了解反压力Understanding back pressure

"反压力" 是邮箱服务器和边缘传输服务器上存在的 Microsoft Exchange 传输服务的系统资源监视功能。Back pressure is a system resource monitoring feature of the Microsoft Exchange Transport service that exists on Mailbox servers and Edge Transport servers. 反压力检测重要的系统资源(如硬盘空间和内存)是否过度使用,并采取措施防止服务器完全淹没和不可用。Back pressure detects when vital system resources, such as hard drive space and memory, are overused, and takes action to prevent the server from becoming completely overwhelmed and unavailable. 例如,当 Exchange 服务器上的系统资源使用率级别被确定为过高时,服务器会延迟接受新邮件。For example, when a system resource utilization level on the Exchange server is determined to be too high, the server delays accepting new messages. 如果资源利用率更差,则服务器将停止接受新邮件以独占方式处理所有现有邮件,甚至可能停止处理传出邮件。If the resource utilization gets worse, the server stops accepting new messages to work exclusively on processing all existing messages, and might even stop processing outgoing messages. 当系统资源使用率恢复到可接受的级别时,Exchange 服务器将通过接受新邮件和处理传出邮件恢复正常操作。When the system resource utilization returns to an acceptable level, the Exchange server resumes normal operation by accepting new messages and processing outgoing messages.

受监视的资源Monitored resources

反压力监视以下系统资源:The following system resources are monitored by back pressure:

  • DatabaseUsedSpace [% ExchangeInstallPath% transportroles\data\queue \ data \ Queue]:包含邮件队列数据库的驱动器的硬驱利用率。DatabaseUsedSpace[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Queue]: Hard drive utilization for the drive that holds the message queue database.

  • PrivateBytes: edgetransport.exe 进程使用的内存。PrivateBytes: The memory that's used by the EdgeTransport.exe process.

  • QueueLength [SubmissionQueue]:提交队列中的邮件数。QueueLength[SubmissionQueue]: The number of messages in the Submission queue.

  • SystemMemory:所有其他进程使用的内存。SystemMemory: The memory that's used by all other processes.

  • UsedDiskSpace [% ExchangeInstallPath% transportroles\data\queue \ data \ Queue]:包含邮件队列数据库事务日志的驱动器的硬驱利用率。UsedDiskSpace[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Queue]: Hard drive utilization for the drive that holds the message queue database transaction logs.

  • UsedDiskSpace [% ExchangeInstallPath% transportroles\data\queue \ data]:用于内容转换的驱动器的硬驱利用率。UsedDiskSpace[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data]: Hard drive utilization for the drive that's used for content conversion.

  • UsedVersionBuckets [% ExchangeInstallPath% transportroles\data\queue \ data \ Queue \ mail.que]:存在于内存中的未提交邮件队列数据库事务数。UsedVersionBuckets[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Queue\mail.que]: The number of uncommitted message queue database transactions that exist in memory.

对于邮箱服务器或边缘传输服务器上的每个受监视的系统资源,定义了以下级别的资源利用率或压力For each monitored system resource on a Mailbox server or Edge Transport server, the following levels of resource utilization or pressure are defined:

  • 低或普通:资源未过度滥用。Low or Normal: The resource isn't overused. 服务器可以接受新的连接和邮件。The server accepts new connections and messages.

  • :资源有略微过度过度的情况。Medium: The resource is slightly overused. 此时将以有限的方式对服务器应用反压功能。Back pressure is applied to the server in a limited manner. 来自组织的权威域中发件人的邮件可以流动。Mail from senders in the organization's authoritative domains can flow. 但是,根据具有压力的特定资源,服务器会使用缓送技术延迟服务器响应或拒绝来自其他源的传入 MAIL FROM 命令。However, depending on the specific resource under pressure, the server uses tarpitting to delay server response or rejects incoming MAIL FROM commands from other sources.

  • :资源被严重过度。High: The resource is severely overused. 此时将充分应用反压功能。Full back pressure is applied. 所有邮件都停止流动,服务器将拒绝一切新传入的 MAIL FROM 命令。All message flow stops, and the server rejects all new incoming MAIL FROM commands.

转换级别定义了 "低"、"中" 和 "高" 资源利用率值,具体取决于资源压力是增加还是减少。Transition levels define the low, medium and high resource utilization values depending on whether the resource pressure is increasing or decreasing. 通常情况下,当资源利用率下降时,低于原始级别的资源使用率级别是必需的。Typically, a resource utilization level that's lower than the original level is required as the resource utilization decreases. 换言之,实际上没有用于低、中和高资源压力的静态值。In other words, there really isn't a static value for low, medium and high resource pressure. 您需要知道使用率是否在增加或减少,然后才能确定资源使用率级别中的下一个更改。You need to know if the utilization is increasing or decreasing before you can determine the next change in resource utilization level.

下列部分说明特定资源具有压力时 Exchange 如何处理此情况。The following sections explain how Exchange handles the situation when a specific resource is under pressure.

