NumberFormatInfo object.
"""
format "String to convert" "Default/exception" "Provider/exception"
format "-----------------" "-----------------" "------------------"

// Convert strings, with and without an IFormatProvider.
convertToInt16 "12345" provider
convertToInt16 "+12345" provider
convertToInt16 "pos 12345" provider
convertToInt16 "-12345" provider
convertToInt16 "neg 12345" provider
convertToInt16 "12345." provider
convertToInt16 "12,345" provider
convertToInt16 "(12345)" provider
convertToInt16 "32768" provider
convertToInt16 "-32769" provider

// This example of
//   Convert.ToInt16( string ) and
//   Convert.ToInt16( string, IFormatProvider )
// generates the following output. It converts several strings to
// short values, using default formatting or a NumberFormatInfo object.
//
// String to convert   Default/exception   Provider/exception
// -----------------   -----------------   ------------------
// 12345               12345               12345
// +12345              12345               FormatException
// pos 12345           FormatException     12345
// -12345              -12345              FormatException
// neg 12345           FormatException     -12345
// 12345.              FormatException     FormatException
// 12,345              FormatException     FormatException
// (12345)             FormatException     FormatException
// 32768               OverflowException   OverflowException
// -32769              OverflowException   FormatException
' Example of the Convert.ToInt16( String ) and 
' Convert.ToInt16( String, IFormatProvider ) methods.
Imports System.Globalization

Module ToInt16ProviderDemo

    Dim format As String = "{0,-20}{1,-20}{2}"

    ' Get the exception type name; remove the namespace prefix.
    Function GetExceptionType( ex As Exception ) As String

        Dim exceptionType   As String = ex.GetType( ).ToString( )
        Return exceptionType.Substring( _
            exceptionType.LastIndexOf( "."c ) + 1 )
    End Function

    Sub ConvertToInt16( numericStr As String, _
        provider As IFormatProvider )

        Dim defaultValue    As Object
        Dim providerValue   As Object

        ' Convert numericStr to Int16 without a format provider.
        Try
            defaultValue = Convert.ToInt16( numericStr )
        Catch ex As Exception
            defaultValue = GetExceptionType( ex )
        End Try

        ' Convert numericStr to Int16 with a format provider.
        Try
            providerValue = Convert.ToInt16( numericStr, provider )
        Catch ex As Exception
            providerValue = GetExceptionType( ex )
        End Try

        Console.WriteLine( format, numericStr, _
            defaultValue, providerValue )
    End Sub

    Sub Main( )

        ' Create a NumberFormatInfo object and set several of its
        ' properties that apply to numbers.
        Dim provider  As NumberFormatInfo = new NumberFormatInfo( )

        ' These properties affect the conversion.
        provider.NegativeSign = "neg "
        provider.PositiveSign = "pos "

        ' These properties do not affect the conversion.
        ' The input string cannot have decimal and group separators.
        provider.NumberDecimalSeparator = "."
        provider.NumberGroupSeparator = ","
        provider.NumberGroupSizes = New Integer( ) { 3 }
        provider.NumberNegativePattern = 0

        Console.WriteLine( "This example of" & vbCrLf & _
            "  Convert.ToInt16( String ) and " & vbCrLf & _
            "  Convert.ToInt16( String, IFormatProvider ) " & _
            vbCrLf & "generates the following output. It " & _
            "converts several strings to " & vbCrLf & "Short " & _
            "values, using default formatting " & _
            "or a NumberFormatInfo object." & vbCrLf )
        Console.WriteLine( format, "String to convert", _
            "Default/exception", "Provider/exception" )
        Console.WriteLine( format, "-----------------", _
            "-----------------", "------------------" )

        ' Convert strings, with and without an IFormatProvider.
        ConvertToInt16( "12345", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "+12345", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "pos 12345", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "-12345", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "neg 12345", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "12345.", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "12,345", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "(12345)", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "32768", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "-32769", provider )
    End Sub 
End Module 

' This example of
'   Convert.ToInt16( String ) and
'   Convert.ToInt16( String, IFormatProvider )
' generates the following output. It converts several strings to
' Short values, using default formatting or a NumberFormatInfo object.
' 
' String to convert   Default/exception   Provider/exception
' -----------------   -----------------   ------------------
' 12345               12345               12345
' +12345              12345               FormatException
' pos 12345           FormatException     12345
' -12345              -12345              FormatException
' neg 12345           FormatException     -12345
' 12345.              FormatException     FormatException
' 12,345              FormatException     FormatException
' (12345)             FormatException     FormatException
' 32768               OverflowException   OverflowException
' -32769              OverflowException   FormatException

Комментарии

providerIFormatProvider— это экземпляр, который получает NumberFormatInfo объект. Объект NumberFormatInfo предоставляет сведения, относящиеся к языку и региональным параметрам, о формате value. Если provider это так null, NumberFormatInfo используется текущий язык и региональные параметры.

Если вы предпочитаете не обрабатывать исключение при сбое преобразования, можно вызвать Int16.TryParse метод. Он возвращает Boolean значение, указывающее, успешно ли выполнено преобразование или завершилось сбоем.

См. также раздел

Применяется к

ToInt16(Object, IFormatProvider)

Преобразует значение заданного объекта в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком, используя указанные сведения об особенностях форматирования, связанных с языком и региональными параметрами.

public:
 static short ToInt16(System::Object ^ value, IFormatProvider ^ provider);
public static short ToInt16 (object value, IFormatProvider provider);
public static short ToInt16 (object? value, IFormatProvider? provider);
static member ToInt16 : obj * IFormatProvider -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As Object, provider As IFormatProvider) As Short

Параметры

value
Object

Объект, реализующий интерфейс IConvertible.

provider
IFormatProvider

Объект, предоставляющий сведения о форматировании для определенного языка и региональных параметров.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

16-разрядное знаковое целое число, эквивалентное значению value, или нуль, если value имеет значение null.

Исключения

value имеет неправильный формат для типа Int16.

value не реализует IConvertible.

value представляет число, которое меньше Int16.MinValue или больше Int16.MaxValue.

Примеры

В следующем примере определяется класс, реализующий IConvertible и класс, реализующий IFormatProvider. Объекты класса, реализующего IConvertible массив значений Double . Объект каждого класса передается методу ToInt16 . Этот метод возвращает среднее значение массива значений Double , используя объект, реализующий IFormatProvider для определения способа вычисления среднего значения.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections;

// Define the types of averaging available in the class 
// implementing IConvertible.
public enum class AverageType : short
{
   None = 0,
   GeometricMean = 1,
   ArithmeticMean = 2,
   Median = 3
};


// Pass an instance of this class to methods that require an 
// IFormatProvider. The class instance determines the type of 
// average to calculate.
ref class AverageInfo: public IFormatProvider
{
protected:
   AverageType AvgType;

public:

   // Specify the type of averaging in the constructor.
   AverageInfo( AverageType avgType )
   {
      this->AvgType = avgType;
   }


   // This method returns a reference to the containing object 
   // if an object of AverageInfo type is requested. 
   virtual Object^ GetFormat( Type^ argType )
   {
      if ( argType == AverageInfo::typeid)
            return this;
      else
            return (Object^)0;
   }


   property AverageType TypeOfAverage 
   {

      // Use this property to set or get the type of averaging.
      AverageType get()
      {
         return this->AvgType;
      }

      void set( AverageType value )
      {
         this->AvgType = value;
      }

   }

};


// This class encapsulates an array of double values and implements 
// the IConvertible interface. Most of the IConvertible methods 
// return an average of the array elements in one of three types: 
// arithmetic mean, geometric mean, or median. 
ref class DataSet: public IConvertible
{
private:
   static Object^ null = nullptr;

protected:
   ArrayList^ data;
   AverageInfo^ defaultProvider;

   // This method unboxes a boxed double.
   double UnBoxDouble( Object^ obj )
   {
      return  *static_cast<double^>(obj);
   }


public:

   // Construct the object and add an initial list of values.
   // Create a default format provider.
   DataSet( ... array<Double>^values )
   {
      data = gcnew ArrayList( (Array^)values );
      defaultProvider = gcnew AverageInfo( AverageType::ArithmeticMean );
   }


   // Add additional values with this method.
   int Add( double value )
   {
      data->Add( value );
      return data->Count;
   }


   property double Item[ int ]
   {

      // Get, set, and add values with this indexer property.
      double get( int index )
      {
         if ( index >= 0 && index < data->Count )
                  return UnBoxDouble( data[ index ] );
         else
                  throw gcnew InvalidOperationException( "[DataSet.get] Index out of range." );
      }

      void set( int index, double value )
      {
         if ( index >= 0 && index < data->Count )
                  data[ index ] = value;
         else
         if ( index == data->Count )
                  data->Add( value );
         else
                  throw gcnew InvalidOperationException( "[DataSet.set] Index out of range." );
      }

   }

   property int Count 
   {

      // This property returns the number of elements in the object.
      int get()
      {
         return data->Count;
      }

   }

protected:

   // This method calculates the average of the object's elements.
   double Average( AverageType avgType )
   {
      double SumProd;
      if ( data->Count == 0 )
            return 0.0;

      switch ( avgType )
      {
         case AverageType::GeometricMean:
            SumProd = 1.0;
            for ( int Index = 0; Index < data->Count; Index++ )
               SumProd *= UnBoxDouble( data[ Index ] );
            
            // This calculation will not fail with negative 
            // elements.
            return Math::Sign( SumProd ) * Math::Pow( Math::Abs( SumProd ), 1.0 / data->Count );

         case AverageType::ArithmeticMean:
            SumProd = 0.0;
            for ( int Index = 0; Index < data->Count; Index++ )
               SumProd += UnBoxDouble( data[ Index ] );
            return SumProd / data->Count;

         case AverageType::Median:
            if ( data->Count % 2 == 0 )
                        return (UnBoxDouble( data[ data->Count / 2 ] ) + UnBoxDouble( data[ data->Count / 2 - 1 ] )) / 2.0;
            else
                        return UnBoxDouble( data[ data->Count / 2 ] );

         default:
            return 0.0;
      }
   }


   // Get the AverageInfo object from the caller's format provider,
   // or use the local default.
   AverageInfo^ GetAverageInfo( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      AverageInfo^ avgInfo = nullptr;
      if ( provider != nullptr )
            avgInfo = static_cast<AverageInfo^>(provider->GetFormat( AverageInfo::typeid ));

      if ( avgInfo == nullptr )
            return defaultProvider;
      else
            return avgInfo;
   }


   // Calculate the average and limit the range.
   double CalcNLimitAverage( double min, double max, IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      
      // Get the format provider and calculate the average.
      AverageInfo^ avgInfo = GetAverageInfo( provider );
      double avg = Average( avgInfo->TypeOfAverage );
      
      // Limit the range, based on the minimum and maximum values 
      // for the type.
      return avg > max ? max : avg < min ? min : avg;
   }


public:

   // The following elements are required by IConvertible.
   // None of these conversion functions throw exceptions. When
   // the data is out of range for the type, the appropriate
   // MinValue or MaxValue is used.
   virtual TypeCode GetTypeCode()
   {
      return TypeCode::Object;
   }

   virtual bool ToBoolean( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      
      // ToBoolean is false if the dataset is empty.
      if ( data->Count <= 0 )
            return false;
      // For median averaging, ToBoolean is true if any 
      // non-discarded elements are nonzero.
      else
      
      // For median averaging, ToBoolean is true if any 
      // non-discarded elements are nonzero.
      if ( AverageType::Median == GetAverageInfo( provider )->TypeOfAverage )
      {
         if ( data->Count % 2 == 0 )
                  return (UnBoxDouble( data[ data->Count / 2 ] ) != 0.0 || UnBoxDouble( data[ data->Count / 2 - 1 ] ) != 0.0);
         else
                  return UnBoxDouble( data[ data->Count / 2 ] ) != 0.0;
      }
      // For arithmetic or geometric mean averaging, ToBoolean is 
      // true if any element of the dataset is nonzero.  
      else
      {
         for ( int Index = 0; Index < data->Count; Index++ )
            if ( UnBoxDouble( data[ Index ] ) != 0.0 )
                        return true;
         return false;
      }
   }

   virtual Byte ToByte( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToByte( CalcNLimitAverage( Byte::MinValue, Byte::MaxValue, provider ) );
   }

   virtual Char ToChar( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToChar( Convert::ToUInt16( CalcNLimitAverage( Char::MinValue, Char::MaxValue, provider ) ) );
   }


   // Convert to DateTime by adding the calculated average as 
   // seconds to the current date and time. A valid DateTime is 
   // always returned.
   virtual DateTime ToDateTime( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      double seconds = Average( GetAverageInfo( provider )->TypeOfAverage );
      try
      {
         return DateTime::Now.AddSeconds( seconds );
      }
      catch ( ArgumentOutOfRangeException^ ) 
      {
         return seconds < 0.0 ? DateTime::MinValue : DateTime::MaxValue;
      }

