邮件速率限制Message rate limits and throttling

邮件限制指对 Exchange 服务器可以处理的邮件和连接数量设置的一组限制。其中包括对邮件处理速率、SMTP 连接速率和 SMTP 会话超时值的各种限制。这些限制共同保护 Exchange 服务器,防止由于接受和交付邮件而导致过度使用。尽管可能会有大量积压的邮件和连接等待处理,但是邮件限制使 Exchange 服务器可以有序地处理这些邮件和连接。Message throttling refers to a group of limits that are set on the number of messages and connections that can be processed by an Exchange server. These limits include message processing rates, SMTP connection rates, and SMTP session timeout values. These limits work together to protect an Exchange server from being overwhelmed by accepting and delivering messages. Although a large backlog of messages and connections may be waiting to be processed, the message throttling limits enable the Exchange server to process the messages and connections in an orderly manner.

备注

反压力是帮助避免 Exchange 服务器系统资源过度使用的另一项功能。监视关键资源,例如可用硬盘空间和内存使用率,并且当使用率超出指定阈值时,服务器会逐渐停止接受新的连接和邮件。有关详细信息,请参阅了解反压力。对邮件还有一些可用的静态限制,例如最大邮件大小、独立附件的大小和收件人数量。有关邮件大小限制的详细信息,请参阅 Exchange Server 中的邮件大小限制Back pressure is another feature that helps to avoid overwhelming the system resources of an Exchange server. Key resources, such as available hard disk space and memory utilization are monitored, and when the utilization level exceeds the specified threshold, the server gradually stops accepting new connections and messages. For more information, see Understanding back pressure. There are also static limits that are available on messages, such as the maximum message size, the size of individual attachments, and the number of recipients. For more information about message size limits, see Message size limits in Exchange Server.

可以在下列位置设置邮件速率限制和限制选项:You can set the message rate limits and throttling options in the following locations:

  • 邮箱服务器和边缘传输服务器。我们将这些统称为“传输服务器”。Mailbox servers and Edge Transport servers. Collectively, we'll refer to these as transport servers.

  • 发送连接器Send connectors

  • 接收连接器Receive connectors

  • 用户Users

对传输服务器的邮件限制Message throttling on transport servers

下表显示了邮箱服务器和边缘传输服务器上可用的邮件限制选项。The following table shows the message throttling options that are available on Mailbox servers and Edge Transport servers.

速率限制Rate limit 默认值Default value Exchange 命令行管理程序 配置Exchange Management Shell configuration EAC 配置EAC configuration
最大并发邮箱传递数:将邮件传递给邮箱时,传输服务和邮箱传输传递服务可以同时打开的最大传递线程数。Maximum concurrent mailbox deliveries: The maximum number of delivery threads that the Transport service and the Mailbox Transport Delivery service can have open at the same time to deliver message to mailboxes. 2020
建议不要修改此值,除非 Microsoft 客户服务和支持人员指示你这样做。We recommend that you don't modify this value unless you're directed to do so by Microsoft Customer Service and Support.
Cmdlet:Set-TransportServiceSet-MailboxTransportServiceCmdlet: Set-TransportService and Set-MailboxTransportService
参数:MaxConcurrentMailboxDeliveriesParameter: MaxConcurrentMailboxDeliveries
不可用Not available
最大并发邮箱提交数:从邮箱发送邮件时,传输服务和邮箱传输提交服务可以同时打开的最大提交线程数。Maximum concurrent mailbox submissions: The maximum number of submission threads that the Transport service and the Mailbox Transport Submission service can have open at the same time to send messages from mailboxes. 2020
建议不要修改此值,除非 Microsoft 客户服务和支持人员指示你这样做。We recommend that you don't modify this value unless you're directed to do so by Microsoft Customer Service and Support.
参数: MaxConcurrentMailboxDeliveriesCmdlet: Set-TransportService and Set-MailboxTransportService
参数:MaxConcurrentMailboxSubmissionsParameter: MaxConcurrentMailboxSubmissions
不可用Not available
每分钟的最大连接速率:允许传输服务打开连接的最大速率。Maximum connection rate per minute: The maximum rate that connections are allowed to be opened with the Transport service. 12001200 Cmdlet: Set-TransportServiceCmdlet: Set-TransportService
参数:MaxConnectionRatePerMinuteParameter: MaxConnectionRatePerMinute
不可用Not available
最大并发连接数:传输服务可以一次打开的最大出站连接数。Maximum concurrent connections: The maximum number of outbound connections that the Transport service can have open at a time. 10001000
此值必须大于或等于 MaxPerDomainOutboundConnections 值。This value must be greater than or equal to the MaxPerDomainOutboundConnections value.
参数: MaxConnectionRatePerMinuteCmdlet: Set-TransportService
参数:MaxOutboundConnectionsParameter: MaxOutboundConnections
服务器”>“服务器”>“属性编辑图标”>“传输限制”部分>“最大并发连接数”。Servers > Servers > Properties Edit icon > Transport limits section > Maximum concurrent connections.
注意:在 EAC 中,只能设置 100、1000、5000 或无限值。Note: In the EAC, you can only set the values 100, 1000, 5000, or unlimited.
每个域的最大并发连接数:传输服务可以一次打开的到单个域的最大出站连接数。Maximum concurrent connections per domain: The maximum number of outbound connections that the Transport service can have open to a single domain at a time. 2020
此值必须小于或等于 MaxOutboundConnections 值。This value must be less than or equal to the MaxOutboundConnections value.
Cmdlet:Set-TransportServiceCmdlet: Set-TransportService
参数:MaxPerDomainOutboundConnectionsParameter: MaxPerDomainOutboundConnections
服务器”>“服务器”>“属性编辑图标”>“传输限制”部分>“每个域的最大并发连接数”。Servers > Servers > Properties Edit icon > Transport limits section > Maximum concurrent connections per domain.
注意:在 EAC 中,只能设置 100、1000、5000 或无限值。Note: In the EAC, you can only set the values 100, 1000, 5000, or unlimited.