保存邮件队列数据库的驱动器的硬盘利用率Hard drive utilization for the drive that holds the message queue database

资源DatabaseUsedSpace [% ExchangeInstallPath% transportroles\data\queue \ data \ Queue]Resource: DatabaseUsedSpace[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Queue]

描述:监视存储邮件队列数据库的驱动器上的所有文件消耗的总驱动器空间百分比。Description: Monitors the percentage of total drive space that's consumed by all files on the drive that holds the message queue database. 请注意,邮件队列数据库文件包含未使用的空间,因此,所有文件消耗的驱动器总空间的准确说明是驱动器大小-数据库中的可用磁盘空间不足空间。Note that the message queue database file contains unused space, so an accurate description of the total drive space that's consumed by all files is drive size - free disk space - free space in the database.

若要更改邮件队列数据库的默认位置,请参阅更改队列数据库的位置To change the default location of the message queue database, see Change the location of the queue database.

压力转换(%)Pressure transitions (%):

  • LowToMedium:96LowToMedium: 96

  • MediumToHigh:99MediumToHigh: 99

  • HighToMedium:97HighToMedium: 97

  • MediumToLow:94MediumToLow: 94

注释:Comments::

使用以下公式计算默认的高级别硬驱使用率:The default high level of hard drive utilization is calculated by using the following formula:

100 * (<硬盘大小(MB> _ -500 mb)/ _ <硬盘大小(mb> _ )100 * (<hard drive size in MB>_ - 500 MB) / <hard drive size in MB>

此公式帐户在邮件队列数据库中有未使用的空间这一事实This formula accounts for the fact that there's unused space in the message queue database

1 GB = 1024 MB。1 GB = 1024 MB. 结果向下舍入到最接近的整数。The result is rounded down to the nearest integer.

例如,如果您的邮件队列数据库位于 1 tb (TB)的驱动器(1048576 MB)上,则高级别利用率为 100*(1048576-500)/1048576)或99%。For example, if your message queue database is located on a 1 terabyte (TB) drive (1048576 MB), the high level of utilization is 100*(1048576-500)/1048576) or 99%.

正如您可以从公式和向下舍入行为中看到的,在公式计算的高利用率值小于99% 之前,硬盘需要非常小。As you can see from the formula and the rounding down behavior, the hard drive needs to be very small before the formula calculates a high utilization value that's less than 99%. 例如,高利用率的98% 的值要求硬盘容量约为 25 GB 或更小。For example, a 98% value for high utilization requires a hard drive of approximately 25 GB or less.

EdgeTransport.exe 进程使用的内存大小Memory used by the EdgeTransport.exe process

资源PrivateBytesResource: PrivateBytes

说明:监视 Microsoft Exchange 传输服务中的 edgetransport.exe 进程所使用的内存百分比。Description: Monitors the percentage of memory that's used by the EdgeTransport.exe process that's part of the Microsoft Exchange Transport service. 这不包括分页文件中的虚拟内存或其他进程使用的内存。This doesn't include virtual memory in the paging file, or memory that's used by other processes.

压力转换(%)Pressure transitions (%):

  • LowToMedium:72LowToMedium: 72

  • MediumToHigh:75MediumToHigh: 75

  • HighToMedium:73HighToMedium: 73

  • MediumToLow:71MediumToLow: 71

注释Comments:

默认情况下,Edgetransport.exe 进程的高级别内存使用率是总物理内存的75% 或 1 tb (以较小者为准)。By default, the high level of memory utilization by the EdgeTransport.exe process is 75 percent of the total physical memory or 1 terabyte, whichever is less. 结果始终向下舍入到最接近的整数。The results are always rounded down to the nearest integer.

Exchange 保留 EdgeTransport.exe 进程的内存使用率的历史记录。Exchange keeps a history of the memory utilization of the EdgeTransport.exe process. 如果对特定轮询间隔(称为历史深度)的使用率没有降低到低水平,则 Exchange 会拒绝传入的邮件,直到资源利用率恢复到低水平。If the utilization doesn't go down to low level for a specific number of polling intervals, known as the history depth, Exchange rejects incoming messages until the resource utilization goes back to the low level. 默认情况下,Edgetransport.exe 内存使用率为30个轮询间隔的历史记录深度。By default, the history depth for EdgeTransport.exe memory utilization s 30 polling intervals.

提交队列中的邮件数Number of messages in the Submission queue

ResourceQueueLength [SubmissionQueue]Resource: QueueLength[SubmissionQueue]

描述:监视提交队列中的邮件数。Description: Monitors the number of messages in the Submission queue. 通常情况下,邮件会进入接收连接器的提交队列。Typically, message enter the Submission queue from Receive connectors. 有关详细信息,请参阅Mail flow and the transport pipelineFor more information, see Mail flow and the transport pipeline. 提交队列中的大量邮件表明分类程序处理邮件会有困难。A large number of messages in the Submission queue indicates the categorizer is having difficulty processing messages.