   }

   virtual Decimal ToDecimal( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      
      // The Double conversion rounds Decimal.MinValue and 
      // Decimal.MaxValue to invalid Decimal values, so the 
      // following limits must be used.
      return Convert::ToDecimal( CalcNLimitAverage(  -79228162514264330000000000000.0, 79228162514264330000000000000.0, provider ) );
   }

   virtual double ToDouble( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Average( GetAverageInfo( provider )->TypeOfAverage );
   }

   virtual short ToInt16( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToInt16( CalcNLimitAverage( Int16::MinValue, Int16::MaxValue, provider ) );
   }

   virtual int ToInt32( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToInt32( CalcNLimitAverage( Int32::MinValue, Int32::MaxValue, provider ) );
   }

   virtual __int64 ToInt64( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      
      // The Double conversion rounds Int64.MinValue and 
      // Int64.MaxValue to invalid Int64 values, so the following 
      // limits must be used.
      return Convert::ToInt64( CalcNLimitAverage(  -9223372036854775000, 9223372036854775000, provider ) );
   }

   virtual signed char ToSByte( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToSByte( CalcNLimitAverage( SByte::MinValue, SByte::MaxValue, provider ) );
   }

   virtual float ToSingle( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToSingle( CalcNLimitAverage( Single::MinValue, Single::MaxValue, provider ) );
   }

   virtual UInt16 ToUInt16( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToUInt16( CalcNLimitAverage( UInt16::MinValue, UInt16::MaxValue, provider ) );
   }

   virtual UInt32 ToUInt32( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ToUInt32( CalcNLimitAverage( UInt32::MinValue, UInt32::MaxValue, provider ) );
   }

   virtual UInt64 ToUInt64( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      
      // The Double conversion rounds UInt64.MaxValue to an invalid
      // UInt64 value, so the following limit must be used.
      return Convert::ToUInt64( CalcNLimitAverage( 0, 18446744073709550000.0, provider ) );
   }

   virtual Object^ ToType( Type^ conversionType, IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      return Convert::ChangeType( Average( GetAverageInfo( provider )->TypeOfAverage ), conversionType );
   }

   virtual String^ ToString( IFormatProvider^ provider )
   {
      AverageType avgType = GetAverageInfo( provider )->TypeOfAverage;
      return String::Format( "( {0}: {1:G10} )", avgType, Average( avgType ) );
   }

};


// Display a DataSet with three different format providers.
void DisplayDataSet( DataSet^ ds )
{
   IFormatProvider^ null = nullptr;
   String^ fmt = "{0,-12}{1,20}{2,20}{3,20}";
   AverageInfo^ median = gcnew AverageInfo( AverageType::Median );
   AverageInfo^ geMean = gcnew AverageInfo( AverageType::GeometricMean );
   
   // Display the dataset elements.
   if ( ds->Count > 0 )
   {
      Console::Write( "\nDataSet: [{0}", ds->Item[ 0 ] );
      for ( int iX = 1; iX < ds->Count; iX++ )
         Console::Write( ", {0}", ds->Item[ iX ] );
      Console::WriteLine( "]\n" );
   }

   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "Convert::", "Default", "Geometric Mean", "Median" );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "---------", "-------", "--------------", "------" );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToBoolean", Convert::ToBoolean( ds, null ), Convert::ToBoolean( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToBoolean( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToByte", Convert::ToByte( ds, null ), Convert::ToByte( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToByte( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToChar", Convert::ToChar( ds, null ), Convert::ToChar( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToChar( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( "{0,-12}{1,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}"
   "{2,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}{3,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}", "ToDateTime", Convert::ToDateTime( ds, null ), Convert::ToDateTime( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToDateTime( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToDecimal", Convert::ToDecimal( ds, null ), Convert::ToDecimal( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToDecimal( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToDouble", Convert::ToDouble( ds, null ), Convert::ToDouble( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToDouble( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt16", Convert::ToInt16( ds, null ), Convert::ToInt16( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToInt16( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt32", Convert::ToInt32( ds, null ), Convert::ToInt32( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToInt32( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt64", Convert::ToInt64( ds, null ), Convert::ToInt64( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToInt64( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToSByte", Convert::ToSByte( ds, null ), Convert::ToSByte( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToSByte( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToSingle", Convert::ToSingle( ds, null ), Convert::ToSingle( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToSingle( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt16", Convert::ToUInt16( ds, null ), Convert::ToUInt16( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToUInt16( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt32", Convert::ToUInt32( ds, null ), Convert::ToUInt32( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToUInt32( ds, median ) );
   Console::WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt64", Convert::ToUInt64( ds, null ), Convert::ToUInt64( ds, geMean ), Convert::ToUInt64( ds, median ) );
}

int main()
{
   Console::WriteLine( "This example of the "
   "Convert::To<Type>( Object*, IFormatProvider* ) methods "
   "\ngenerates the following output. The example "
   "displays the values \nreturned by the methods, "
   "using several IFormatProvider objects.\n" );
   
   // To call a [ParamArray] method in C++, you cannot just
   // list the parameters, you need to build an array.
   array<Double>^dataElem = gcnew array<Double>(6);
   dataElem[ 0 ] = 10.5;
   dataElem[ 1 ] = 22.2;
   dataElem[ 2 ] = 45.9;
   dataElem[ 3 ] = 88.7;
   dataElem[ 4 ] = 156.05;
   dataElem[ 5 ] = 297.6;
   DataSet^ ds1 = gcnew DataSet( dataElem );
   DisplayDataSet( ds1 );
   dataElem = gcnew array<Double>(5);
   dataElem[ 0 ] = 359999.95;
   dataElem[ 1 ] = 425000;
   dataElem[ 2 ] = 499999.5;
   dataElem[ 3 ] = 775000;
   dataElem[ 4 ] = 1695000;
   DataSet^ ds2 = gcnew DataSet( dataElem );
   DisplayDataSet( ds2 );
}

/*
This example of the Convert::To<Type>( Object*, IFormatProvider* ) methods
generates the following output. The example displays the values
returned by the methods, using several IFormatProvider objects.

DataSet: [10.5, 22.2, 45.9, 88.7, 156.05, 297.6]

Convert::                Default      Geometric Mean              Median
---------                -------      --------------              ------
ToBoolean                   True                True                True
ToByte                       103                  59                  67
ToChar                         g                   ;                   C
ToDateTime   2003-05-13 15:30:23 2003-05-13 15:29:39 2003-05-13 15:29:47
ToDecimal       103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
ToDouble        103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
ToInt16                      103                  59                  67
ToInt32                      103                  59                  67
ToInt64                      103                  59                  67
ToSByte                      103                  59                  67
ToSingle                103.4917            59.43321                67.3
ToUInt16                     103                  59                  67
ToUInt32                     103                  59                  67
ToUInt64                     103                  59                  67

DataSet: [359999.95, 425000, 499999.5, 775000, 1695000]

Convert::                Default      Geometric Mean              Median
---------                -------      --------------              ------
ToBoolean                   True                True                True
ToByte                       255                 255                 255
ToChar                         ?                   ?                   ?
ToDateTime   2003-05-22 08:05:19 2003-05-20 22:54:57 2003-05-19 10:21:59
ToDecimal              750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
ToDouble               750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
ToInt16                    32767               32767               32767
ToInt32                   751000              631577              500000
ToInt64                   751000              631577              500000
ToSByte                      127                 127                 127
ToSingle                750999.9            631577.3            499999.5
ToUInt16                   65535               65535               65535
ToUInt32                  751000              631577              500000
ToUInt64                  751000              631577              500000
*/
using System;
using System.Collections;

// Define the types of averaging available in the class
// implementing IConvertible.
public enum AverageType : short
{
    None = 0,
    GeometricMean = 1,
    ArithmeticMean = 2,
    Median = 3
};

// Pass an instance of this class to methods that require an
// IFormatProvider. The class instance determines the type of
// average to calculate.
public class AverageInfo : IFormatProvider
{
    protected AverageType AvgType;

    // Specify the type of averaging in the constructor.
    public AverageInfo( AverageType avgType )
    {
        this.AvgType = avgType;
    }

    // This method returns a reference to the containing object
    // if an object of AverageInfo type is requested.
    public object GetFormat( Type argType )
    {
        if ( argType == typeof( AverageInfo ) )
            return this;
        else
            return null;
    }

    // Use this property to set or get the type of averaging.
    public AverageType TypeOfAverage
    {
        get { return this.AvgType; }
        set { this.AvgType = value; }
    }
}

// This class encapsulates an array of double values and implements
// the IConvertible interface. Most of the IConvertible methods
// return an average of the array elements in one of three types:
// arithmetic mean, geometric mean, or median.
public class DataSet : IConvertible
{
    protected ArrayList     data;
    protected AverageInfo   defaultProvider;

    // Construct the object and add an initial list of values.
    // Create a default format provider.
    public DataSet( params double[ ] values )
    {
        data = new ArrayList( values );
        defaultProvider =
            new AverageInfo( AverageType.ArithmeticMean );
    }

    // Add additional values with this method.
    public int Add( double value )
    {
        data.Add( value );
        return data.Count;
    }

    // Get, set, and add values with this indexer property.
    public double this[ int index ]
    {
        get
        {
            if( index >= 0 && index < data.Count )
                return (double)data[ index ];
            else
                throw new InvalidOperationException(
                    "[DataSet.get] Index out of range." );
        }
        set
        {
            if( index >= 0 && index < data.Count )
                data[ index ] = value;

            else if( index == data.Count )
                data.Add( value );
            else
                throw new InvalidOperationException(
                    "[DataSet.set] Index out of range." );
        }
    }

    // This property returns the number of elements in the object.
    public int Count
    {
        get { return data.Count; }
    }

    // This method calculates the average of the object's elements.
    protected double Average( AverageType avgType )
    {
        double  SumProd;

        if( data.Count == 0 )
            return 0.0;

        switch( avgType )
        {
            case AverageType.GeometricMean:

                SumProd = 1.0;
                for( int Index = 0; Index < data.Count; Index++ )
                    SumProd *= (double)data[ Index ];

                // This calculation will not fail with negative
                // elements.
                return Math.Sign( SumProd ) * Math.Pow(
                    Math.Abs( SumProd ), 1.0 / data.Count );

            case AverageType.ArithmeticMean:

                SumProd = 0.0;
                for( int Index = 0; Index < data.Count; Index++ )
                    SumProd += (double)data[ Index ];

                return SumProd / data.Count;

            case AverageType.Median:

                if( data.Count % 2 == 0 )
                    return ( (double)data[ data.Count / 2 ] +
                        (double)data[ data.Count / 2 - 1 ] ) / 2.0;
                else
                    return (double)data[ data.Count / 2 ];

            default:
                return 0.0;
        }
    }

    // Get the AverageInfo object from the caller's format provider,
    // or use the local default.
    protected AverageInfo GetAverageInfo( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        AverageInfo avgInfo = null;

        if( provider != null )
            avgInfo = (AverageInfo)provider.GetFormat(
                typeof( AverageInfo ) );

        if ( avgInfo == null )
            return defaultProvider;
        else
            return avgInfo;
    }

    // Calculate the average and limit the range.
    protected double CalcNLimitAverage( double min, double max,
        IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        // Get the format provider and calculate the average.
        AverageInfo avgInfo = GetAverageInfo( provider );
        double avg = Average( avgInfo.TypeOfAverage );

        // Limit the range, based on the minimum and maximum values
        // for the type.
        return avg > max ? max : avg < min ? min : avg;
    }

    // The following elements are required by IConvertible.

    // None of these conversion functions throw exceptions. When
    // the data is out of range for the type, the appropriate
    // MinValue or MaxValue is used.
    public TypeCode GetTypeCode( )
    {
        return TypeCode.Object;
    }

    public bool ToBoolean( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        // ToBoolean is false if the dataset is empty.
        if( data.Count <= 0 )
        {
            return false;
        }

        // For median averaging, ToBoolean is true if any
        // non-discarded elements are nonzero.
        else if( AverageType.Median ==
            GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage )
        {
            if (data.Count % 2 == 0 )
                return ( (double)data[ data.Count / 2 ] != 0.0 ||
                    (double)data[ data.Count / 2 - 1 ] != 0.0 );
            else
                return (double)data[ data.Count / 2 ] != 0.0;
        }

        // For arithmetic or geometric mean averaging, ToBoolean is
        // true if any element of the dataset is nonzero.
        else
        {
            for( int Index = 0; Index < data.Count; Index++ )
                if( (double)data[ Index ] != 0.0 )
                    return true;
            return false;
        }
    }

    public byte ToByte( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToByte( CalcNLimitAverage(
            Byte.MinValue, Byte.MaxValue, provider ) );
    }

    public char ToChar( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToChar( Convert.ToUInt16( CalcNLimitAverage(
            Char.MinValue, Char.MaxValue, provider ) ) );
    }