若要查看这些服务器邮件限制设置的值,请在 Exchange 命令行管理程序中运行以下命令:To see the values of these server message throttling settings, run the following command in the Exchange Management Shell:

Write-Host "Transport service:" -ForegroundColor yellow; Get-TransportService | Format-List MaxConcurrent*,MaxConnection*,Max*OutboundConnections; Write-Host "Mailbox Transport service:" -ForegroundColor yellow; Get-MailboxTransportService | Format-List MaxConcurrent*

备注

边缘传输服务器和邮箱服务器上可用的拾取目录和重播目录也具有可配置的邮件速率限制。通常,拾取目录和重播目录不用于日常邮件流。有关详细信息,请参阅配置拾取目录和重播目录。拾取目录和重播目录每分钟可以处理的最大邮件文件数为 100。每个目录都可以按照此处理率独立处理邮件文件。The Pickup directory and the Replay directory that are available on Edge Transport servers and Mailbox servers also have messages rate limits that you can configure. Typically, the Pickup directory and the Replay directory aren't used in everyday mail flow. For more information, see Configure the Pickup Directory and the Replay Directory. The maximum number of message files per minute that can be processed by the Pickup directory and the Replay directory is 100. Each directory can independently process message files at this rate.

发送连接器上的邮件限制Message throttling on Send connectors

下表显示在发送连接器上可用的邮件限制选项。发送连接器位于邮箱服务器和边缘传输服务器上的传输服务中。有关详细信息,请参阅发送连接器The following table shows the message throttling options that are available on Send connectors. Send connectors exist in the Transport service on Mailbox servers and on Edge Transport servers. For more information, see Send connectors.

速率限制Rate limit 默认值Default value Exchange 命令行管理程序 配置Exchange Management Shell configuration EAC 配置EAC configuration
连接非活动状态超时:到源邮件传递服务器的已打开 SMTP 连接在连接关闭前可以保持空闲的最长时间。Connection inactivity time out: The maximum amount of time that an open SMTP connection with a source messaging server can remain idle before the connection is closed. 00:10:00(10 分钟)00:10:00 (10 minutes) Cmdlet: New-SendConnectorSet-SendConnectorCmdlet: New-SendConnector and Set-SendConnector
参数:ConnectionInactivityTimeOutParameter: ConnectionInactivityTimeOut
不可用Not available
每次连接的最大邮件数:可以通过一次连接发送的最大邮件数Maximum messages per connection: The maximum number of messages that can be sent over a single connection 2020 Cmdlet:New-SendConnectorSet-SendConnectorCmdlet: New-SendConnector and Set-SendConnector
参数:SmtpMaxMessagesPerConnectionParameter: SmtpMaxMessagesPerConnection
不可用Not available

若要查看这些发送连接器限制设置的值,请在 Exchange 命令行管理程序中运行以下命令:To see the values of these Send connector throttling settings, run the following command in the Exchange Management Shell:

Get-SendConnector | Format-List Name,ConnectionInactivityTimeout,SmtpMaxMessagesPerConnection

接收连接器上的邮件限制Message throttling on Receive connectors

下表显示在接收连接器上可用的邮件限制选项。接收连接器在邮箱服务器上的前端传输服务、邮箱服务器以及边缘传输服务器上的传输服务中可用。有关详细信息,请参阅接收连接器The following table shows the message throttling options that are available on Receive connectors. Receive connectors are available in the Front End Transport service on Mailbox servers, the Transport service on Mailbox servers, and on Edge Transport servers. For more information, see Receive connectors.