压力转换Pressure transitions:

  • LowToMedium:9999LowToMedium: 9999

  • MediumToHigh:15000MediumToHigh: 15000

  • HighToMedium:10000HighToMedium: 10000

  • MediumToLow:2000MediumToLow: 2000

注释Comments:

当提交队列面临压力时,Exchange 会通过延迟传入邮件的确认来限制传入的连接。When the Submission queue is under pressure, the Exchange throttles incoming connections by delaying acknowledgement of incoming messages. Exchange 降低了传入邮件流的速率(缓送技术),这会将 SMTP MAIL FROM命令的确认延迟到发送服务器。Exchange reduces the rate of incoming message flow by tarpitting, which delays the acknowledgment of the SMTP MAIL FROM command to the sending server. 如果压力条件继续存在,Exchange 将逐渐增加缓送技术延迟。If the pressure condition continues, Exchange gradually increases the tarpitting delay. 在提交队列使用率返回到低级别后,Exchange 会将确认延迟和缓动恢复为正常操作。After the Submission queue utilization returns to the low level, Exchange reduces the acknowledgment delay and eases back into normal operation. 默认情况下,在提交队列压力下,Exchange 会将邮件确认延迟10秒钟。By default, Exchange delays message acknowledgments for 10 seconds when under Submission queue pressure. 如果资源压力持续存在,则延迟将增加5秒,最长为55秒。If the resource pressure continues, the delay is increased in 5-second increments up to 55 seconds.

Exchange 保留提交队列使用率的历史记录。Exchange keeps a history of Submission queue utilization. 如果提交队列使用率不会降低到较低级别的轮询间隔(称为历史深度),Exchange 将停止缓送技术延迟并拒绝传入邮件,直到提交使用率回退到低级别。If the Submission queue utilization doesn't go down to the low level for a specific number of polling intervals, known as the history depth, Exchange stops the tarpitting delay and rejects incoming messages until the Submission utilization goes back to the low level. 默认情况下,提交队列的历史记录深度为 300 个轮询间隔。By default, the history depth for the Submission queue is in 300 polling intervals.

所有进程使用的内存Memory used by all processes

资源SystemMemoryResource: SystemMemory

说明:监视 Exchange 服务器上所有进程使用的内存百分比。Description: Monitors the percentage of memory that's used by all processes on the Exchange server. 这不包括分页文件中的虚拟内存。This doesn't include virtual memory in the paging file.

压力转换(%)Pressure transitions (%):

  • LowToMedium:88LowToMedium: 88

  • MediumToHigh:94MediumToHigh: 94

  • HighToMedium:89HighToMedium: 89

  • MediumToLow:84MediumToLow: 84

注释Comments:

当服务器达到高级别内存使用率时,邮件冻结发生。When the server reaches the high level of memory utilization, message dehydration occurs. 邮件冻结删除在内存中缓存的排队邮件的不必要元素。Message dehydration removes unnecessary elements of queued messages that are cached in memory. 通常情况下,将完整的邮件缓存在内存中,以提高性能。Typically, complete messages are cached in memory for increased performance. 从这些缓存的邮件中删除 MIME 内容可减少在较长延迟的开销中使用的内存量,因为现在直接从邮件队列数据库读取邮件。Removal of the MIME content from these cached messages reduces the amount of memory that's used at the expense of higher latency, because the messages are now read directly from the message queue database. 默认情况下,会启用邮件冻结。By default, message dehydration is enabled.

保存邮件队列数据库事务日志的驱动器的硬盘利用率Hard drive utilization for the drive that holds the message queue database transaction logs

资源UsedDiskSpace [% ExchangeInstallPath% transportroles\data\queue \ data \ Queue]Resource: UsedDiskSpace[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Queue]

描述:监视驱动器上保存邮件队列数据库事务日志的所有文件消耗的总驱动器空间所占的百分比。Description: Monitors the percentage of total drive space that's consumed by all files on the drive that holds the message queue database transaction logs. 若要更改默认位置,请参阅更改队列数据库的位置To change the default location, see Change the location of the queue database.

压力转换(%)Pressure transitions (%):

  • LowToMedium:89LowToMedium: 89

  • MediumToHigh:99MediumToHigh: 99

  • HighToMedium:90HighToMedium: 90

  • MediumToLow:80MediumToLow: 80

注释:Comments::

使用以下公式计算默认的高级别硬驱使用率:The default high level of hard drive utilization is calculated by using the following formula:

100 * (<硬盘大小(MB> _ -1152 mb)/ _ <硬盘大小(mb> _ )100 * (<hard drive size in MB>_ - 1152 MB) / <hard drive size in MB>

1 GB = 1024 MB。1 GB = 1024 MB. 结果向下舍入到最接近的整数。The result is rounded down to the nearest integer.

例如,如果您的队列数据库位于 1 tb (TB)的驱动器(1048576 MB)上,则高级别利用率为 100*(1048576-1152)/1048576)或99%。For example, if your queue database is located on a 1 terabyte (TB) drive (1048576 MB), the high level of utilization is 100*(1048576-1152)/1048576) or 99%.

