Практическое руководство. Фоновое выполнение операцииHow to: Run an Operation in the Background

Если какая-либо операция будет выполняться в течение долгого времени и при этом требуется не допустить задержек в работе пользовательского интерфейса, можно использовать класс BackgroundWorker для выполнения операции в другом потоке.If you have an operation that will take a long time to complete, and you do not want to cause delays in your user interface, you can use the BackgroundWorker class to run the operation on another thread.

В примере ниже показано, как запустить операцию, занимающую длительное время, в фоновом режиме.The following code example shows how to run a time-consuming operation in the background. В форме есть кнопки Пуск и Отмена.The form has Start and Cancel buttons. Кнопка Пуск служит для запуска асинхронной операции.Click the Start button to run an asynchronous operation. Кнопка Отмена служит для остановки асинхронной операции.Click the Cancel button to stop a running asynchronous operation. Результат каждой операции выводится в элементе MessageBox.The outcome of each operation is displayed in a MessageBox.

В Visual Studio предусмотрена расширенная поддержка данной задачи.There is extensive support for this task in Visual Studio.

Также см. в разделе Пошаговое руководство: Выполнение операции в фоновом режиме.Also see Walkthrough: Running an Operation in the Background.

ПримерExample

using System;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Threading;
using System.Windows.Forms;

namespace BackgroundWorkerExample
{
    public class Form1 : Form
    {
        public Form1()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
        }

        private void backgroundWorker1_DoWork(object sender, DoWorkEventArgs e)
        {
            // Do not access the form's BackgroundWorker reference directly.
            // Instead, use the reference provided by the sender parameter.
            BackgroundWorker bw = sender as BackgroundWorker;

            // Extract the argument.
            int arg = (int)e.Argument;

            // Start the time-consuming operation.
            e.Result = TimeConsumingOperation(bw, arg);

            // If the operation was canceled by the user, 
            // set the DoWorkEventArgs.Cancel property to true.
            if (bw.CancellationPending)
            {
                e.Cancel = true;
            }
        }

        // This event handler demonstrates how to interpret 
        // the outcome of the asynchronous operation implemented
        // in the DoWork event handler.
        private void backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted(
            object sender, 
            RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs e)
        {   
            if (e.Cancelled)
            {
                // The user canceled the operation.
                MessageBox.Show("Operation was canceled");
            }
            else if (e.Error != null)
            {
                // There was an error during the operation.
                string msg = String.Format("An error occurred: {0}", e.Error.Message);
                MessageBox.Show(msg);
            }
            else
            {
                // The operation completed normally.
                string msg = String.Format("Result = {0}", e.Result);
                MessageBox.Show(msg);
            }
        }

        // This method models an operation that may take a long time 
        // to run. It can be cancelled, it can raise an exception,
        // or it can exit normally and return a result. These outcomes
        // are chosen randomly.
        private int TimeConsumingOperation( 
            BackgroundWorker bw, 
            int sleepPeriod )
        {
            int result = 0;

            Random rand = new Random();

            while (!bw.CancellationPending)
            {
                bool exit = false;

                switch (rand.Next(3))
                {
                    // Raise an exception.
                    case 0:
                    {
                        throw new Exception("An error condition occurred.");
                        break;
                    }

                    // Sleep for the number of milliseconds
                    // specified by the sleepPeriod parameter.
                    case 1:
                    {
                        Thread.Sleep(sleepPeriod);
                        break;
                    }

                    // Exit and return normally.
                    case 2:
                    {
                        result = 23;
                        exit = true;
                        break;
                    }

                    default:
                    {
                        break;
                    }
                }

                if( exit )
                {
                    break;
                }
            }

            return result;
        }

        private void startBtn_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            this.backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync(2000);
        }

        private void cancelBtn_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
            this.backgroundWorker1.CancelAsync();
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Required designer variable.
        /// </summary>
        private System.ComponentModel.IContainer components = null;