    // Convert to DateTime by adding the calculated average as
    // seconds to the current date and time. A valid DateTime is
    // always returned.
    public DateTime ToDateTime( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        double seconds =
            Average( GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage );
        try
        {
            return DateTime.Now.AddSeconds( seconds );
        }
        catch( ArgumentOutOfRangeException )
        {
            return seconds < 0.0 ? DateTime.MinValue : DateTime.MaxValue;
        }
    }

    public decimal ToDecimal( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        // The Double conversion rounds Decimal.MinValue and
        // Decimal.MaxValue to invalid Decimal values, so the
        // following limits must be used.
        return Convert.ToDecimal( CalcNLimitAverage(
            -79228162514264330000000000000.0,
            79228162514264330000000000000.0, provider ) );
    }

    public double ToDouble( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Average( GetAverageInfo(provider).TypeOfAverage );
    }

    public short ToInt16( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToInt16( CalcNLimitAverage(
            Int16.MinValue, Int16.MaxValue, provider ) );
    }

    public int ToInt32( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToInt32( CalcNLimitAverage(
            Int32.MinValue, Int32.MaxValue, provider ) );
    }

    public long ToInt64( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        // The Double conversion rounds Int64.MinValue and
        // Int64.MaxValue to invalid Int64 values, so the following
        // limits must be used.
        return Convert.ToInt64( CalcNLimitAverage(
            -9223372036854775000, 9223372036854775000, provider ) );
    }

    public SByte ToSByte( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToSByte( CalcNLimitAverage(
            SByte.MinValue, SByte.MaxValue, provider ) );
    }

    public float ToSingle( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToSingle( CalcNLimitAverage(
            Single.MinValue, Single.MaxValue, provider ) );
    }

    public UInt16 ToUInt16( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToUInt16( CalcNLimitAverage(
            UInt16.MinValue, UInt16.MaxValue, provider ) );
    }

    public UInt32 ToUInt32( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ToUInt32( CalcNLimitAverage(
            UInt32.MinValue, UInt32.MaxValue, provider ) );
    }

    public UInt64 ToUInt64( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        // The Double conversion rounds UInt64.MaxValue to an invalid
        // UInt64 value, so the following limit must be used.
        return Convert.ToUInt64( CalcNLimitAverage(
            0, 18446744073709550000.0, provider ) );
    }

    public object ToType( Type conversionType,
        IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        return Convert.ChangeType( Average(
            GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage ),
            conversionType );
    }

    public string ToString( IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        AverageType avgType = GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage;
        return String.Format( "( {0}: {1:G10} )", avgType,
            Average( avgType ) );
    }
}

class IConvertibleProviderDemo
{
    // Display a DataSet with three different format providers.
    public static void DisplayDataSet( DataSet ds )
    {
        string      fmt    = "{0,-12}{1,20}{2,20}{3,20}";
        AverageInfo median = new AverageInfo( AverageType.Median );
        AverageInfo geMean =
            new AverageInfo( AverageType.GeometricMean );

         // Display the dataset elements.
        if( ds.Count > 0 )
        {
            Console.Write( "\nDataSet: [{0}", ds[ 0 ] );
            for( int iX = 1; iX < ds.Count; iX++ )
                Console.Write( ", {0}", ds[ iX ] );
            Console.WriteLine( "]\n" );
        }

        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "Convert.", "Default",
            "Geometric Mean", "Median");
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "--------", "-------",
            "--------------", "------");
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToBoolean",
            Convert.ToBoolean( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToBoolean( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToBoolean( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToByte",
            Convert.ToByte( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToByte( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToByte( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToChar",
            Convert.ToChar( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToChar( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToChar( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( "{0,-12}{1,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}" +
            "{2,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}{3,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}",
            "ToDateTime", Convert.ToDateTime( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToDateTime( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToDateTime( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToDecimal",
            Convert.ToDecimal( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToDecimal( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToDecimal( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToDouble",
            Convert.ToDouble( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToDouble( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToDouble( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt16",
            Convert.ToInt16( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToInt16( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToInt16( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt32",
            Convert.ToInt32( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToInt32( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToInt32( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt64",
            Convert.ToInt64( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToInt64( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToInt64( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToSByte",
            Convert.ToSByte( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToSByte( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToSByte( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToSingle",
            Convert.ToSingle( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToSingle( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToSingle( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt16",
            Convert.ToUInt16( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToUInt16( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToUInt16( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt32",
            Convert.ToUInt32( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToUInt32( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToUInt32( ds, median ) );
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt64",
            Convert.ToUInt64( ds, null ),
            Convert.ToUInt64( ds, geMean ),
            Convert.ToUInt64( ds, median ) );
    }

    public static void Main( )
    {
        Console.WriteLine( "This example of " +
            "the Convert.To<Type>( object, IFormatProvider ) methods " +
            "\ngenerates the following output. The example " +
            "displays the values \nreturned by the methods, " +
            "using several IFormatProvider objects.\n" );

        DataSet ds1 = new DataSet(
            10.5, 22.2, 45.9, 88.7, 156.05, 297.6 );
        DisplayDataSet( ds1 );

        DataSet ds2 = new DataSet(
            359999.95, 425000, 499999.5, 775000, 1695000 );
        DisplayDataSet( ds2 );
    }
}

/*
This example of the Convert.To<Type>( object, IFormatProvider ) methods
generates the following output. The example displays the values
returned by the methods, using several IFormatProvider objects.

DataSet: [10.5, 22.2, 45.9, 88.7, 156.05, 297.6]

Convert.                 Default      Geometric Mean              Median
--------                 -------      --------------              ------
ToBoolean                   True                True                True
ToByte                       103                  59                  67
ToChar                         g                   ;                   C
ToDateTime   2003-05-13 15:04:12 2003-05-13 15:03:28 2003-05-13 15:03:35
ToDecimal       103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
ToDouble        103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
ToInt16                      103                  59                  67
ToInt32                      103                  59                  67
ToInt64                      103                  59                  67
ToSByte                      103                  59                  67
ToSingle                103.4917            59.43321                67.3
ToUInt16                     103                  59                  67
ToUInt32                     103                  59                  67
ToUInt64                     103                  59                  67

DataSet: [359999.95, 425000, 499999.5, 775000, 1695000]

Convert.                 Default      Geometric Mean              Median
--------                 -------      --------------              ------
ToBoolean                   True                True                True
ToByte                       255                 255                 255
ToChar                         ?                   ?                   ?
ToDateTime   2003-05-22 07:39:08 2003-05-20 22:28:45 2003-05-19 09:55:48
ToDecimal              750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
ToDouble               750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
ToInt16                    32767               32767               32767
ToInt32                   751000              631577              500000
ToInt64                   751000              631577              500000
ToSByte                      127                 127                 127
ToSingle                750999.9            631577.3            499999.5
ToUInt16                   65535               65535               65535
ToUInt32                  751000              631577              500000
ToUInt64                  751000              631577              500000
*/
open System
open System.Collections

// Define the types of averaging available in the class
// implementing IConvertible.
type AverageType =
    | None = 0s
    | GeometricMean = 1s
    | ArithmeticMean = 2s
    | Median = 3s

// Pass an instance of this class to methods that require an
// IFormatProvider. The class instance determines the type of
// average to calculate.
[<AllowNullLiteral>]
type AverageInfo(avgType: AverageType) =
    // Use this property to set or get the type of averaging.
    member val TypeOfAverage = avgType with get, set 
    
    interface IFormatProvider with
        // This method returns a reference to the containing object
        // if an object of AverageInfo type is requested.
        member this.GetFormat(argType: Type) =
            if argType = typeof<AverageInfo> then
                this
            else
                null

// This class encapsulates an array of double values and implements
// the IConvertible interface. Most of the IConvertible methods
// an average of the array elements in one of three types:
// arithmetic mean, geometric mean, or median.
type DataSet([<ParamArray>] values: double[]) =
    let data = ResizeArray values
    let defaultProvider =
        AverageInfo AverageType.ArithmeticMean

    // Add additional values with this method.
    member _.Add(value: double) =
        data.Add value
        data.Count

    // Get, set, and add values with this indexer property.
    member _.Item
        with get (index) =
            if index >= 0 && index < data.Count then
                data[index]
            else
                raise (InvalidOperationException "[DataSet.get] Index out of range.")
        and set index value =
            if index >= 0 && index < data.Count then
                data[index] <- value
            elif index = data.Count then
                data.Add value
            else
                raise (InvalidOperationException "[DataSet.set] Index out of range.")

    // This property returns the number of elements in the object.
    member _.Count =
        data.Count

    // This method calculates the average of the object's elements.
    member _.Average(avgType: AverageType) =
        if data.Count = 0 then
            0.0
        else
            match avgType with
            | AverageType.GeometricMean ->
                let sumProd =
                    Seq.reduce ( * ) data
                
                // This calculation will not fail with negative
                // elements.
                (sign sumProd |> float) * Math.Pow(abs sumProd, 1.0 / (float data.Count))

            | AverageType.ArithmeticMean ->
                Seq.average data

            | AverageType.Median ->
                if data.Count % 2 = 0 then
                    (data[data.Count / 2] + data[data.Count / 2 - 1]) / 2.0
                else
                    data[ data.Count / 2]
            | _ ->
                0.0

    // Get the AverageInfo object from the caller's format provider,
    // or use the local default.
    member _.GetAverageInfo(provider: IFormatProvider) =
        let avgInfo =
            if provider <> null then
                provider.GetFormat typeof<AverageInfo> :?> AverageInfo
            else 
                null

        if avgInfo = null then
            defaultProvider
        else
            avgInfo

    // Calculate the average and limit the range.
    member this.CalcNLimitAverage(min: double, max: double, provider: IFormatProvider) =
        // Get the format provider and calculate the average.
        let avgInfo = this.GetAverageInfo provider
        let avg = this.Average avgInfo.TypeOfAverage

        // Limit the range, based on the minimum and maximum values
        // for the type.
        if avg > max then max elif avg < min then min else avg

    // The following elements are required by IConvertible.
    interface IConvertible with
        // None of these conversion functions throw exceptions. When
        // the data is out of range for the type, the appropriate
        // MinValue or MaxValue is used.
        member _.GetTypeCode() =
            TypeCode.Object

        member this.ToBoolean(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            // ToBoolean is false if the dataset is empty.
            if data.Count <= 0 then
                false

            // For median averaging, ToBoolean is true if any
            // non-discarded elements are nonzero.
            elif AverageType.Median = this.GetAverageInfo(provider).TypeOfAverage then
                if data.Count % 2 = 0 then
                    (data[data.Count / 2] <> 0.0 || data[data.Count / 2 - 1] <> 0.0)
                else
                    data[data.Count / 2] <> 0.0

            // For arithmetic or geometric mean averaging, ToBoolean is
            // true if any element of the dataset is nonzero.
            else
                Seq.exists (fun x -> x <> 0.0) data

        member this.ToByte(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToByte(this.CalcNLimitAverage(float Byte.MinValue, float Byte.MaxValue, provider) )

        member this.ToChar(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToChar(Convert.ToUInt16(this.CalcNLimitAverage(float Char.MinValue, float Char.MaxValue, provider) ) )

        // Convert to DateTime by adding the calculated average as
        // seconds to the current date and time. A valid DateTime is
        // always returned.
        member this.ToDateTime(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            let seconds = this.Average(this.GetAverageInfo(provider).TypeOfAverage)
            try
                DateTime.Now.AddSeconds seconds
            with :? ArgumentOutOfRangeException ->
                if seconds < 0.0 then DateTime.MinValue else DateTime.MaxValue

        member this.ToDecimal(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            // The Double conversion rounds Decimal.MinValue and
            // Decimal.MaxValue to invalid Decimal values, so the
            // following limits must be used.
            Convert.ToDecimal(this.CalcNLimitAverage(-79228162514264330000000000000.0, 79228162514264330000000000000.0, provider) )

        member this.ToDouble(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            this.Average(this.GetAverageInfo(provider).TypeOfAverage)

        member this.ToInt16(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToInt16(this.CalcNLimitAverage(float Int16.MinValue, float Int16.MaxValue, provider) )

        member this.ToInt32(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToInt32(this.CalcNLimitAverage(Int32.MinValue, Int32.MaxValue, provider) )

        member this.ToInt64(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            // The Double conversion rounds Int64.MinValue and
            // Int64.MaxValue to invalid Int64 values, so the following
            // limits must be used.
            Convert.ToInt64(this.CalcNLimitAverage(-9223372036854775000., 9223372036854775000., provider) )

        member this.ToSByte(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToSByte(this.CalcNLimitAverage(float SByte.MinValue, float SByte.MaxValue, provider) )

        member this.ToSingle(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToSingle(this.CalcNLimitAverage(float Single.MinValue, float Single.MaxValue, provider) )

        member this.ToUInt16(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToUInt16(this.CalcNLimitAverage(float UInt16.MinValue, float UInt16.MaxValue, provider) )

        member this.ToUInt32(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ToUInt32(this.CalcNLimitAverage(float UInt32.MinValue, float UInt32.MaxValue, provider) )

        member this.ToUInt64(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            // The Double conversion rounds UInt64.MaxValue to an invalid
            // UInt64 value, so the following limit must be used.
            Convert.ToUInt64(this.CalcNLimitAverage(0, 18446744073709550000.0, provider) )

        member this.ToType(conversionType: Type, provider: IFormatProvider) =
            Convert.ChangeType(this.Average(this.GetAverageInfo(provider).TypeOfAverage), conversionType)

        member this.ToString(provider: IFormatProvider) =
            let avgType = this.GetAverageInfo(provider).TypeOfAverage
            $"( {avgType}: {this.Average avgType:G10} )"                

// Display a DataSet with three different format providers.
let displayDataSet (ds: DataSet) =
    let fmt obj1 obj2 obj3 obj4 = printfn $"{obj1,-12}{obj2,20}{obj3,20}{obj4,20}"
    let median = AverageInfo AverageType.Median
    let geMean =
        AverageInfo AverageType.GeometricMean