正如您可以从公式和向下舍入行为中看到的,在公式计算的高利用率值小于99% 之前,硬盘需要相当小。As you can see from the formula and the rounding down behavior, the hard drive needs to be fairly small before the formula calculates a high utilization value that's less than 99%. 例如,高利用率的98% 的值需要一个大约 56 GB 或更小的硬盘空间。For example, a 98% value for high utilization requires a hard drive of approximately 56 GB or less.

应用程序配置文件包含具有__ 默认值384MB的 DatabaseCheckPointDepthMax 项。 %ExchangeInstallPath%Bin\EdgeTransport.exe.configThe %ExchangeInstallPath%Bin\EdgeTransport.exe.config application configuration file contains the DatabaseCheckPointDepthMax key that has the default value 384MB. 此项控制硬盘上允许存在的所有未提交的事务日志的总大小。This key controls the total allowed size of all uncommitted transaction logs that exist on the hard drive. 此键的值在计算高利用率的公式中使用。The value of this key is used in the formula that calculates high utilization. 如果自定义此值,公式将变为:If you customize this value, the formula becomes:

100 * (<>以 mb 为单位的硬盘大小-Min (5120 MB* ,3 DatabaseCheckPointDepthMax))/ _ <硬盘驱动器大小(> mb_ )100 * (<hard drive size in MB> - Min(5120 MB, 3* DatabaseCheckPointDepthMax)) / <hard drive size in MB>

备注

_DatabaseCheckPointDepthMax_项的值适用于 Exchange 服务器上存在的所有与传输相关的可扩展存储引擎(ESE)数据库。The value of the DatabaseCheckPointDepthMax key applies to all transport-related Extensible Storage Engine (ESE) databases that exist on the Exchange server. 在邮箱服务器上,这包括邮件队列数据库和发件人信誉数据库。On Mailbox servers, this includes the message queue database, and the sender reputation database. 在边缘传输服务器上,这包括邮件队列数据库、发件人信誉数据库和连接筛选代理使用的 IP 筛选器数据库。On Edge Transport servers, this includes the message queue database, the sender reputation database, and the IP filter database that's used by the Connection Filtering agent.

用于内容转换的驱动器的硬驱利用率Hard drive utilization for the drive that's used for content conversion

资源UsedDiskSpace [% ExchangeInstallPath% transportroles\data\queue \ data]Resource: UsedDiskSpace[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data]

说明:监视用于内容转换的驱动器上的所有文件消耗的总驱动器空间百分比。Description: Monitors the percentage of total drive space that's consumed by all files on the drive that's used for content conversion. 文件夹的默认位置是%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Temp%ExchangeInstallPath%Bin\EdgeTransport.exe.config应用程序配置文件中的_TemporaryStoragePath_项控制的。The default location of the folder is %ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Temp and is controlled by the TemporaryStoragePath key in the %ExchangeInstallPath%Bin\EdgeTransport.exe.config application configuration file.

压力转换(%)Pressure transitions (%):

  • LowToMedium:89LowToMedium: 89

  • MediumToHigh:99MediumToHigh: 99

  • HighToMedium:90HighToMedium: 90

  • MediumToLow:80MediumToLow: 80

注释Comments:

使用以下公式计算默认的高级别硬驱使用率:The default high level of hard drive utilization is calculated by using the following formula:

100 * (<硬盘大小(MB> _ -500 mb)/ _ <硬盘大小(mb> _ )100 * (<hard drive size in MB>_ - 500 MB) / <hard drive size in MB>

1 GB = 1024 MB。1 GB = 1024 MB. 结果向下舍入到最接近的整数。The result is rounded down to the nearest integer.

例如,如果您的邮件队列数据库位于 1 tb (TB)的驱动器(1048576 MB)上,则高级别利用率为 100*(1048576-500)/1048576)或99%。For example, if your message queue database is located on a 1 terabyte (TB) drive (1048576 MB), the high level of utilization is 100*(1048576-500)/1048576) or 99%.

正如您可以从公式和向下舍入行为中看到的,在公式计算的高利用率值小于99% 之前,硬盘需要非常小。As you can see from the formula and the rounding down behavior, the hard drive needs to be very small before the formula calculates a high utilization value that's less than 99%. 例如,高利用率的98% 的值要求硬盘容量约为 25 GB 或更小。For example, a 98% value for high utilization requires a hard drive of approximately 25 GB or less.

内存中的未提交邮件队列数据库事务数目Number of uncommitted message queue database transactions in memory

资源UsedVersionBuckets [% ExchangeInstallPath% transportroles\data\queue \ data \ queue \ mail]Resource: UsedVersionBuckets[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Queue\mail.queue]

说明:监视内存中存在的邮件队列数据库的未提交事务数。Description: Monitors the number of uncommitted transactions for the message queue database that exist in memory.

