JOIN (Azure Stream Analytics)

Like standard T-SQL, JOIN in the Azure Stream Analytics query language are used to combine records from two or more input sources. JOIN in Azure Stream Analytics are temporal in nature, meaning that each JOIN must provide some limits on how far the matching rows can be separated in time. For instance, saying “join TollBoothEntry events with TollBoothExit events when they occur on the same LicensePlate and TollId and within 5 minutes of each other” is legitimate; but “join TollBoothEntry events with TollBoothExit events when they occur on the LicensePlate and TollId” is not – it would match each TollBoothEntry with an unbounded and potentially infinite collection of all TollBoothExit to the same LicensePlate and TollId.

The time bounds for the relationship are specified inside the ON clause of the JOIN, using the DATEDIFF function. The maximum DATEDIFF size is seven days. For more information on its general use, see DATEDIFF (Azure Stream Analytics). When DATEDIFF is used inside the JOIN condition, the second and third parameter gain special treatment.

Additionally, SELECT * cannot be used in JOIN statements.

Syntax

[ FROM { <input_source> } [ ,...n ] ]  
<input_source> ::=   
{  
    input_name [ [ AS ] input_alias ]   
    | <joined_table>   
}  
  
<joined_table> ::=   
{  
    <input_source> <join_type> <input_source> ON <join_condition>   
    | [ <input_source> <join_type> <reference_data> ON <join_condition> ]  
    | [ ( ] <joined_table> [ ) ]   
}  
<join_type> ::=   
    [ { INNER | LEFT [ OUTER ] } ] JOIN  
  

Arguments

<input_source>

Specifies the input data source.

<reference_data>

The reference data to which you want to Join your input_source. For more information, see Reference Data Join section.

<join_type>

Specifies the type of join operation.

JOIN

Indicates that the specified join operation should occur between the specified input sources and /or reference data. All rows from the left and right meeting the join condition are included in the result set.

Warning

If the JOIN sources are partitioned, the JOIN predicate must include a condition matching the partition keys of both sources.

[ LEFT OUTER JOIN ]

Specifies that all rows from the left table not meeting the join condition are included in the result set, and output columns from the other table are set to NULL in addition to all rows returned by the inner join.

ON <join_condition>

Specifies the condition on which the join is based. The join condition must have a time bound or a temporal wiggle room defined for the relationship and is specified inside the ON clause of the JOIN, using the special syntax of Special DATEDIFF Function for JOINfunction.

Examples

In Azure Stream Analytics, all events have a well-defined timestamp. Thus, the user must use row aliases directly in the DATEDIFF function, as follows:

SELECT I1.TollId, I1.EntryTime,I2.ExitTime, I1.LicensePlate, DATEDIFF(minute,I1.EntryTime,I2.ExitTime) AS DurationInMinutes   
FROM Input1 I1 TIMESTAMP BY EntryTime   
JOIN Input2 I2 TIMESTAMP BY ExitTime  
ON DATEDIFF(minute,I1,I2) BETWEEN 0 AND 15  
  

The join condition above will result in a match if and only if the ExitTime occurs after the EntryTime, but no more than 15 minutes later.

Note

DATEDIFF used in the SELECT statement uses the general syntax where a datetime column or expression is passed in as the second and third parameter. However, when the DATEDIFF function is used inside the JOIN condition, the input_source name or its alias is used. Internally the timestamp associated for each event in that source is picked.

Time bound conditions can be combined with each other and with other conditions inside the ON clause, e.g.:

SELECT I1.TollId, I1.EntryTime, I2.ExitTime, I1.LicensePlate, DATEDIFF(minute,I1.EntryTime,I2.ExitTime) AS DurationinMinutes   
FROM Input1 I1 TIMESTAMP BY EntryTime   
JOIN Input2 I2 TIMESTAMP BY ExitTime  
ON I1.TollId=I2.TollId  
AND I1.LicensePlate=I2.LicensePlate  
AND DATEDIFF(minute,I1,I2) BETWEEN 0 AND 15  
  

When joining three or more tables, the same rules apply --- time bounds must ensure that all matched events occur within a finite amount of time from each other. For instance, to find all errors that occurred between transaction start and transaction end event, one can say:

SELECT TS.Id, TS.Name, TS.Amount, E.ErrorCode, E.Description   
FROM TStart TS TIMESTAMP BY TStartTime   
JOIN TEnd TE TIMESTAMP BY TEndTime  
ON DATEDIFF(second, TS, TE) BETWEEEN 0 AND 5  
AND TS.Id = TE.Id  
JOIN Error E TIMESTAMP BY ErrorTime  
ON DATEDIFF(second, TS, E) BETWEEN 0 AND 5
AND DATEDIFF(second, TE, E) < 0
AND E.TId = TS.Id  
  

When joining sources that are partitioned, the JOIN predicate must include a condition matching the partition keys of both sources.

SELECT I1.TollId, I1.EntryTime,I2.ExitTime, I1.LicensePlate, DATEDIFF(minute,I1.EntryTime,I2.ExitTime) AS DurationInMinutes   
FROM Input1 I1 TIMESTAMP BY EntryTime PARTITION BY PartitionId  
JOIN Input2 I2 TIMESTAMP BY ExitTime PARTITION BY PartitionId  
ON I1.PartitionId = I2.PartitionId AND DATEDIFF(minute,I1,I2) BETWEEN 0 AND 15  

Finally, Azure Stream Analytics supports both inner join (the default) and LEFT outer join. For an inner join, a result is only returned when a match is found. But for a LEFT OUTER join, if an event from the left side of the join is unmatched, a row with NULL for all the columns of the right row is returned. For instance, here is an example to find the absence of events. The following query will return those rows where a Vehicle has entered a Toll Booth but have not exited the Booth within 15 minutes.

SELECT I1.TollId, I1.EntryTime, I2.ExitTime, I1.LicensePlate, DATEDIFF(minute,I1.EntryTime,I2.ExitTime) AS DurationinMinutes   
FROM Input1 I1 TIMESTAMP BY EntryTime   
LEFT OUTER JOIN Input2 I2 TIMESTAMP BY ExitTime  
ON I1.TollId=I2.TollId  
AND I1.LicensePlate=I2.LicensePlate  
AND DATEDIFF( minute , I1 , I2 ) BETWEEN 0 AND 15   
WHERE I2.TollId IS NULL  
  

Special DATEDIFF Function for JOIN

Syntax

DATEDIFF ( datepart , input_source1, input_source2 )  

Arguments

dateparts

Example. ‘second’, ‘millisecond’, ‘minute’, etc.)

input_source1

The first input source in the Join. Internally the timestamp associated with the events from this input_source is passed into the function.

input_source2

The second input source in the Join. Internally the timestamp associated with the events from this input_source is passed into the function.

Return Type

Returns the number of units in dateparts that elapsed from the timestamp of input_source1 to the timestamp of input_source2. The returned value can be negative if the timestamp of second input_source is greater than the first.