    // Display the dataset elements.
    if ds.Count > 0 then
        printf $"\nDataSet: [{ds[0]}"
        for i = 1 to ds.Count - 1 do
            printf $", {ds[i]}"
        printfn "]\n"

    fmt "Convert." "Default" "Geometric Mean" "Median"
    fmt "--------" "-------" "--------------" "------"
    fmt "ToBoolean"
        (Convert.ToBoolean(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToBoolean(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToBoolean(ds, median))
    fmt "ToByte"
        (Convert.ToByte(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToByte(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToByte(ds, median))
    fmt "ToChar"
        (Convert.ToChar(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToChar(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToChar(ds, median))
    printfn $"""{"ToDateTime",-12}{Convert.ToDateTime(ds, null).ToString "20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"}{Convert.ToDateTime(ds, geMean).ToString "20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"}{Convert.ToDateTime(ds, median).ToString "20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss"}"""

    fmt "ToDecimal"
        (Convert.ToDecimal(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToDecimal(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToDecimal(ds, median))
    fmt "ToDouble"
        (Convert.ToDouble(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToDouble(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToDouble(ds, median))
    fmt "ToInt16"
        (Convert.ToInt16(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToInt16(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToInt16(ds, median))
    fmt "ToInt32"
        (Convert.ToInt32(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToInt32(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToInt32(ds, median))
    fmt "ToInt64"
        (Convert.ToInt64(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToInt64(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToInt64(ds, median))
    fmt "ToSByte"
        (Convert.ToSByte(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToSByte(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToSByte(ds, median))
    fmt "ToSingle"
        (Convert.ToSingle(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToSingle(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToSingle(ds, median))
    fmt "ToUInt16"
        (Convert.ToUInt16(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToUInt16(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToUInt16(ds, median))
    fmt "ToUInt32"
        (Convert.ToUInt32(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToUInt32(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToUInt32(ds, median))
    fmt "ToUInt64"
        (Convert.ToUInt64(ds, null))
        (Convert.ToUInt64(ds, geMean))
        (Convert.ToUInt64(ds, median))

printfn
    """This example of the Convert.To<Type>( object, IFormatprovider) methods 
generates the following output. The example displays the values 
returned by the methods, using several IFormatProvider objects.
"""

let ds1 = DataSet(10.5, 22.2, 45.9, 88.7, 156.05, 297.6)
displayDataSet ds1

let ds2 = DataSet(359999.95, 425000, 499999.5, 775000, 1695000)
displayDataSet ds2

// This example of the Convert.To<Type>( object, IFormatprovider) methods
// generates the following output. The example displays the values
// returned by the methods, using several IFormatProvider objects.
//
// DataSet: [10.5, 22.2, 45.9, 88.7, 156.05, 297.6]
//
// Convert.                 Default      Geometric Mean              Median
// --------                 -------      --------------              ------
// ToBoolean                   True                True                True
// ToByte                       103                  59                  67
// ToChar                         g                   ;                   C
// ToDateTime   2003-05-13 15:04:12 2003-05-13 15:03:28 2003-05-13 15:03:35
// ToDecimal       103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
// ToDouble        103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
// ToInt16                      103                  59                  67
// ToInt32                      103                  59                  67
// ToInt64                      103                  59                  67
// ToSByte                      103                  59                  67
// ToSingle                103.4917            59.43321                67.3
// ToUInt16                     103                  59                  67
// ToUInt32                     103                  59                  67
// ToUInt64                     103                  59                  67
//
// DataSet: [359999.95, 425000, 499999.5, 775000, 1695000]
//
// Convert.                 Default      Geometric Mean              Median
// --------                 -------      --------------              ------
// ToBoolean                   True                True                True
// ToByte                       255                 255                 255
// ToChar                         ?                   ?                   ?
// ToDateTime   2003-05-22 07:39:08 2003-05-20 22:28:45 2003-05-19 09:55:48
// ToDecimal              750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
// ToDouble               750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
// ToInt16                    32767               32767               32767
// ToInt32                   751000              631577              500000
// ToInt64                   751000              631577              500000
// ToSByte                      127                 127                 127
// ToSingle                750999.9            631577.3            499999.5
// ToUInt16                   65535               65535               65535
// ToUInt32                  751000              631577              500000
// ToUInt64                  751000              631577              500000
Imports System.Collections

Module IConvertibleProviderDemo

    ' Define the types of averaging available in the class 
    ' implementing IConvertible.
    Enum AverageType as Short
        None = 0
        GeometricMean = 1
        ArithmeticMean = 2
        Median = 3
    End Enum

    ' Pass an instance of this class to methods that require an 
    ' IFormatProvider. The class instance determines the type of 
    ' average to calculate.
    Public Class AverageInfo
        Implements IFormatProvider

        Protected  AvgType      As AverageType

        ' Specify the type of averaging in the constructor.
        Public Sub New( avgType As AverageType )
            Me.AvgType = avgType
        End Sub

        ' This method returns a reference to the containing object 
        ' if an object of AverageInfo type is requested. 
        Public Function GetFormat( argType As Type ) As Object _
            Implements IFormatProvider.GetFormat

            If argType Is GetType( AverageInfo ) Then
                Return Me
            Else
                Return Nothing
            End If
        End Function 

        ' Use this property to set or get the type of averaging.
        Public Property TypeOfAverage( ) As AverageType
            Get
                Return Me.AvgType
            End Get
            Set( ByVal value as AverageType )
                Me.AvgType = value
            End Set
        End Property
    End Class 

    ' This class encapsulates an array of Double values and implements 
    ' the IConvertible interface. Most of the IConvertible methods 
    ' return an average of the array elements in one of three types: 
    ' arithmetic mean, geometric mean, or median. 
    Public Class DataSet
        Implements IConvertible

        Protected data              As ArrayList
        Protected defaultProvider   As AverageInfo
           
        ' Construct the object and add an initial list of values.
        ' Create a default format provider.
        Public Sub New( ParamArray values( ) As Double )
            data = New ArrayList( values )
            defaultProvider = New AverageInfo( _
                AverageType.ArithmeticMean )  
        End Sub
           
        ' Add additional values with this method.
        Public Function Add( value As Double ) As Integer
            data.Add( value )
            Return data.Count
        End Function
           
        ' Get, set, and add values with this indexer property.
        Default Public Property Item(index As Integer) As Double
            Get
                If index >= 0 AndAlso index < data.Count Then
                    Return System.Convert.ToDouble( data( index ) )
                Else
                    Throw New InvalidOperationException( _
                        "[DataSet.get] Index out of range." )
                End If
            End Get
            Set
                If index >= 0 AndAlso index < data.Count Then
                    data( index ) = value
                 
                ElseIf index = data.Count Then
                    data.Add( value )
                Else
                    Throw New InvalidOperationException( _
                        "[DataSet.set] Index out of range." )
                End If
            End Set
        End Property
          
        ' This property returns the number of elements in the object.
        Public ReadOnly Property Count( ) As Integer
            Get
                Return data.Count
            End Get
        End Property

        ' This method calculates the average of the object's elements.
        Protected Function Average( ByVal avgType As AverageType ) As Double

            Dim SumProd As Double 
            Dim Index   As Integer

            If data.Count = 0 Then Return 0.0

            Select Case avgType
                
                Case AverageType.GeometricMean

                    SumProd = 1.0
                    For Index = 0 To data.Count - 1
                        SumProd *= data( Index )
                    Next Index
                    
                    ' This calculation will not fail with negative 
                    ' elements.
                    Return Math.Sign( SumProd ) * Math.Pow( _
                        Math.Abs( SumProd ), 1.0 / data.Count )

                Case AverageType.ArithmeticMean

                    SumProd = 0.0
                    For Index = 0 To data.Count - 1
                        SumProd += data( Index )
                    Next Index

                    Return SumProd / data.Count 

                Case AverageType.Median

                    If data.Count Mod 2 = 0 Then
                        Return ( data( data.Count \ 2 ) + _
                            data( data.Count \ 2 - 1 ) ) / 2.0
                    Else
                        Return data( data.Count \ 2 ) 
                    End If
            End Select
        End Function

        ' Get the AverageInfo object from the caller's format 
        ' provider, or use the local default.
        Protected Function GetAverageInfo( _
            provider As IFormatProvider ) As AverageInfo

            Dim avgInfo As AverageInfo = Nothing

            If Not provider Is Nothing Then
                avgInfo = provider.GetFormat( GetType( AverageInfo ) )
            End If

            Return IIf( avgInfo Is Nothing, defaultProvider, avgInfo )
            
        End Function           

        ' Calculate the average and limit the range.
        Protected Function CalcNLimitAverage( min As Double, _
            max As Double, provider as IFormatProvider ) As Double

            ' Get the format provider and calculate the average.
            Dim avgInfo As AverageInfo = GetAverageInfo( provider )
            Dim avg As Double = Average( avgInfo.TypeOfAverage )

            ' Limit the range, based on the minimum and maximum values 
            ' for the type.
            Return IIf( avg > max, max, IIf( avg < min, min, avg ) )

        End Function

        ' The following elements are required by IConvertible.

        ' None of these conversion functions throw exceptions. When
        ' the data is out of range for the type, the appropriate
        ' MinValue or MaxValue is used.
        Public Function GetTypeCode( ) As TypeCode _
            Implements IConvertible.GetTypeCode
            Return TypeCode.Object
        End Function

        Function ToBoolean( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            Boolean Implements IConvertible.ToBoolean

            ' ToBoolean is false if the dataset is empty.
            If data.Count <= 0 Then
                Return False

            ' For median averaging, ToBoolean is true if any 
            ' non-discarded elements are nonzero.
            ElseIf AverageType.Median = _
                GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage Then

                If data.Count Mod 2 = 0 Then
                    Return ( data( data.Count \ 2 ) <> 0.0 Or _
                        data( data.Count \ 2 - 1 ) <> 0.0 )
                Else
                    Return data( data.Count \ 2 ) <> 0.0
                End If

            ' For arithmetic or geometric mean averaging, ToBoolean is 
            ' true if any element of the dataset is nonzero.  
            Else
                Dim Index As Integer
                For Index = 0 To data.Count - 1
                    If data( Index ) <> 0.0 Then Return True
                Next Index
                Return False
            End If
        End Function

        Function ToByte( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As Byte _
            Implements IConvertible.ToByte
            Return Convert.ToByte( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                Byte.MinValue, Byte.MaxValue, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToChar( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As Char _
            Implements IConvertible.ToChar
            Return Convert.ToChar( Convert.ToUInt16( _
                CalcNLimitAverage( 0.0, &HFFFF, provider ) ) )
        End Function

        ' Convert to DateTime by adding the calculated average as 
        ' seconds to the current date and time. A valid DateTime is 
        ' always returned.
        Function ToDateTime( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            DateTime Implements IConvertible.ToDateTime
            Dim seconds As Double = Average( _
                GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage )
            Try
                Return DateTime.Now.AddSeconds( seconds )
            Catch ex As ArgumentOutOfRangeException 
                Return IIf( seconds < 0.0, DateTime.MinValue, _
                    DateTime.MaxValue )
            End Try
        End Function

        Function ToDecimal( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            Decimal Implements IConvertible.ToDecimal

            ' The Double conversion rounds Decimal.MinValue and
            ' Decimal.MaxValue to invalid Decimal values, so the 
            ' following limits must be used.
            Return Convert.ToDecimal( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                -79228162514264330000000000000.0, _
                79228162514264330000000000000.0, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToDouble( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider) As _
            Double Implements IConvertible.ToDouble
            Return Average( GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage )
        End Function

        Function ToInt16( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            Short Implements IConvertible.ToInt16
            Return Convert.ToInt16( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                Int16.MinValue, Int16.MaxValue, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToInt32( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            Integer Implements IConvertible.ToInt32
            Return Convert.ToInt32( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                Int32.MinValue, Int32.MaxValue, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToInt64( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As Long _
            Implements IConvertible.ToInt64

            ' The Double conversion rounds Int64.MinValue and 
            ' Int64.MaxValue to invalid Long values, so the following 
            ' limits must be used.
            Return Convert.ToInt64( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                -9223372036854775000, 9223372036854775000, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToSByte( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            SByte Implements IConvertible.ToSByte

            ' SByte.MinValue and SByte.MaxValue are not defined in
            ' Visual Basic.
            Return Convert.ToSByte( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                -128, 127, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToSingle( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            Single Implements IConvertible.ToSingle
            Return Convert.ToSingle( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                Single.MinValue, Single.MaxValue, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToUInt16( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            UInt16 Implements IConvertible.ToUInt16

            ' UInt16.MinValue and UInt16.MaxValue are not defined in 
            ' Visual Basic.
            Return Convert.ToUInt16( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                0, &HFFFF, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToUInt32( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            UInt32 Implements IConvertible.ToUInt32

            ' UInt32.MinValue and UInt32.MaxValue are not defined in 
            ' Visual Basic.
            Return Convert.ToUInt32( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                0, 4294967295, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToUInt64( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider ) As _
            UInt64 Implements IConvertible.ToUInt64

            ' UInt64.MinValue and UInt64.MaxValue are not defined in 
            ' Visual Basic. The Double conversion would have rounded 
            ' UInt64.MaxValue, so the following limit must be used.
            Return Convert.ToUInt64( CalcNLimitAverage( _
                0, 18446744073709550000.0, provider ) )
        End Function

        Function ToType( ByVal conversionType As Type, _
            ByVal provider As IFormatProvider) As Object _
            Implements IConvertible.ToType
            Return Convert.ChangeType( Average( GetAverageInfo( _
                provider ).TypeOfAverage ), conversionType )
        End Function

        Overloads Function ToString( ByVal provider As IFormatProvider _
            ) As String Implements IConvertible.ToString
            Dim avgType as AverageType = _
                GetAverageInfo( provider ).TypeOfAverage
            Return String.Format( "( {0}: {1:G10} )", avgType, _
                Average( avgType ) )
        End Function
    End Class
   