压力转换Pressure transitions:

  • LowToMedium:999LowToMedium: 999

  • MediumToHigh:1500MediumToHigh: 1500

  • HighToMedium:1000HighToMedium: 1000

  • MediumToLow:800MediumToLow: 800

注释:Comments::

在可将对邮件队列数据库的更改提交到事务日志之前,会将该更改列表保存在内存中。然后,会将该列表提交给邮件队列数据库自身。这些保存在内存中的未完成邮件队列数据库事务被称为“版本存储桶”**。版本存储桶数目可能会因出乎意料的大量传入邮件、垃圾邮件攻击、邮件队列数据库完整性问题或硬盘性能而增大到不可接受的数目。A list of changes that are made to the message queue database is kept in memory until those changes can be committed to a transaction log. Then the list is committed to the message queue database itself. These outstanding message queue database transactions that are kept in memory are known as version buckets. The number of version buckets may increase to unacceptably high levels because of an unexpectedly high volume of incoming messages, spam attacks, problems with the message queue database integrity, or hard drive performance.

当版本存储桶受到压力限制时,Exchange 服务器会通过延迟对传入邮件的确认来限制传入的连接。When version buckets are under pressure, the Exchange server throttles incoming connections by delaying acknowledgment of incoming messages. Exchange 降低了传入邮件流的速率(缓送技术),这会将 SMTP MAIL FROM命令的确认延迟到发送服务器。Exchange reduces the rate of incoming message flow by tarpitting, which delays the acknowledgment of the SMTP MAIL FROM command to the sending server. 如果资源压力条件继续存在,Exchange 将逐渐增加缓送技术延迟。If the resource pressure condition continues, Exchange gradually increases the tarpitting delay. 资源使用率恢复正常后,Exchange 将逐渐降低确认延迟并使其变回正常操作。After the resource utilization returns to normal, Exchange gradually reduces the acknowledgement delay and eases back into normal operation. 默认情况下,在 "资源压力" 下,Exchange 会将邮件确认延迟10秒钟。By default, Exchange delays message acknowledgments for 10 seconds when under resource pressure. 如果压力持续存在,则延迟将增加5秒,最长为55秒。If the pressure continues, the delay is increased in 5-second increments up to 55 seconds.

当版本存储桶处于高压力时,Exchange 服务器也会停止处理传出邮件。When the version buckets are under high pressure, the Exchange server also stops processing outgoing messages.

Exchange 保留了版本存储桶资源利用率的历史记录。Exchange keeps a history of version bucket resource utilization. 如果资源利用率不会降低到较低级别的轮询间隔(称为历史深度),Exchange 将停止缓送技术延迟并拒绝传入的邮件,直到资源利用率恢复到低水平。If the resource utilization doesn't go down to the low level for a specific number of polling intervals, known as the history depth, Exchange stops the tarpitting delay and rejects incoming messages until the resource utilization goes back to the low level. 默认情况下,版本存储桶的历史记录深度为10个轮询间隔。By default, the history depth for version buckets is in 10 polling intervals.

当资源受到压力时,通过反压力执行的操作Actions taken by back pressure when resources are under pressure

下表汇总了受监视的资源面临压力时的反压力所执行的操作。The following table summarizes the actions taken by back pressure when a monitored resource is under pressure.