速率限制Rate limit 默认值Default value Exchange 命令行管理程序 配置Exchange Management Shell configuration EAC 配置EAC configuration
连接超时:到源邮件传递服务器的 SMTP 连接可以保持打开状态的最长时间(即使源邮件传递服务器正在传输数据)。Connection time out: The maximum amount of time that an SMTP connection with a source messaging server can remain open, even when the source messaging server is transmitting data. 00:10:00(10 分钟),适用于邮箱服务器上的接收连接器。00:10:00 (10 minutes) for Receive connectors on Mailbox servers.
00:05:00(1 分钟),适用于边缘传输服务器上的接收连接器。00:05:00 (1 minute) for Receive connectors on Edge Transport servers.
此值必须大于 ConnectionInactivityTimeOut 值。This value must be greater than the ConnectionInactivityTimeOut value.
Cmdlet: New-ReceiveConnectorSet-ReceiveConnectorCmdlet: New-ReceiveConnector and Set-ReceiveConnector
参数:ConnectionTimeoutParameter: ConnectionTimeout
不可用Not available
连接非活动状态超时:到源邮件传递服务器的已打开 SMTP 连接在连接关闭前可以保持空闲的最长时间。Connection inactivity time out: The maximum amount of time that an open SMTP connection with a source messaging server can remain idle before the connection is closed. 00:05:00(5 分钟),适用于邮箱服务器上的接收连接器。00:05:00 (5 minutes) for Receive connectors on Mailbox servers.
00:01:00(1 分钟),适用于边缘传输服务器上的接收连接器。00:01:00 (1 minute) for Receive connectors on Edge Transport servers.
此值必须小于 ConnectionTimeout 值。This value must be less than the ConnectionTimeout value.
Cmdlet: New-ReceiveConnectorSet-ReceiveConnectorCmdlet: New-ReceiveConnector and Set-ReceiveConnector
参数:ConnectionInactivityTimeOutParameter: ConnectionInactivityTimeOut
不可用Not available
最大入站连接数:同时允许的最大入站 SMTP 连接数。Maximum inbound connections: The maximum number of inbound SMTP connections that are allowed at the same time. 50005000 Cmdlet: New-ReceiveConnectorSet-ReceiveConnectorCmdlet: New-ReceiveConnector and Set-ReceiveConnector
参数:MaxInboundConnectionParameter: MaxInboundConnection
不可用Not available
每个源的最大入站连接数:同时允许的来自源邮件传递服务器的最大入站 SMTP 连接数。Maximum inbound connections per source: The maximum number of inbound SMTP connections that are allowed from a source messaging server at the same time. 在邮箱服务器上的传输服务中名为默认 <服务器名称> 的默认接收连接器上为 unlimitedunlimited on the default Receive connector named Default <ServerName> in the Transport service on Mailbox servers.
在邮箱服务器和边缘传输服务器上的其他接收连接器上为 20。20 on other Receive connectors on Mailbox servers and Edge Transport servers.
Cmdlet: New-ReceiveConnectorSet-ReceiveConnectorCmdlet: New-ReceiveConnector and Set-ReceiveConnector
参数:MaxInboundConnectionPerSourceParameter: MaxInboundConnectionPerSource
不可用Not available
每个源的最大入站连接百分比:同时允许的来自源邮件传递服务器的最大入站 SMTP 连接百分比。Maximum inbound connection percentage per source: The maximum percentage of inbound SMTP connections that are allowed from a source messaging server at the same time. 在邮箱服务器上的传输服务中名为默认 <服务器名称> 的默认接收连接器上为 100%。100 percent on the default Receive connector named Default <ServerName> in the Transport service on Mailbox servers.
在邮箱服务器和边缘传输服务器上的其他接收连接器上为 2%。2 percent on other Receive connectors on Mailbox servers and Edge Transport servers.
Cmdlet:New-ReceiveConnectorSet-ReceiveConnectorCmdlet: New-ReceiveConnector and Set-ReceiveConnector
参数:MaxInboundConnectionPercentagePerSourceParameter: MaxInboundConnectionPercentagePerSource
不可用Not available
邮件速率限制:每分钟单个源可发送邮件的最大数量。Message rate limit: The maximum number of messages per minute that can be sent by a single source. 在以下默认接收连接器上为 unlimitedunlimited on the following default Receive connectors:
• 邮箱服务器上的传输服务中的默认 <服务器名称>• Default <ServerName> in the Transport service on Mailbox servers.