        /// <summary>
        /// Clean up any resources being used.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="disposing">true if managed resources should be disposed; otherwise, false.</param>
        protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
        {
            if (disposing && (components != null))
            {
                components.Dispose();
            }
            base.Dispose(disposing);
        }

        #region Windows Form Designer generated code

        /// <summary>
        /// Required method for Designer support - do not modify
        /// the contents of this method with the code editor.
        /// </summary>
        private void InitializeComponent()
        {
            this.backgroundWorker1 = new System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker();
            this.startBtn = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
            this.cancelBtn = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
            this.SuspendLayout();
            // 
            // backgroundWorker1
            // 
            this.backgroundWorker1.WorkerSupportsCancellation = true;
            this.backgroundWorker1.DoWork += new System.ComponentModel.DoWorkEventHandler(this.backgroundWorker1_DoWork);
            this.backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerCompleted += new System.ComponentModel.RunWorkerCompletedEventHandler(this.backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted);
            // 
            // startBtn
            // 
            this.startBtn.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(12, 12);
            this.startBtn.Name = "startBtn";
            this.startBtn.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(75, 23);
            this.startBtn.TabIndex = 0;
            this.startBtn.Text = "Start";
            this.startBtn.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.startBtn_Click);
            // 
            // cancelBtn
            // 
            this.cancelBtn.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(94, 11);
            this.cancelBtn.Name = "cancelBtn";
            this.cancelBtn.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(75, 23);
            this.cancelBtn.TabIndex = 1;
            this.cancelBtn.Text = "Cancel";
            this.cancelBtn.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.cancelBtn_Click);
            // 
            // Form1
            // 
            this.AutoScaleDimensions = new System.Drawing.SizeF(6F, 13F);
            this.AutoScaleMode = System.Windows.Forms.AutoScaleMode.Font;
            this.ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size(183, 49);
            this.Controls.Add(this.cancelBtn);
            this.Controls.Add(this.startBtn);
            this.Name = "Form1";
            this.Text = "Form1";
            this.ResumeLayout(false);

        }

        #endregion

        private System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker backgroundWorker1;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Button startBtn;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Button cancelBtn;
    }

    public class Program
    {
        private Program()
        {
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// The main entry point for the application.
        /// </summary>
        [STAThread]
        static void Main()
        {
            Application.EnableVisualStyles();
            Application.Run(new Form1());
        }
    }
}
Imports System.ComponentModel
Imports System.Drawing
Imports System.Threading
Imports System.Windows.Forms

Public Class Form1
   Inherits Form
   
   Public Sub New()
      InitializeComponent()
   End Sub
   
   
   Private Sub backgroundWorker1_DoWork( _
   sender As Object, e As DoWorkEventArgs) _
   Handles backgroundWorker1.DoWork

      ' Do not access the form's BackgroundWorker reference directly.
      ' Instead, use the reference provided by the sender parameter.
      Dim bw As BackgroundWorker = CType( sender, BackgroundWorker )
      
      ' Extract the argument.
      Dim arg As Integer = Fix(e.Argument)
      
      ' Start the time-consuming operation.
      e.Result = TimeConsumingOperation(bw, arg)
      
      ' If the operation was canceled by the user, 
      ' set the DoWorkEventArgs.Cancel property to true.
      If bw.CancellationPending Then
         e.Cancel = True
      End If

   End Sub   

   ' This event handler demonstrates how to interpret 
   ' the outcome of the asynchronous operation implemented
   ' in the DoWork event handler.
   Private Sub backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted( _
   sender As Object, e As RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs) _
   Handles backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerCompleted

      If e.Cancelled Then
         ' The user canceled the operation.
         MessageBox.Show("Operation was canceled")
      ElseIf (e.Error IsNot Nothing) Then
         ' There was an error during the operation.
         Dim msg As String = String.Format("An error occurred: {0}", e.Error.Message)
         MessageBox.Show(msg)
      Else
         ' The operation completed normally.
         Dim msg As String = String.Format("Result = {0}", e.Result)
         MessageBox.Show(msg)
      End If
   End Sub   