具有压力的资源Resource under pressure 使用率级别Utilization level 执行的操作Actions taken
DatabaseUsedSpaceDatabaseUsedSpace 中等Medium 拒绝来自非 Exchange 服务器的传入邮件。Reject incoming messages from non-Exchange servers.
拒绝从分拣目录和重播目录提交的邮件。Reject message submissions from the Pickup directory and the Replay directory.
邮件重新提交已暂停。Message resubmission is paused.
卷影冗余拒绝邮件。Shadow Redundancy rejects messages. 有关卷影冗余的详细信息,请参阅Exchange Server 中的卷影冗余For more information about Shadow Redundancy, see Shadow redundancy in Exchange Server.
DatabaseUsedSpaceDatabaseUsedSpace High 在 "中" 利用率级别执行的所有操作。All actions taken at the medium utilization level.
拒绝来自其他 Exchange 服务器的传入邮件。Reject incoming messages from other Exchange servers.
通过邮箱服务器上的 Microsoft Exchange 邮箱传输提交服务拒绝来自邮箱数据库的邮件提交。Reject message submissions from mailbox databases by the Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Transport Submission service on Mailbox servers.
PrivateBytesPrivateBytes 中等Medium 拒绝来自非 Exchange 服务器的传入邮件。Reject incoming messages from non-Exchange servers.
拒绝从分拣目录和重播目录提交的邮件。Reject message submissions from the Pickup directory and the Replay directory.
邮件重新提交已暂停。Message resubmission is paused.
卷影冗余拒绝邮件。Shadow Redundancy rejects messages.
暂停服务器或传输服务重新启动(也称为启动扫描)后处理邮件。Processing messages after a server or Transport service restart (also known as boot scanning) is paused.
启动邮件冻结。Start message dehydration.
PrivateBytesPrivateBytes High 在 "中" 利用率级别执行的所有操作。All actions taken at the medium utilization level.
拒绝来自其他 Exchange 服务器的传入邮件。Reject incoming messages from other Exchange servers.
通过邮箱服务器上的 Microsoft Exchange 邮箱传输提交服务拒绝来自邮箱数据库的邮件提交。Reject message submissions from mailbox databases by the Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Transport Submission service on Mailbox servers.
QueueLength[SubmissionQueue]QueueLength[SubmissionQueue] 中等Medium 引入或增加对传入邮件的缓送延迟。如果未达到整个提交队列历史记录深度的正常级别,请执行下列操作:Introduce or increment the tarpitting delay to incoming messages. If normal level isn't reached for the entire Submission queue history depth, take the following actions:
•拒绝来自非 Exchange 服务器的传入邮件。• Reject incoming messages from non-Exchange servers.
•拒绝从分拣目录和重播目录提交的邮件。• Reject message submissions from the Pickup directory and the Replay directory.
•邮件重新提交已暂停。• Message resubmission is paused.
•卷影冗余拒绝邮件。• Shadow Redundancy rejects messages.
•启动扫描已暂停。• Boot scanning is paused.
QueueLength[SubmissionQueue]QueueLength[SubmissionQueue] High 在 "中" 利用率级别执行的所有操作。All actions taken at the medium utilization level.
拒绝来自其他 Exchange 服务器的传入邮件。Reject incoming messages from other Exchange servers.
通过邮箱服务器上的 Microsoft Exchange 邮箱传输提交服务拒绝来自邮箱数据库的邮件提交。Reject message submissions from mailbox databases by the Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Transport Submission service on Mailbox servers.
刷新内存中增强的 DNS 缓存。Flush enhanced DNS cache from memory.
启动邮件冻结。Start message dehydration.
SystemMemorySystemMemory 中等Medium 启动邮件冻结。Start message dehydration.
刷新缓存。Flush caches.
SystemMemorySystemMemory High 在 "中" 利用率级别执行的所有操作。All actions taken at the medium utilization level.
UsedDiskSpace (邮件队列数据库事务日志)UsedDiskSpace (message queue database transaction logs) 中等Medium 拒绝来自非 Exchange 服务器的传入邮件。Reject incoming messages from non-Exchange servers.
拒绝从分拣目录和重播目录提交的邮件。Reject message submissions from the Pickup directory and the Replay directory.
邮件重新提交已暂停。Message resubmission is paused.
卷影冗余拒绝邮件。Shadow Redundancy rejects messages.
UsedDiskSpace (邮件队列数据库事务日志)UsedDiskSpace (message queue database transaction logs) High 在 "中" 利用率级别执行的所有操作。All actions taken at the medium utilization level.
拒绝来自其他 Exchange 服务器的传入邮件。Reject incoming messages from other Exchange servers.
通过邮箱服务器上的 Microsoft Exchange 邮箱传输提交服务拒绝来自邮箱数据库的邮件提交。Reject message submissions from mailbox databases by the Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Transport Submission service on Mailbox servers.
UsedDiskSpace (内容转换)UsedDiskSpace (content conversion) 中等Medium 拒绝来自非 Exchange 服务器的传入邮件。Reject incoming messages from non-Exchange servers.
拒绝从分拣目录和重播目录提交的邮件。Reject message submissions from the Pickup directory and the Replay directory.
UsedDiskSpace (内容转换)UsedDiskSpace (content conversion) High 在 "中" 利用率级别执行的所有操作。All actions taken at the medium utilization level.
拒绝来自其他 Exchange 服务器的传入邮件。Reject incoming messages from other Exchange servers.
通过邮箱服务器上的 Microsoft Exchange 邮箱传输提交服务拒绝来自邮箱数据库的邮件提交。Reject message submissions from mailbox databases by the Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Transport Submission service on Mailbox servers.
UsedVersionBucketsUsedVersionBuckets 中等Medium 引入或增加对传入邮件的缓送延迟。如果未达到整个版本存储桶历史记录深度的正常级别,请执行下列操作:Introduce or increment the tarpitting delay to incoming messages. If normal level isn't reached for the entire version bucket history depth, take the following actions:
•拒绝来自非 Exchange 服务器的传入邮件。• Reject incoming messages from non-Exchange servers.
•拒绝从分拣目录和重播目录提交的邮件。• Reject message submissions from the Pickup directory and the Replay directory.
UsedVersionBucketsUsedVersionBuckets High 在 "中" 利用率级别执行的所有操作。All actions taken at the medium utilization level.
拒绝来自其他 Exchange 服务器的传入邮件。Reject incoming messages from other Exchange servers.
通过邮箱服务器上的 Microsoft Exchange 邮箱传输提交服务拒绝来自邮箱数据库的邮件提交。Reject message submissions from mailbox databases by the Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Transport Submission service on Mailbox servers.
停止处理传出邮件。Stop processing outgoing messages.
远程传递已暂停。Remote delivery is paused.