    ' Display a DataSet with three different format providers.
    Sub DisplayDataSet( ds As DataSet )

        Dim fmt    As String      = "{0,-12}{1,20}{2,20}{3,20}"
        Dim median As AverageInfo = New AverageInfo( AverageType.Median )
        Dim geMean As AverageInfo = _
            New AverageInfo( AverageType.GeometricMean )
        Dim iX     As Integer

        ' Display the dataset elements.
        If ds.Count > 0 Then
            Console.Write( vbCrLf & "DataSet: [{0}", ds( 0 ) )
            For iX = 1 To ds.Count - 1
                Console.Write( ", {0}", ds( iX ) )
            Next iX
            Console.WriteLine( "]" & vbCrLf )
        End If

        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "Convert.", "Default", _
            "Geometric Mean", "Median" )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "--------", "-------", _
            "--------------", "------" )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToBoolean", _
            Convert.ToBoolean( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToBoolean( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToBoolean( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToByte", _
            Convert.ToByte( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToByte( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToByte( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToChar", _
            Convert.ToChar( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToChar( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToChar( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( "{0,-12}{1,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}" & _
            "{2,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}{3,20:yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss}", _
            "ToDateTime", Convert.ToDateTime( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToDateTime( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToDateTime( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToDecimal", _
            Convert.ToDecimal( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToDecimal( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToDecimal( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToDouble", _
            Convert.ToDouble( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToDouble( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToDouble( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt16", _
            Convert.ToInt16( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToInt16( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToInt16( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt32", _
            Convert.ToInt32( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToInt32( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToInt32( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToInt64", _
            Convert.ToInt64( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToInt64( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToInt64( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToSByte", _
            Convert.ToSByte( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToSByte( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToSByte( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToSingle", _
            Convert.ToSingle( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToSingle( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToSingle( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt16", _
            Convert.ToUInt16( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToUInt16( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToUInt16( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt32", _
            Convert.ToUInt32( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToUInt32( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToUInt32( ds, median ) )
        Console.WriteLine( fmt, "ToUInt64", _
            Convert.ToUInt64( ds, Nothing ), _
            Convert.ToUInt64( ds, geMean ), _
            Convert.ToUInt64( ds, median ) )
    End Sub
   
    Sub Main( )
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "This example of the Convert.To<Type>( Object, " & _
            "IFormatProvider ) methods " & vbCrLf & "generates " & _
            "the following output. The example displays the " & _
            "values " & vbCrLf & "returned by the methods, " & _
            "using several IFormatProvider objects." & vbCrLf )
          
        Dim ds1 As New DataSet( 10.5, 22.2, 45.9, 88.7, 156.05, 297.6 )
        DisplayDataSet( ds1 )
          
        Dim ds2 As New DataSet( _
            359999.95, 425000, 499999.5, 775000, 1695000 )
        DisplayDataSet( ds2 )
    End Sub 
End Module 

' This example of the Convert.To<Type>( Object, IFormatProvider ) methods
' generates the following output. The example displays the values
' returned by the methods, using several IFormatProvider objects.
' 
' DataSet: [10.5, 22.2, 45.9, 88.7, 156.05, 297.6]
' 
' Convert.                 Default      Geometric Mean              Median
' --------                 -------      --------------              ------
' ToBoolean                   True                True                True
' ToByte                       103                  59                  67
' ToChar                         g                   ;                   C
' ToDateTime   2003-05-13 14:52:53 2003-05-13 14:52:09 2003-05-13 14:52:17
' ToDecimal       103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
' ToDouble        103.491666666667    59.4332135445164                67.3
' ToInt16                      103                  59                  67
' ToInt32                      103                  59                  67
' ToInt64                      103                  59                  67
' ToSByte                      103                  59                  67
' ToSingle                103.4917            59.43321                67.3
' ToUInt16                     103                  59                  67
' ToUInt32                     103                  59                  67
' ToUInt64                     103                  59                  67
' 
' DataSet: [359999.95, 425000, 499999.5, 775000, 1695000]
' 
' Convert.                 Default      Geometric Mean              Median
' --------                 -------      --------------              ------
' ToBoolean                   True                True                True
' ToByte                       255                 255                 255
' ToChar                         ?                   ?                   ?
' ToDateTime   2003-05-22 07:27:49 2003-05-20 22:17:27 2003-05-19 09:44:29
' ToDecimal              750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
' ToDouble               750999.89    631577.237188435            499999.5
' ToInt16                    32767               32767               32767
' ToInt32                   751000              631577              500000
' ToInt64                   751000              631577              500000
' ToSByte                      127                 127                 127
' ToSingle                750999.9            631577.3            499999.5
' ToUInt16                   65535               65535               65535
' ToUInt32                  751000              631577              500000
' ToUInt64                  751000              631577              500000

Комментарии

provider позволяет пользователю указывать сведения о преобразовании, относящиеся к языку valueи региональным параметрам. Например, если value это String число, может предоставить сведения о нотации, используемой для представления этого числа, provider с учетом языка и региональных параметров.

Базовые типы игнорируют provider; однако параметр может использоваться, если value является определяемым пользователем типом, реализующим IConvertible интерфейс.

Применяется к

ToInt16(UInt64)

Важно!

Этот API несовместим с CLS.

Преобразует значение заданного 64-битового целого числа без знака в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

public:
 static short ToInt16(System::UInt64 value);
[System.CLSCompliant(false)]
public static short ToInt16 (ulong value);
[<System.CLSCompliant(false)>]
static member ToInt16 : uint64 -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As ULong) As Short

Параметры

value
UInt64

64-разрядное целое число без знака для преобразования.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

16-разрядное целое число со знаком, которое эквивалентно значению value.

Атрибуты

Исключения

Примеры

В следующем примере предпринимается попытка преобразовать каждый элемент в массиве целых чисел без знака в 16-разрядное целое число со знаком.

ulong[] numbers = { UInt64.MinValue, 121, 340, UInt64.MaxValue };
short result;

foreach (ulong number in numbers)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt16(number);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to a {2} value {3}.",
                        number.GetType().Name, number,
                        result.GetType().Name, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException) {
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int16 type.",
                        number.GetType().Name, number);
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the UInt64 value 0 to a Int16 value 0.
//    Converted the UInt64 value 121 to a Int16 value 121.
//    Converted the UInt64 value 340 to a Int16 value 340.
//    The UInt64 value 18446744073709551615 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
let numbers = 
    [| UInt64.MinValue; 121uL; 340uL; UInt64.MaxValue |]

for number in numbers do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt16 number
        printfn $"Converted the {number.GetType().Name} value {number} to a {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"The {number.GetType().Name} value {number} is outside the range of the Int16 type."
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the UInt64 value 0 to a Int16 value 0.
//    Converted the UInt64 value 121 to a Int16 value 121.
//    Converted the UInt64 value 340 to a Int16 value 340.
//    The UInt64 value 18446744073709551615 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
Dim numbers() As ULong = { UInt64.MinValue, 121, 340, UInt64.MaxValue }
Dim result As Short
For Each number As ULong In numbers
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt16(number)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to a {2} value {3}.", _
                        number.GetType().Name, number, _
                        result.GetType().Name, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int16 type.", _
                        number.GetType().Name, number)
   End Try
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    Converted the UInt64 value 0 to a Int16 value 0.
'    Converted the UInt64 value 121 to a Int16 value 121.
'    Converted the UInt64 value 340 to a Int16 value 340.
'    The UInt64 value 18446744073709551615 is outside the range of the Int16 type.

Применяется к

ToInt16(UInt32)

Важно!

Этот API несовместим с CLS.

Преобразует значение заданного 32-битового целого числа без знака в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

public:
 static short ToInt16(System::UInt32 value);
[System.CLSCompliant(false)]
public static short ToInt16 (uint value);
[<System.CLSCompliant(false)>]
static member ToInt16 : uint32 -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As UInteger) As Short

Параметры

value
UInt32

32-разрядное целое число без знака для преобразования.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

16-разрядное целое число со знаком, которое эквивалентно значению value.

Атрибуты

Исключения

Примеры

В следующем примере предпринимается попытка преобразовать каждый элемент в массиве целых чисел без знака в 16-разрядное целое число со знаком.

uint[] numbers = { UInt32.MinValue, 121, 340, UInt32.MaxValue };
short result;

foreach (uint number in numbers)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt16(number);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to a {2} value {3}.",
                        number.GetType().Name, number,
                        result.GetType().Name, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException) {
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int16 type.",
                        number.GetType().Name, number);
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the UInt32 value 0 to a Int16 value 0.
//    Converted the UInt32 value 121 to a Int16 value 121.
//    Converted the UInt32 value 340 to a Int16 value 340.
//    The UInt32 value 4294967295 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
let numbers =
    [| UInt32.MinValue; 121u; 340u; UInt32.MaxValue |]

for number in numbers do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt16 number
        printfn $"Converted the {number.GetType().Name} value {number} to a {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"The {number.GetType().Name} value {number} is outside the range of the Int16 type."
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the UInt32 value 0 to a Int16 value 0.
//    Converted the UInt32 value 121 to a Int16 value 121.
//    Converted the UInt32 value 340 to a Int16 value 340.
//    The UInt32 value 4294967295 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
Dim numbers() As UInteger = { UInt32.MinValue, 121, 340, UInt32.MaxValue }
Dim result As Short
For Each number As UInteger In numbers
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt16(number)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to a {2} value {3}.", _
                        number.GetType().Name, number, _
                        result.GetType().Name, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int16 type.", _
                        number.GetType().Name, number)
   End Try
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    Converted the UInt32 value 0 to a Int16 value 0.
'    Converted the UInt32 value 121 to a Int16 value 121.
'    Converted the UInt32 value 340 to a Int16 value 340.
'    The UInt32 value 4294967295 is outside the range of the Int16 type.

Применяется к

ToInt16(UInt16)

Важно!

Этот API несовместим с CLS.

Преобразует значение заданного 16-битового целого числа без знака в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

public:
 static short ToInt16(System::UInt16 value);
[System.CLSCompliant(false)]
public static short ToInt16 (ushort value);
[<System.CLSCompliant(false)>]
static member ToInt16 : uint16 -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As UShort) As Short

Параметры

value
UInt16

16-разрядное целое число без знака для преобразования.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

16-разрядное целое число со знаком, которое эквивалентно значению value.

Атрибуты

Исключения

Примеры

В следующем примере предпринимается попытка преобразовать каждый элемент в массиве 16-разрядных целых чисел без знака в 16-разрядное целое число со знаком.

ushort[] numbers = { UInt16.MinValue, 121, 340, UInt16.MaxValue };
short result;
foreach (ushort number in numbers)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt16(number);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to a {2} value {3}.",
                        number.GetType().Name, number,
                        result.GetType().Name, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException) {
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int16 type.",
                        number.GetType().Name, number);
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       Converted the UInt16 value 0 to a Int16 value 0.
//       Converted the UInt16 value 121 to a Int16 value 121.
//       Converted the UInt16 value 340 to a Int16 value 340.
//       The UInt16 value 65535 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
let numbers = 
    [| UInt16.MinValue; 121us; 340us; UInt16.MaxValue |]

for number in numbers do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt16 number
        printfn $"Converted the {number.GetType().Name} value {number} to a {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"The {number.GetType().Name} value {number} is outside the range of the Int16 type."
// The example displays the following output:
//       Converted the UInt16 value 0 to a Int16 value 0.
//       Converted the UInt16 value 121 to a Int16 value 121.
//       Converted the UInt16 value 340 to a Int16 value 340.
//       The UInt16 value 65535 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
Dim numbers() As UShort = { UInt16.MinValue, 121, 340, UInt16.MaxValue }
Dim result As Short
For Each number As UShort In numbers
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt16(number)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to a {2} value {3}.", _
                        number.GetType().Name, number, _
                        result.GetType().Name, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int16 type.", _
                        number.GetType().Name, number)
   End Try
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'       Converted the UInt16 value 0 to a Int16 value 0.
'       Converted the UInt16 value 121 to a Int16 value 121.
'       Converted the UInt16 value 340 to a Int16 value 340.
'       The UInt16 value 65535 is outside the range of the Int16 type.

Применяется к

ToInt16(String)

Преобразует заданное строковое представление числа в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

public:
 static short ToInt16(System::String ^ value);
public static short ToInt16 (string value);
public static short ToInt16 (string? value);
static member ToInt16 : string -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As String) As Short

Параметры

value
String

Строка, содержащая преобразуемое число.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

16-разрядное знаковое целое число, которое эквивалентно значению параметра value, или 0 (нуль), если value имеет значение null.

Исключения

value не состоит из необязательного знака, за которым следует последовательность цифр (0–9).

value представляет число, которое меньше Int16.MinValue или больше Int16.MaxValue.

Примеры

В следующем примере преобразуются строковые представления 16-разрядных целых чисел с ToInt16 помощью метода с использованием форматирования по умолчанию.