   ' This method models an operation that may take a long time 
   ' to run. It can be cancelled, it can raise an exception,
   ' or it can exit normally and return a result. These outcomes
   ' are chosen randomly.
   Private Function TimeConsumingOperation( _
   bw As BackgroundWorker, _
   sleepPeriod As Integer) As Integer

      Dim result As Integer = 0
      
      Dim rand As New Random()
      
        While Not bw.CancellationPending
            Dim [exit] As Boolean = False

            Select Case rand.Next(3)
                ' Raise an exception.
                Case 0
                    Throw New Exception("An error condition occurred.")
                    Exit While

                    ' Sleep for the number of milliseconds
                    ' specified by the sleepPeriod parameter.
                Case 1
                    Thread.Sleep(sleepPeriod)
                    Exit While

                    ' Exit and return normally.
                Case 2
                    result = 23
                    [exit] = True
                    Exit While

                Case Else
                    Exit While
            End Select

            If [exit] Then
                Exit While
            End If
        End While
      
      Return result
   End Function

    Private Sub startButton_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) Handles startBtn.Click
        Me.backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync(2000)
    End Sub

    Private Sub cancelButton_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) Handles cancelBtn.Click
        Me.backgroundWorker1.CancelAsync()
    End Sub

    ' Required designer variable.
    Private components As System.ComponentModel.IContainer = Nothing


    ' Clean up any resources being used.
    ' <param name="disposing">true if managed resources should be disposed; otherwise, false.</param>
    Protected Overrides Sub Dispose(ByVal disposing As Boolean)
        If disposing AndAlso (components IsNot Nothing) Then
            components.Dispose()
        End If
        MyBase.Dispose(disposing)
    End Sub

#Region "Windows Form Designer generated code"


    ' Required method for Designer support - do not modify
    ' the contents of this method with the code editor.
    Private Sub InitializeComponent()
        Me.backgroundWorker1 = New System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker()
        Me.startBtn = New System.Windows.Forms.Button()
        Me.cancelBtn = New System.Windows.Forms.Button()
        Me.SuspendLayout()
        ' 
        ' backgroundWorker1
        ' 
        Me.backgroundWorker1.WorkerSupportsCancellation = True
        ' 
        ' startButton
        ' 
        Me.startBtn.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(12, 12)
        Me.startBtn.Name = "startButton"
        Me.startBtn.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(75, 23)
        Me.startBtn.TabIndex = 0
        Me.startBtn.Text = "Start"
        ' 
        ' cancelButton
        ' 
        Me.cancelBtn.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(94, 11)
        Me.cancelBtn.Name = "cancelButton"
        Me.cancelBtn.Size = New System.Drawing.Size(75, 23)
        Me.cancelBtn.TabIndex = 1
        Me.cancelBtn.Text = "Cancel"
        ' 
        ' Form1
        ' 
        Me.AutoScaleDimensions = New System.Drawing.SizeF(6.0F, 13.0F)
        Me.AutoScaleMode = System.Windows.Forms.AutoScaleMode.Font
        Me.ClientSize = New System.Drawing.Size(183, 49)
        Me.Controls.Add(cancelBtn)
        Me.Controls.Add(startBtn)
        Me.Name = "Form1"
        Me.Text = "Form1"
        Me.ResumeLayout(False)
    End Sub

#End Region

    Private WithEvents backgroundWorker1 As System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker
    Private WithEvents startBtn As System.Windows.Forms.Button
    Private WithEvents cancelBtn As System.Windows.Forms.Button
End Class 


Public Class Program

    Private Sub New()

    End Sub

    ' The main entry point for the application.
    <STAThread()> _
    Shared Sub Main()
        Application.EnableVisualStyles()
        Application.Run(New Form1())
    End Sub


End Class

Компиляция кодаCompiling the Code

Для этого примера требуются:This example requires:

  • ссылки на сборки System, System.Drawing и System.Windows.Forms.References to the System, System.Drawing and System.Windows.Forms assemblies.

См. такжеSee also