查看反压力资源阈值和使用率级别View back pressure resource thresholds and utilization levels

您可以使用 Exchange 命令行管理程序中的ExchangeDiagnosticInfo cmdlet 来查看受监视的资源和当前的使用率级别。You can use the Get-ExchangeDiagnosticInfo cmdlet in the Exchange Management Shell to view the resources that are being monitored, and the current utilization levels. 若要了解如何在本地 Exchange 组织中打开 Exchange 命令行管理程序,请参阅 Open the Exchange Management ShellTo learn how to open the Exchange Management Shell in your on-premises Exchange organization, see Open the Exchange Management Shell.

若要查看 Exchange 服务器上的 "后退" 压力设置,请运行以下命令:To view the back pressure settings on an Exchange server, run the following command:

[xml]$bp=Get-ExchangeDiagnosticInfo [-Server <ServerIdentity> ] -Process EdgeTransport -Component ResourceThrottling; $bp.Diagnostics.Components.ResourceThrottling.ResourceTracker.ResourceMeter

若要查看本地服务器上的值,可以省略_server_参数。To see the values on the local server, you can omit the Server parameter.

Edgetransport.exe 文件中的反向压力配置设置Back pressure configuration settings in the EdgeTransport.exe.config file

%ExchangeInstallPath%Bin\EdgeTransport.exe.config XML 应用程序配置文件中,将执行所有的反配置选项。All configuration options for back pressure are done in the %ExchangeInstallPath%Bin\EdgeTransport.exe.config XML application configuration file. 但是,默认情况下,文件中存在的设置很少。However, few of the settings exist in the file by default.

注意

这些设置仅作为默认值的参考列出。These settings are listed only as a reference for the default values. 我们非常不鼓励对 EdgeTransport.exe.config 文件中的反压力功能设置进行修改。We strongly discourage any modifications to the back pressure settings in the EdgeTransport.exe.config file. 对这些设置的修改可能会导致性能下降或数据丢失。Modifications to these settings might result in poor performance or data loss. 我们建议您调查并纠正可能遇到的任何反压力事件的根本原因。We recommend that you investigate and correct the root cause of any back pressure events that you may encounter.

常规后向压力设置General back pressure settings

项名称Key name 默认值Default value
ResourceMeteringIntervalResourceMeteringInterval 00:00:02(2 秒)00:00:02 (2 seconds)
DehydrateMessagesUnderMemoryPressureDehydrateMessagesUnderMemoryPressure truetrue

DatabaseUsedSpace 设置DatabaseUsedSpace settings

项名称Key name 默认值(%)Default value (%)
DatabaseUsedSpace.LowToMediumDatabaseUsedSpace.LowToMedium 9696
DatabaseUsedSpace.MediumToHighDatabaseUsedSpace.MediumToHigh 9999
DatabaseUsedSpace.HighToMediumDatabaseUsedSpace.HighToMedium 9797
DatabaseUsedSpace.MediumToLowDatabaseUsedSpace.MediumToLow 9494

PrivateBytes 设置PrivateBytes settings

项名称Key name 默认值(%)Default value (%)
PrivateBytes.LowToMediumPrivateBytes.LowToMedium 7272
PrivateBytes.MediumToHighPrivateBytes.MediumToHigh 7575
PrivateBytes.HighToMediumPrivateBytes.HighToMedium 7373
PrivateBytes.MediumToLowPrivateBytes.MediumToLow 7171
PrivateBytesHistoryDepthPrivateBytesHistoryDepth 3030

QueueLength [SubmissionQueue] 设置QueueLength[SubmissionQueue] settings

项名称Key name 默认值Default value
QueueLength[SubmissionQueue].LowToMediumQueueLength[SubmissionQueue].LowToMedium 99999999
QueueLength[SubmissionQueue].MediumToHighQueueLength[SubmissionQueue].MediumToHigh 1500015000
QueueLength[SubmissionQueue].HighToMediumQueueLength[SubmissionQueue].HighToMedium 1000010000
QueueLength[SubmissionQueue].MediumToLowQueueLength[SubmissionQueue].MediumToLow 20002000
SubmissionQueueHistoryDepthSubmissionQueueHistoryDepth 300(10分钟后)300 (after 10 minutes)

SystemMemory 设置SystemMemory settings

项名称Key name 默认值(%)Default value (%)
SystemMemory.LowToMediumSystemMemory.LowToMedium 8888
SystemMemory.MediumToHighSystemMemory.MediumToHigh 9494
SystemMemory.HighToMediumSystemMemory.HighToMedium 8989
SystemMemory.MediumToLowSystemMemory.MediumToLow 8484

UsedDiskSpace 设置(邮件队列数据库事务日志)UsedDiskSpace settings (message queue database transaction logs)