// Example of the Convert::ToInt16( String* ) and 
// Convert::ToInt16( String*, IFormatProvider* ) methods.
using namespace System;
using namespace System::Globalization;
const __wchar_t * protoFmt = L"{0,-20}{1,-20}{2}";

// Get the exception type name; remove the namespace prefix.
String^ GetExceptionType( Exception^ ex )
{
   String^ exceptionType = ex->GetType()->ToString();
   return exceptionType->Substring( exceptionType->LastIndexOf( '.' ) + 1 );
}

void ConvertToInt16( String^ numericStr, IFormatProvider^ provider )
{
   Object^ defaultValue;
   Object^ providerValue;
   
   // Convert numericStr to Int16 without a format provider.
   try
   {
      defaultValue = Convert::ToInt16( numericStr );
   }
   catch ( Exception^ ex ) 
   {
      defaultValue = GetExceptionType( ex );
   }

   
   // Convert numericStr to Int16 with a format provider.
   try
   {
      providerValue = Convert::ToInt16( numericStr, provider );
   }
   catch ( Exception^ ex ) 
   {
      providerValue = GetExceptionType( ex );
   }

   Console::WriteLine( gcnew String( protoFmt ), numericStr, defaultValue, providerValue );
}

int main()
{
   
   // Create a NumberFormatInfo object and set several of its
   // properties that apply to numbers.
   NumberFormatInfo^ provider = gcnew NumberFormatInfo;
   
   // These properties affect the conversion.
   provider->NegativeSign = "neg ";
   provider->PositiveSign = "pos ";
   
   // These properties do not affect the conversion.
   // The input string cannot have decimal and group separators.
   provider->NumberDecimalSeparator = ".";
   provider->NumberGroupSeparator = ",";
   array<Int32>^sizes = {3};
   provider->NumberGroupSizes = sizes;
   provider->NumberNegativePattern = 0;
   Console::WriteLine( "This example of\n"
   "  Convert::ToInt16( String* ) and \n"
   "  Convert::ToInt16( String*, IFormatProvider* ) "
   "\ngenerates the following output. It converts "
   "several strings to \nshort values, using "
   "default formatting or a NumberFormatInfo object.\n" );
   Console::WriteLine( gcnew String( protoFmt ), "String to convert", "Default/exception", "Provider/exception" );
   Console::WriteLine( gcnew String( protoFmt ), "-----------------", "-----------------", "------------------" );
   
   // Convert strings, with and without an IFormatProvider.
   ConvertToInt16( "12345", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "+12345", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "pos 12345", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "-12345", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "neg 12345", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "12345.", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "12,345", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "(12345)", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "32768", provider );
   ConvertToInt16( "-32769", provider );
}

/*
This example of
  Convert::ToInt16( String* ) and
  Convert::ToInt16( String*, IFormatProvider* )
generates the following output. It converts several strings to
short values, using default formatting or a NumberFormatInfo object.

String to convert   Default/exception   Provider/exception
-----------------   -----------------   ------------------
12345               12345               12345
+12345              12345               FormatException
pos 12345           FormatException     12345
-12345              -12345              FormatException
neg 12345           FormatException     -12345
12345.              FormatException     FormatException
12,345              FormatException     FormatException
(12345)             FormatException     FormatException
32768               OverflowException   OverflowException
-32769              OverflowException   FormatException
*/
// Example of the Convert.ToInt16( string ) and
// Convert.ToInt16( string, IFormatProvider ) methods.
using System;
using System.Globalization;

class ToInt16ProviderDemo
{
    static string format = "{0,-20}{1,-20}{2}";

     // Get the exception type name; remove the namespace prefix.
    static string GetExceptionType( Exception ex )
    {
        string exceptionType = ex.GetType( ).ToString( );
        return exceptionType.Substring(
            exceptionType.LastIndexOf( '.' ) + 1 );
    }

    static void ConvertToInt16( string numericStr,
        IFormatProvider provider )
    {
        object defaultValue;
        object providerValue;

        // Convert numericStr to Int16 without a format provider.
        try
        {
            defaultValue = Convert.ToInt16( numericStr );
        }
        catch( Exception ex )
        {
            defaultValue = GetExceptionType( ex );
        }

        // Convert numericStr to Int16 with a format provider.
        try
        {
            providerValue = Convert.ToInt16( numericStr, provider );
        }
        catch( Exception ex )
        {
            providerValue = GetExceptionType( ex );
        }

        Console.WriteLine( format, numericStr,
            defaultValue, providerValue );
    }

    public static void Main( )
    {
        // Create a NumberFormatInfo object and set several of its
        // properties that apply to numbers.
        NumberFormatInfo provider = new NumberFormatInfo();

        // These properties affect the conversion.
        provider.NegativeSign = "neg ";
        provider.PositiveSign = "pos ";

        // These properties do not affect the conversion.
        // The input string cannot have decimal and group separators.
        provider.NumberDecimalSeparator = ".";
        provider.NumberGroupSeparator = ",";
        provider.NumberGroupSizes = new int[ ] { 3 };
        provider.NumberNegativePattern = 0;

        Console.WriteLine("This example of\n" +
            "  Convert.ToInt16( string ) and \n" +
            "  Convert.ToInt16( string, IFormatProvider ) " +
            "\ngenerates the following output. It converts " +
            "several strings to \nshort values, using " +
            "default formatting or a NumberFormatInfo object.\n" );
        Console.WriteLine( format, "String to convert",
            "Default/exception", "Provider/exception" );
        Console.WriteLine( format, "-----------------",
            "-----------------", "------------------" );

        // Convert strings, with and without an IFormatProvider.
        ConvertToInt16( "12345", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "+12345", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "pos 12345", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "-12345", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "neg 12345", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "12345.", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "12,345", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "(12345)", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "32768", provider );
        ConvertToInt16( "-32769", provider );
    }
}

/*
This example of
  Convert.ToInt16( string ) and
  Convert.ToInt16( string, IFormatProvider )
generates the following output. It converts several strings to
short values, using default formatting or a NumberFormatInfo object.

String to convert   Default/exception   Provider/exception
-----------------   -----------------   ------------------
12345               12345               12345
+12345              12345               FormatException
pos 12345           FormatException     12345
-12345              -12345              FormatException
neg 12345           FormatException     -12345
12345.              FormatException     FormatException
12,345              FormatException     FormatException
(12345)             FormatException     FormatException
32768               OverflowException   OverflowException
-32769              OverflowException   FormatException
*/
// Example of the Convert.ToInt16( string ) and
// Convert.ToInt16( string, IFormatProvider ) methods.
open System
open System.Globalization

let format obj1 obj2 obj3 = printfn $"{obj1,-20}{obj2,-20}{obj3}"

// Get the exception type name; remove the namespace prefix.
let getExceptionType (ex: exn) =
    let exceptionType = ex.GetType() |> string
    exceptionType.Substring(exceptionType.LastIndexOf '.' + 1)

let convertToInt16 (numericStr: string) (provider: IFormatProvider) =
    // Convert numericStr to Int16 without a format provider.
    let defaultValue = 
        try
            Convert.ToInt16 numericStr
            |> string
        with ex ->
            getExceptionType ex

    // Convert numericStr to Int16 with a format provider.
    let providerValue = 
        try
            Convert.ToInt16(numericStr, provider)
            |> string
        with ex ->
            getExceptionType ex

    format numericStr defaultValue providerValue

// Create a NumberFormatInfo object and set several of its
// properties that apply to numbers.
let provider = NumberFormatInfo()

// These properties affect the conversion.
provider.NegativeSign <- "neg "
provider.PositiveSign <- "pos "

// These properties do not affect the conversion.
// The input string cannot have decimal and group separators.
provider.NumberDecimalSeparator <- "."
provider.NumberGroupSeparator <- ","
provider.NumberGroupSizes <- [| 3 |]
provider.NumberNegativePattern <- 0

printfn
    """This example of
  Convert.ToInt16( string ) and 
  Convert.ToInt16( string, IFormatProvider ) 
generates the following output. It converts several strings to 
short values, using default formatting or a NumberFormatInfo object.
"""
format "String to convert" "Default/exception" "Provider/exception"
format "-----------------" "-----------------" "------------------"

// Convert strings, with and without an IFormatProvider.
convertToInt16 "12345" provider
convertToInt16 "+12345" provider
convertToInt16 "pos 12345" provider
convertToInt16 "-12345" provider
convertToInt16 "neg 12345" provider
convertToInt16 "12345." provider
convertToInt16 "12,345" provider
convertToInt16 "(12345)" provider
convertToInt16 "32768" provider
convertToInt16 "-32769" provider

// This example of
//   Convert.ToInt16( string ) and
//   Convert.ToInt16( string, IFormatProvider )
// generates the following output. It converts several strings to
// short values, using default formatting or a NumberFormatInfo object.
//
// String to convert   Default/exception   Provider/exception
// -----------------   -----------------   ------------------
// 12345               12345               12345
// +12345              12345               FormatException
// pos 12345           FormatException     12345
// -12345              -12345              FormatException
// neg 12345           FormatException     -12345
// 12345.              FormatException     FormatException
// 12,345              FormatException     FormatException
// (12345)             FormatException     FormatException
// 32768               OverflowException   OverflowException
// -32769              OverflowException   FormatException
' Example of the Convert.ToInt16( String ) and 
' Convert.ToInt16( String, IFormatProvider ) methods.
Imports System.Globalization

Module ToInt16ProviderDemo

    Dim format As String = "{0,-20}{1,-20}{2}"

    ' Get the exception type name; remove the namespace prefix.
    Function GetExceptionType( ex As Exception ) As String

        Dim exceptionType   As String = ex.GetType( ).ToString( )
        Return exceptionType.Substring( _
            exceptionType.LastIndexOf( "."c ) + 1 )
    End Function

    Sub ConvertToInt16( numericStr As String, _
        provider As IFormatProvider )

        Dim defaultValue    As Object
        Dim providerValue   As Object

        ' Convert numericStr to Int16 without a format provider.
        Try
            defaultValue = Convert.ToInt16( numericStr )
        Catch ex As Exception
            defaultValue = GetExceptionType( ex )
        End Try

        ' Convert numericStr to Int16 with a format provider.
        Try
            providerValue = Convert.ToInt16( numericStr, provider )
        Catch ex As Exception
            providerValue = GetExceptionType( ex )
        End Try

        Console.WriteLine( format, numericStr, _
            defaultValue, providerValue )
    End Sub

    Sub Main( )

        ' Create a NumberFormatInfo object and set several of its
        ' properties that apply to numbers.
        Dim provider  As NumberFormatInfo = new NumberFormatInfo( )

        ' These properties affect the conversion.
        provider.NegativeSign = "neg "
        provider.PositiveSign = "pos "

        ' These properties do not affect the conversion.
        ' The input string cannot have decimal and group separators.
        provider.NumberDecimalSeparator = "."
        provider.NumberGroupSeparator = ","
        provider.NumberGroupSizes = New Integer( ) { 3 }
        provider.NumberNegativePattern = 0

        Console.WriteLine( "This example of" & vbCrLf & _
            "  Convert.ToInt16( String ) and " & vbCrLf & _
            "  Convert.ToInt16( String, IFormatProvider ) " & _
            vbCrLf & "generates the following output. It " & _
            "converts several strings to " & vbCrLf & "Short " & _
            "values, using default formatting " & _
            "or a NumberFormatInfo object." & vbCrLf )
        Console.WriteLine( format, "String to convert", _
            "Default/exception", "Provider/exception" )
        Console.WriteLine( format, "-----------------", _
            "-----------------", "------------------" )

        ' Convert strings, with and without an IFormatProvider.
        ConvertToInt16( "12345", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "+12345", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "pos 12345", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "-12345", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "neg 12345", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "12345.", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "12,345", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "(12345)", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "32768", provider )
        ConvertToInt16( "-32769", provider )
    End Sub 
End Module 

' This example of
'   Convert.ToInt16( String ) and
'   Convert.ToInt16( String, IFormatProvider )
' generates the following output. It converts several strings to
' Short values, using default formatting or a NumberFormatInfo object.
' 
' String to convert   Default/exception   Provider/exception
' -----------------   -----------------   ------------------
' 12345               12345               12345
' +12345              12345               FormatException
' pos 12345           FormatException     12345
' -12345              -12345              FormatException
' neg 12345           FormatException     -12345
' 12345.              FormatException     FormatException
' 12,345              FormatException     FormatException
' (12345)             FormatException     FormatException
' 32768               OverflowException   OverflowException
' -32769              OverflowException   FormatException

Комментарии

ToInt16(String) Использование метода эквивалентно передаче value в Int16.Parse(String) метод. value интерпретируется с помощью соглашений о форматировании текущего языка и региональных параметров.

Если вы предпочитаете не обрабатывать исключение при сбое преобразования, можно вызвать Int16.TryParse метод. Он возвращает Boolean значение, указывающее, успешно ли выполнено преобразование или завершилось сбоем.

См. также раздел

Применяется к

ToInt16(Single)

Преобразует значение заданного числа с плавающей запятой одиночной точности в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

public:
 static short ToInt16(float value);
public static short ToInt16 (float value);
static member ToInt16 : single -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As Single) As Short

Параметры

value
Single

Число с плавающей запятой одиночной точности, которое нужно преобразовать.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

Значение value, округленное до ближайшего 16-разрядного целого числа со знаком. Если value имеет среднее значение между двумя целыми числами, будет возвращено четное число; так, значение 4,5 преобразуется в 4, а 5,5 — в 6.

Исключения

value значение больше , чем Int16.MaxValue или меньше , чем Int16.MinValue.