项名称Key name 默认值(%)Default value (%)
UsedDiskSpace [% ExchangeInstallPath% Transportroles\data\queue \ data \ Queue]。LowToMediumUsedDiskSpace[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Queue].LowToMedium 8989
UsedDiskSpace [% ExchangeInstallPath% Transportroles\data\queue \ data \ Queue]。MediumToHighUsedDiskSpace[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Queue].MediumToHigh 9999
UsedDiskSpace [% ExchangeInstallPath% Transportroles\data\queue \ data \ Queue]。HighToMediumUsedDiskSpace[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Queue].HighToMedium 9090
UsedDiskSpace [% ExchangeInstallPath% Transportroles\data\queue \ data \ Queue]。MediumToLowUsedDiskSpace[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Queue].MediumToLow 8080

备注

UsedDiskSpace包含(例如UsedDiskSpace.MediumToHigh)的值适用于邮件队列数据库事务日志和内容转换。Values that contain only UsedDiskSpace (for example, UsedDiskSpace.MediumToHigh) apply to the message queue database transaction logs and to content conversion.

UsedDiskSpace 设置(内容转换)UsedDiskSpace settings (content conversion)

项名称Key name 默认值(%)Default value (%)
UsedDiskSpace [% ExchangeInstallPath% Transportroles\data\queue \ data]。LowToMediumUsedDiskSpace[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data].LowToMedium 8989
UsedDiskSpace [% ExchangeInstallPath% Transportroles\data\queue \ data]。MediumToHighUsedDiskSpace[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data].MediumToHigh 9999
UsedDiskSpace [% ExchangeInstallPath% Transportroles\data\queue \ data]。HighToMediumUsedDiskSpace[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data].HighToMedium 9090
UsedDiskSpace [% ExchangeInstallPath% Transportroles\data\queue \ data]。MediumToLowUsedDiskSpace[%ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data].MediumToLow 8080
TemporaryStoragePathTemporaryStoragePath %ExchangeInstallPath%TransportRoles\data\Temp

UsedVersionBuckets 设置UsedVersionBuckets settings

项名称Key name 默认值Default value
UsedVersionBuckets.LowToMediumUsedVersionBuckets.LowToMedium 999999
UsedVersionBuckets.MediumToHighUsedVersionBuckets.MediumToHigh 15001500
UsedVersionBuckets.HighToMediumUsedVersionBuckets.HighToMedium 10001000
UsedVersionBuckets.MediumToLowUsedVersionBuckets.MediumToLow 800800
VersionBucketsHistoryDepthVersionBucketsHistoryDepth 10 10

反压力日志记录信息Back pressure logging information

以下列表介绍了 Exchange 中特定反压力事件生成的事件日志条目:The following list describes the event log entries that are generated by specific back pressure events in Exchange:

  • 因任何资源使用率级别的增加而生成的事件日志条目Event log entry for an increase in any resource utilization level

    事件类型:错误Event Type: Error

    事件源:MSExchangeTransportEvent Source: MSExchangeTransport

    事件类别:资源管理器Event Category: Resource Manager

    事件 ID:15004Event ID: 15004

    说明:资源压力已从_ <以前的使用率>级别_增加到_ <当前>使用率级别_。Description: Resource pressure increased from <Previous Utilization Level> to <Current Utilization Level>.

  • 因任何资源使用率级别降低而生成的事件日志条目Event log entry for a decrease in any resource utilization level

    事件类型:信息Event Type: Information

    事件源:MSExchangeTransportEvent Source: MSExchangeTransport

    事件类别:资源管理器Event Category: Resource Manager

    事件 ID:15005Event ID: 15005

    说明:资源压力从_ <以前的使用率级别> 降低到 <了当前>使用率级别_。Description: Resource pressure decreased from <Previous Utilization Level> to <Current Utilization Level>.

  • 非常低的可用磁盘空间的事件日志条目Event log entry for critically low available disk space

    事件类型:错误Event Type: Error

    事件源:MSExchangeTransportEvent Source: MSExchangeTransport

    事件类别:资源管理器Event Category: Resource Manager

    事件 ID:15006Event ID: 15006

    说明:Microsoft Exchange 传输服务拒绝邮件,因为可用磁盘空间低于所配置的阀值。可能需要执行管理操作以释放磁盘空间,以便服务可以继续进行操作。Description: The Microsoft Exchange Transport service is rejecting messages because available disk space is below the configured threshold. Administrative action may be required to free disk space for the service to continue operations.

  • 非常低的可用内存事件日志条目Event log entry for critically low available memory

    事件类型:错误Event Type: Error

    事件源:MSExchangeTransportEvent Source: MSExchangeTransport

    事件类别:资源管理器Event Category: Resource Manager

    事件 ID:15007Event ID: 15007

    说明:Microsoft Exchange 传输服务拒绝邮件提交,因为该服务会继续占用多于配置阈值的内存。可能需要重新启动该服务,才能继续正常操作。Description: The Microsoft Exchange Transport service is rejecting message submissions because the service continues to consume more memory than the configured threshold. This may require that this service be restarted to continue normal operation.