Примеры

В следующем примере предпринимается попытка преобразовать каждый элемент в массиве значений Single в 16-разрядное целое число со знаком.

float[] values = { Single.MinValue, -1.38e10f, -1023.299f, -12.98f,
                   0f, 9.113e-16f, 103.919f, 17834.191f, Single.MaxValue };
short result;

foreach (float value in values)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt16(value);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.",
                        value.GetType().Name, value, result.GetType().Name, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException) {
      Console.WriteLine("{0} is outside the range of the Int16 type.", value);
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    -3.4028235E+38 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
//    -1.38E+10 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
//    Converted the Single value -1023.299 to the Int16 value -1023.
//    Converted the Single value -12.98 to the Int16 value -13.
//    Converted the Single value 0 to the Int16 value 0.
//    Converted the Single value 9.113E-16 to the Int16 value 0.
//    Converted the Single value 103.919 to the Int16 value 104.
//    Converted the Single value 17834.191 to the Int16 value 17834.
//    3.4028235E+38 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
let values = 
    [| Single.MinValue; -1.38e10f; -1023.299f; -12.98f
       0f; 9.113e-16f; 103.919f; 17834.191f; Single.MaxValue |]

for value in values do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt16 value
        printfn $"Converted the {value.GetType().Name} value {value} to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"{value} is outside the range of the Int16 type."
// The example displays the following output:
//    -3.4028235E+38 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
//    -1.38E+10 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
//    Converted the Single value -1023.299 to the Int16 value -1023.
//    Converted the Single value -12.98 to the Int16 value -13.
//    Converted the Single value 0 to the Int16 value 0.
//    Converted the Single value 9.113E-16 to the Int16 value 0.
//    Converted the Single value 103.919 to the Int16 value 104.
//    Converted the Single value 17834.191 to the Int16 value 17834.
//    3.4028235E+38 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
Dim values() As Single = { Single.MinValue, -1.38e10, -1023.299, -12.98, _
                           0, 9.113e-16, 103.919, 17834.191, Single.MaxValue }
Dim result As Short

For Each value As Single In values
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt16(value)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.", _
                        value.GetType().Name, value, result.GetType().Name, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("{0} is outside the range of the Int16 type.", value)
   End Try
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    -3.402823E+38 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
'    -1.38E+10 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
'    Converted the Single value -1023.299 to the Int16 value -1023.
'    Converted the Single value -12.98 to the Int16 value -13.
'    Converted the Single value 0 to the Int16 value 0.
'    Converted the Single value 9.113E-16 to the Int16 value 0.
'    Converted the Single value 103.919 to the Int16 value 104.
'    Converted the Single value 17834.19 to the Int16 value 17834.
'    3.402823E+38 is outside the range of the Int16 type.

См. также раздел

Применяется к

ToInt16(SByte)

Важно!

Этот API несовместим с CLS.

Преобразует значение заданного 8-битового целого числа со знаком в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

public:
 static short ToInt16(System::SByte value);
[System.CLSCompliant(false)]
public static short ToInt16 (sbyte value);
[<System.CLSCompliant(false)>]
static member ToInt16 : sbyte -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As SByte) As Short

Параметры

value
SByte

8-разрядное целое число со знаком для преобразования.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

8-разрядное знаковое целое число, которое эквивалентно значению value.

Атрибуты

Примеры

В следующем примере каждый элемент в массиве подписанных байтов преобразуется в 16-разрядное целое число со знаком.

sbyte[] numbers = { SByte.MinValue, -1, 0, 10, SByte.MaxValue };
short result;

foreach (sbyte number in numbers)
{
   result = Convert.ToInt16(number);
   Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.",
                     number.GetType().Name, number,
                     result.GetType().Name, result);
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       Converted the SByte value -128 to the Int16 value -128.
//       Converted the SByte value -1 to the Int16 value -1.
//       Converted the SByte value 0 to the Int16 value 0.
//       Converted the SByte value 10 to the Int16 value 10.
//       Converted the SByte value 127 to the Int16 value 127.
let numbers = 
    [| SByte.MinValue; -1y; 0y; 10y; SByte.MaxValue |]

for number in numbers do
    let result = Convert.ToInt16 number
    printfn $"Converted the {number.GetType().Name} value {number} to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
// The example displays the following output:
//       Converted the SByte value -128 to the Int16 value -128.
//       Converted the SByte value -1 to the Int16 value -1.
//       Converted the SByte value 0 to the Int16 value 0.
//       Converted the SByte value 10 to the Int16 value 10.
//       Converted the SByte value 127 to the Int16 value 127.
Dim numbers() As SByte = { SByte.MinValue, -1, 0, 10, SByte.MaxValue }
Dim result As Short

For Each number As SByte In numbers
   result = Convert.ToInt16(number)
   Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.", _
                     number.GetType().Name, number, _
                     result.GetType().Name, result)
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'       Converted the SByte value -128 to the Int16 value -128.
'       Converted the SByte value -1 to the Int16 value -1.
'       Converted the SByte value 0 to the Int16 value 0.
'       Converted the SByte value 10 to the Int16 value 10.
'       Converted the SByte value 127 to the Int16 value 127.

Применяется к

ToInt16(Int32)

Преобразует значение заданного 32-битового целого числа со знаком в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

public:
 static short ToInt16(int value);
public static short ToInt16 (int value);
static member ToInt16 : int -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As Integer) As Short

Параметры

value
Int32

32-разрядное целое число со знаком для преобразования.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

16-разрядное целое число со знаком, эквивалентное value.

Исключения

value значение больше , чем Int16.MaxValue или меньше , чем Int16.MinValue.

Примеры

В следующем примере предпринимается попытка преобразовать каждый элемент в массив целых чисел в 16-разрядное целое число со знаком.

int[] numbers = { Int32.MinValue, -1, 0, 121, 340, Int32.MaxValue };
short result;

foreach (int number in numbers)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt16(number);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to a {2} value {3}.",
                        number.GetType().Name, number,
                        result.GetType().Name, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException) {
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int16 type.",
                        number.GetType().Name, number);
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    The Int32 value -2147483648 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
//    Converted the Int32 value -1 to a Int16 value -1.
//    Converted the Int32 value 0 to a Int16 value 0.
//    Converted the Int32 value 121 to a Int16 value 121.
//    Converted the Int32 value 340 to a Int16 value 340.
//    The Int32 value 2147483647 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
let numbers = 
    [| Int32.MinValue; -1; 0; 121; 340; Int32.MaxValue |]

for number in numbers do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt16 number
        printfn $"Converted the {number.GetType().Name} value {number} to a {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"The {number.GetType().Name} value {number} is outside the range of the Int16 type."
// The example displays the following output:
//    The Int32 value -2147483648 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
//    Converted the Int32 value -1 to a Int16 value -1.
//    Converted the Int32 value 0 to a Int16 value 0.
//    Converted the Int32 value 121 to a Int16 value 121.
//    Converted the Int32 value 340 to a Int16 value 340.
//    The Int32 value 2147483647 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
Dim numbers() As Integer = { Int32.MinValue, -1, 0, 121, 340, Int32.MaxValue }
Dim result As Short

For Each number As Integer In numbers
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt16(number)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to a {2} value {3}.", _
                        number.GetType().Name, number, _
                        result.GetType().Name, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int16 type.", _
                        number.GetType().Name, number)
   End Try
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    The Int32 value -2147483648 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
'    Converted the Int32 value -1 to a Int16 value -1.
'    Converted the Int32 value 0 to a Int16 value 0.
'    Converted the Int32 value 121 to a Int16 value 121.
'    Converted the Int32 value 340 to a Int16 value 340.
'    The Int32 value 2147483647 is outside the range of the Int16 type.

Применяется к

ToInt16(Int64)

Преобразует значение заданного 64-битового целого числа со знаком в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

public:
 static short ToInt16(long value);
public static short ToInt16 (long value);
static member ToInt16 : int64 -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As Long) As Short

Параметры

value
Int64

64-разрядное целое число со знаком для преобразования.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

16-разрядное целое число со знаком, которое эквивалентно значению value.

Исключения

value значение больше , чем Int16.MaxValue или меньше , чем Int16.MinValue.

Примеры

В следующем примере предпринимается попытка преобразовать каждый элемент массива длинных целых чисел в 16-разрядное целое число со знаком.

long[] numbers = { Int64.MinValue, -1, 0, 121, 340, Int64.MaxValue };
short result;

foreach (long number in numbers)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt16(number);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.",
                        number.GetType().Name, number,
                        result.GetType().Name, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException) {
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int16 type.",
                        number.GetType().Name, number);
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    The Int64 value -9223372036854775808 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
//    Converted the Int64 value -1 to the Int16 value -1.
//    Converted the Int64 value 0 to the Int16 value 0.
//    Converted the Int64 value 121 to the Int16 value 121.
//    Converted the Int64 value 340 to the Int16 value 340.
//    The Int64 value 9223372036854775807 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
let numbers =
    [| Int64.MinValue; -1; 0; 121; 340; Int64.MaxValue |]

for number in numbers do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt16 number
        printfn $"Converted the {number.GetType().Name} value {number} to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"The {number.GetType().Name} value {number} is outside the range of the Int16 type."
// The example displays the following output:
//    The Int64 value -9223372036854775808 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
//    Converted the Int64 value -1 to the Int16 value -1.
//    Converted the Int64 value 0 to the Int16 value 0.
//    Converted the Int64 value 121 to the Int16 value 121.
//    Converted the Int64 value 340 to the Int16 value 340.
//    The Int64 value 9223372036854775807 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
Dim numbers() As Long = { Int64.MinValue, -1, 0, 121, 340, Int64.MaxValue }
Dim result As Short
For Each number As Long In numbers
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt16(number)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.", _
                        number.GetType().Name, number, _
                        result.GetType().Name, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int16 type.", _
                        number.GetType().Name, number)
   End Try
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    The Int64 value -9223372036854775808 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
'    Converted the Int64 value -1 to the Int16 value -1.
'    Converted the Int64 value 0 to the Int16 value 0.
'    Converted the Int64 value 121 to the Int16 value 121.
'    Converted the Int64 value 340 to the Int16 value 340.
'    The Int64 value 9223372036854775807 is outside the range of the Int16 type.

Применяется к

ToInt16(Int16)

Возвращает заданное 16-битовое целое число со знаком; фактическое преобразование не производится.

public:
 static short ToInt16(short value);
public static short ToInt16 (short value);
static member ToInt16 : int16 -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As Short) As Short

Параметры

value
Int16

Возвращаемое 16-разрядное целое число со знаком.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

value возвращается без изменений.

Применяется к

ToInt16(Double)

Преобразует значение заданного числа с плавающей запятой двойной точности в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

public:
 static short ToInt16(double value);
public static short ToInt16 (double value);
static member ToInt16 : double -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As Double) As Short

Параметры

value
Double

Число с плавающей запятой двойной точности, которое нужно преобразовать.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

Значение value, округленное до ближайшего 16-разрядного целого числа со знаком. Если value имеет среднее значение между двумя целыми числами, будет возвращено четное число; так, значение 4,5 преобразуется в 4, а 5,5 — в 6.

Исключения

value значение больше , чем Int16.MaxValue или меньше , чем Int16.MinValue.

Примеры

В следующем примере каждый элемент в массиве значений Double преобразуется в 16-разрядное целое число со знаком. В примере показано, что любая дробная часть Double значения округляется перед выполнением преобразования.

double[] values = { Double.MinValue, -1.38e10, -1023.299, -12.98,
                    0, 9.113e-16, 103.919, 17834.191, Double.MaxValue };
short result;

foreach (double value in values)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt16(value);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted {0} to {1}.", value, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException)
   {
      Console.WriteLine("{0} is outside the range of the Int16 type.", value);
   }
}
//       -1.79769313486232E+308 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
//       -13800000000 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
//       Converted -1023.299 to -1023.
//       Converted -12.98 to -13.
//       Converted 0 to 0.
//       Converted 9.113E-16 to 0.
//       Converted 103.919 to 104.
//       Converted 17834.191 to 17834.
//       1.79769313486232E+308 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
let values =
    [| Double.MinValue; -1.38e10; -1023.299; -12.98
       0; 9.113e-16; 103.919; 17834.191; Double.MaxValue |]

for value in values do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt16 value
        printfn $"Converted {value} to {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"{value} is outside the range of the Int16 type."
//       -1.79769313486232E+308 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
//       -13800000000 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
//       Converted -1023.299 to -1023.
//       Converted -12.98 to -13.
//       Converted 0 to 0.
//       Converted 9.113E-16 to 0.
//       Converted 103.919 to 104.
//       Converted 17834.191 to 17834.
//       1.79769313486232E+308 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
Dim values() As Double = { Double.MinValue, -1.38e10, -1023.299, -12.98, _
                           0, 9.113e-16, 103.919, 17834.191, Double.MaxValue }
Dim result As Short

For Each value As Double In values
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt16(value)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted {0} to {1}.", value, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("{0} is outside the range of the Int16 type.", value)
   End Try
Next
'       -1.79769313486232E+308 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
'       -13800000000 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
'       Converted -1023.299 to -1023.
'       Converted -12.98 to -13.
'       Converted 0 to 0.
'       Converted 9.113E-16 to 0.
'       Converted 103.919 to 104.
'       Converted 17834.191 to 17834.
'       1.79769313486232E+308 is outside the range of the Int16 type.

См. также раздел

Применяется к

ToInt16(Decimal)

Преобразует значение заданного десятичного числа в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

public:
 static short ToInt16(System::Decimal value);
public static short ToInt16 (decimal value);
static member ToInt16 : decimal -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As Decimal) As Short

Параметры

value
Decimal

Десятичное число для преобразования.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

Значение value, округленное до ближайшего 16-разрядного целого числа со знаком. Если value имеет среднее значение между двумя целыми числами, будет возвращено четное число; так, значение 4,5 преобразуется в 4, а 5,5 — в 6.

Исключения

value значение больше , чем Int16.MaxValue или меньше , чем Int16.MinValue.

Примеры

В следующем примере предпринимается попытка преобразовать каждый элемент в массиве значений Decimal в 16-разрядное целое число со знаком. В примере показано, что любая дробная часть Decimal значения округляется при выполнении преобразования.

decimal[] values = { Decimal.MinValue, -1034.23m, -12m, 0m, 147m,
                            9214.16m, Decimal.MaxValue };
short result;

foreach (decimal value in values)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt16(value);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted {0} to {1}.", value, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException)
   {
      Console.WriteLine("{0} is outside the range of the Int16 type.",
                        value);
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    -79228162514264337593543950335 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
//    Converted -1034.23 to -1034.
//    Converted -12 to -12.
//    Converted 0 to 0.
//    Converted 147 to 147.
//    Converted 9214.16 to 9214.
//    79228162514264337593543950335 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
let values = 
    [| Decimal.MinValue; -1034.23m; -12m; 0m
       147m; 9214.16m; Decimal.MaxValue |]

for value in values do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt16 value
        printfn $"Converted {value} to {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"{value} is outside the range of the Int16 type."
// The example displays the following output:
//    -79228162514264337593543950335 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
//    Converted -1034.23 to -1034.
//    Converted -12 to -12.
//    Converted 0 to 0.
//    Converted 147 to 147.
//    Converted 9214.16 to 9214.
//    79228162514264337593543950335 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
Dim values() As Decimal = { Decimal.MinValue, -1034.23d, -12d, 0d, 147d, _
                            9214.16d, Decimal.MaxValue }
Dim result As Short

For Each value As Decimal In values
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt16(value)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted {0} to {1}.", value, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("{0} is outside the range of the Int16 type.", _
                        value)
   End Try
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    -79228162514264337593543950335 is outside the range of the Int16 type.
'    Converted -1034.23 to -1034.
'    Converted -12 to -12.
'    Converted 0 to 0.
'    Converted 147 to 147.
'    Converted 9214.16 to 9214.
'    79228162514264337593543950335 is outside the range of the Int16 type.

См. также раздел

Применяется к

ToInt16(DateTime)

При вызове этого метода всегда возникает исключение InvalidCastException.

public:
 static short ToInt16(DateTime value);
public static short ToInt16 (DateTime value);
static member ToInt16 : DateTime -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As DateTime) As Short

Параметры

value
DateTime

Значение даты и времени для преобразования.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

Это преобразование не поддерживается. Возвращаемое значение отсутствует.

Исключения

Это преобразование не поддерживается.

Применяется к

ToInt16(Char)

Преобразует значение заданного символа Юникода в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

public:
 static short ToInt16(char value);
public static short ToInt16 (char value);
static member ToInt16 : char -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As Char) As Short

Параметры

value
Char

Знак Юникода, который необходимо преобразовать.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

16-разрядное целое число со знаком, которое эквивалентно значению value.

Исключения

Примеры

В следующем примере предпринимается попытка преобразовать каждый элемент в массиве значений Char в 16-разрядное целое число со знаком.

char[] chars = { 'a', 'z', '\x0007', '\x03FF',
                 '\x7FFF', '\xFFFE' };
short result;

foreach (char ch in chars)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt16(ch);
      Console.WriteLine("'{0}' converts to {1}.", ch, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException) {
      Console.WriteLine("Unable to convert u+{0} to an Int16.",
                        ((int)ch).ToString("X4"));
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       'a' converts to 97.
//       'z' converts to 122.
//       '' converts to 7.
//       'Ͽ' converts to 1023.
//       '翿' converts to 32767.
//       Unable to convert u+FFFE to an Int16.
let chars = 
    [| 'a'; 'z'; '\u0007'; '\u03FF'; '\u7FFF'; '\uFFFE' |]

for ch in chars do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt16 ch
        printfn $"'{ch}' converts to {result}."
    with :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"Unable to convert u+{int ch:X4} to an Int16."
// The example displays the following output:
//       'a' converts to 97.
//       'z' converts to 122.
//       '' converts to 7.
//       'Ͽ' converts to 1023.
//       '翿' converts to 32767.
//       Unable to convert u+FFFE to an Int16.
Dim chars() As Char = { "a"c, "z"c, ChrW(7), ChrW(1023), _
                        ChrW(Short.MaxValue), ChrW(&hFFFE) }
Dim result As Short

For Each ch As Char in chars
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt16(ch)
      Console.WriteLine("'{0}' converts to {1}.", ch, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("Unable to convert u+{0} to an Int16.", _
                        AscW(ch).ToString("X4"))
   End Try
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'       'a' converts to 97.
'       'z' converts to 122.
'       '' converts to 7.
'       'Ͽ' converts to 1023.
'       '翿' converts to 32767.
'       Unable to convert u+FFFE to an Int16.

Применяется к

ToInt16(Byte)

Преобразует значение заданного 8-битового целого числа без знака в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

public:
 static short ToInt16(System::Byte value);
public static short ToInt16 (byte value);
static member ToInt16 : byte -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As Byte) As Short

Параметры

value
Byte

8-разрядное целое число без знака для преобразования.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

16-разрядное целое число со знаком, которое эквивалентно значению value.

Примеры

В следующем примере каждый элемент в массиве значений Byte преобразуется в 16-разрядное целое число со знаком.

byte[] bytes = { Byte.MinValue, 14, 122, Byte.MaxValue};
short result;

foreach (byte byteValue in bytes)
{
   result = Convert.ToInt16(byteValue);
   Console.WriteLine("The Byte value {0} converts to {1}.",
                     byteValue, result);
}
// The example displays the following output:
//       The Byte value 0 converts to 0.
//       The Byte value 14 converts to 14.
//       The Byte value 122 converts to 122.
//       The Byte value 255 converts to 255.
let bytes = [| Byte.MinValue; 14uy; 122uy; Byte.MaxValue |]

for byteValue in bytes do
    let result = Convert.ToInt16 byteValue
    printfn $"The Byte value {byteValue} converts to {result}."
// The example displays the following output:
//       The Byte value 0 converts to 0.
//       The Byte value 14 converts to 14.
//       The Byte value 122 converts to 122.
//       The Byte value 255 converts to 255.
Dim bytes() As Byte = { Byte.MinValue, 14, 122, Byte.MaxValue}
Dim result As Short

For Each byteValue As Byte In bytes
   result = Convert.ToInt16(byteValue)
   Console.WriteLine("The Byte value {0} converts to {1}.", _
                     byteValue, result)
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'       The Byte value 0 converts to 0.
'       The Byte value 14 converts to 14.
'       The Byte value 122 converts to 122.
'       The Byte value 255 converts to 255.

Применяется к

ToInt16(Boolean)

Преобразует заданное логическое значение в эквивалентное 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

public:
 static short ToInt16(bool value);
public static short ToInt16 (bool value);
static member ToInt16 : bool -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As Boolean) As Short

Параметры

value
Boolean

Логическое значение, которое необходимо преобразовать.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

Число 1, если value имеет значение true; в противном случае — 0.

Примеры

В следующем примере логические значения true и false значения преобразуются Int16 в значения.

bool falseFlag = false;
bool trueFlag = true;

Console.WriteLine("{0} converts to {1}.", falseFlag,
                  Convert.ToInt16(falseFlag));
Console.WriteLine("{0} converts to {1}.", trueFlag,
                  Convert.ToInt16(trueFlag));
// The example displays the following output:
//       False converts to 0.
//       True converts to 1.
let falseFlag = false
let trueFlag = true

printfn $"{falseFlag} converts to {Convert.ToInt16 falseFlag}."
printfn $"{trueFlag} converts to {Convert.ToInt16 trueFlag}."
// The example displays the following output:
//       False converts to 0.
//       True converts to 1.
Dim falseFlag As Boolean = False
Dim trueFlag As Boolean = True

Console.WriteLine("{0} converts to {1}.", falseFlag, _
                  Convert.ToInt16(falseFlag))
Console.WriteLine("{0} converts to {1}.", trueFlag, _
                  Convert.ToInt16(trueFlag))
' The example displays the following output:
'       False converts to 0.
'       True converts to 1.

Применяется к

ToInt16(Object)

Преобразует значение заданного объекта в 16-битовое целое число со знаком.

public:
 static short ToInt16(System::Object ^ value);
public static short ToInt16 (object value);
public static short ToInt16 (object? value);
static member ToInt16 : obj -> int16
Public Shared Function ToInt16 (value As Object) As Short

Параметры

value
Object

Объект, реализующий интерфейс IConvertible, или значение null.

Возвращаемое значение

Int16

16-разрядное знаковое целое число, эквивалентное значению value, или нуль, если value имеет значение null.

Исключения

value имеет неправильный формат для типа Int16.

value не реализует интерфейс IConvertible.

-или-

Преобразование не поддерживается.

value представляет число, которое меньше Int16.MinValue или больше Int16.MaxValue.

Примеры

В следующем примере предпринимается попытка преобразовать каждый элемент в массиве объектов в 16-разрядное целое число со знаком.

object[] values= { true, -12, 163, 935, 'x', new DateTime(2009, 5, 12),
                   "104", "103.0", "-1", "1.00e2", "One", 1.00e2};
short result;

foreach (object value in values)
{
   try {
      result = Convert.ToInt16(value);
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.",
                        value.GetType().Name, value,
                        result.GetType().Name, result);
   }
   catch (OverflowException) {
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int16 type.",
                        value.GetType().Name, value);
   }
   catch (FormatException) {
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is not in a recognizable format.",
                        value.GetType().Name, value);
   }
   catch (InvalidCastException) {
      Console.WriteLine("No conversion to an Int16 exists for the {0} value {1}.",
                        value.GetType().Name, value);
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the Boolean value True to the Int16 value 1.
//    Converted the Int32 value -12 to the Int16 value -12.
//    Converted the Int32 value 163 to the Int16 value 163.
//    Converted the Int32 value 935 to the Int16 value 935.
//    Converted the Char value x to the Int16 value 120.
//    No conversion to an Int16 exists for the DateTime value 5/12/2009 12:00:00 AM.
//    Converted the String value 104 to the Int16 value 104.
//    The String value 103.0 is not in a recognizable format.
//    Converted the String value -1 to the Int16 value -1.
//    The String value 1.00e2 is not in a recognizable format.
//    The String value One is not in a recognizable format.
//    Converted the Double value 100 to the Int16 value 100.
let values: obj[] =
    [| true; -12; 163; 935; 'x'; DateTime(2009, 5, 12)
       "104"; "103.0"; "-1"; "1.00e2"; "One"; 1.00e2 |]

for value in values do
    try
        let result = Convert.ToInt16 value
        printfn $"Converted the {value.GetType().Name} value {value} to the {result.GetType().Name} value {result}."
    with 
    | :? OverflowException ->
        printfn $"The {value.GetType().Name} value {value} is outside the range of the Int16 type."
    | :? FormatException ->
        printfn $"The {value.GetType().Name} value {value} is not in a recognizable format."
    | :? InvalidCastException ->
        printfn $"No conversion to an Int16 exists for the {value.GetType().Name} value {value}."
// The example displays the following output:
//    Converted the Boolean value True to the Int16 value 1.
//    Converted the Int32 value -12 to the Int16 value -12.
//    Converted the Int32 value 163 to the Int16 value 163.
//    Converted the Int32 value 935 to the Int16 value 935.
//    Converted the Char value x to the Int16 value 120.
//    No conversion to an Int16 exists for the DateTime value 5/12/2009 12:00:00 AM.
//    Converted the String value 104 to the Int16 value 104.
//    The String value 103.0 is not in a recognizable format.
//    Converted the String value -1 to the Int16 value -1.
//    The String value 1.00e2 is not in a recognizable format.
//    The String value One is not in a recognizable format.
//    Converted the Double value 100 to the Int16 value 100.
Dim values() As Object = { True, -12, 163, 935, "x"c, #5/12/2009#, _
                           "104", "103.0", "-1", _
                           "1.00e2", "One", 1.00e2}
Dim result As Short

For Each value As Object In values
   Try
      result = Convert.ToInt16(value)
      Console.WriteLine("Converted the {0} value {1} to the {2} value {3}.", _
                        value.GetType().Name, value, _
                        result.GetType().Name, result)
   Catch e As OverflowException
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is outside the range of the Int16 type.", _
                        value.GetType().Name, value)
   Catch e As FormatException
      Console.WriteLine("The {0} value {1} is not in a recognizable format.", _
                        value.GetType().Name, value)
   Catch e As InvalidCastException
      Console.WriteLine("No conversion to an Int16 exists for the {0} value {1}.", _
                        value.GetType().Name, value)

   End Try
Next
' The example displays the following output:
'    Converted the Boolean value True to the Int16 value 1.
'    Converted the Int32 value -12 to the Int16 value -12.
'    Converted the Int32 value 163 to the Int16 value 163.
'    Converted the Int32 value 935 to the Int16 value 935.
'    Converted the Char value x to the Int16 value 120.
'    No conversion to an Int16 exists for the DateTime value 5/12/2009 12:00:00 AM.
'    Converted the String value 104 to the Int16 value 104.
'    The String value 103.0 is not in a recognizable format.
'    Converted the String value -1 to the Int16 value -1.
'    The String value 1.00e2 is not in a recognizable format.
'    The String value One is not in a recognizable format.
'    Converted the Double value 100 to the Int16 value 100.

Комментарии

В противном случае value этот метод заключает вызов реализации IConvertible.ToInt16 базового типа value.null

Применяется к