• 邮箱服务器上的前端传输服务中的默认前端 <服务器名称>• Default Frontend <ServerName> in the Front End Transport service on Mailbox servers.
• 邮箱服务器上的前端传输服务中的出站代理前端 <服务器名称>• Outbound Proxy Frontend <ServerName> in the Front End Transport service on Mailbox servers.
在以下默认接收连接器上为 5:5 on the following default Receive connectors:
• 邮箱服务器上的传输服务中的客户端代理 <服务器名称>• Client Proxy <ServerName> in the Transport service on Mailbox servers.
• 邮箱服务器上的前端传输服务中的客户端前端 <服务器名称>• Client Frontend <ServerName> in the Front End Transport service on Mailbox servers.
在边缘传输服务器上名为默认内部接收连接器 <服务器名称> 的默认接收连接器上为 600。600 on the default Receive connector named Default internal Receive connector <ServerName> on Edge Transport servers.
Cmdlet: New-ReceiveConnectorSet-ReceiveConnectorCmdlet: New-ReceiveConnector and Set-ReceiveConnector
参数:MessageRateLimitParameter: MessageRateLimit
不可用Not available
邮件速率源:表示邮件提交速率的计算方式。有效值为:Message rate source: This indicates how the message submission rate is calculated. Valid values are:
User 计算发送方用户(通过 MAIL FROM SMTP 命令指定)的此速率。User: The rate is calculated for sending users (specified with the MAIL FROM SMTP command).
IPAddress 计算发送方主机的此速率。IPAddress: The rate is calculated for sending hosts.
All:计算发送方用户和发送方主机的此速率。All: The rate is calculated for both sending users and sending hosts.
在以下默认接收连接器上为 IPAddressIPAddress on the following default Receive connectors:
• 邮箱服务器上的传输服务中的默认 <服务器名称>• Default <ServerName> in the Transport service on Mailbox servers.
• 邮箱服务器上的前端传输服务中的默认前端 <服务器名称>• Default Frontend <ServerName> in the Front End Transport service on Mailbox servers.
• 邮箱服务器上的前端传输服务中的出站代理前端 <服务器名称>• Outbound Proxy Frontend <ServerName> in the Front End Transport service on Mailbox servers.
• 边缘传输服务器上的默认内部接收连接器 <服务器名称>• Default internal Receive connector <ServerName> on Edge Transport servers.
在以下默认接收连接器上为 UserUser on the following default Receive connectors:
• 邮箱服务器上的传输服务中的客户端代理 <服务器名称>• Client Proxy <ServerName> in the Transport service on Mailbox servers.
• 邮箱服务器上的前端传输服务中的客户端前端 <服务器名称>• Client Frontend <ServerName> in the Front End Transport service on Mailbox servers.
Cmdlet: New-ReceiveConnectorSet-ReceiveConnectorCmdlet: New-ReceiveConnector and Set-ReceiveConnector
参数:MessageRateSourceParameter: MessageRateSource
不可用Not available
Tarpit 间隔:对可能正在滥用此连接的未经身份验证的远程服务器 SMTP 响应的人为延迟时间。经过身份验证的连接从不以此方式延迟。Tarpit interval: The amount of time to artificially delay SMTP responses to unauthenticated remote servers that appear to be abusing the connection. Authenticated connections are never delayed in this manner. 00:00:05(5 秒)00:00:05 (5 seconds) Cmdlet:New-ReceiveConnectorSet-ReceiveConnectorCmdlet: New-ReceiveConnector and Set-ReceiveConnector
参数:TarpitIntervalParameter: TarpitInterval
不可用Not available

若要查看这些接收连接器邮件限制设置的值,请在 Exchange 命令行管理程序中运行以下命令:To see the values of these Receive connector message throttling settings, run the following command in the Exchange Management Shell:

Get-ReceiveConnector | Format-List Name,Connection*,MaxInbound*,MessageRate*,TarpitInterval

对用户的邮件限制Message throttling on users

Microsoft Exchange 限制服务跟踪指定用户的资源设置并将此信息缓存在内存中。邮件流限制设置也称为“预算”。重新启动 Microsoft Exchange 限制服务时,会重置邮件流限制预算。The Microsoft Exchange Throttling service tracks resource settings for specific uses and caches the information in memory. Mail flow throttling settings are also known as a budget. Restarting the Microsoft Exchange Throttling service resets the mail flow throttling budgets.

每个邮箱都具有“ThrottlingPolicy”设置。此设置的默认值为空 ($null)。可以在 Set-Mailbox cmdlet 上使用 ThrottlingPolicy 参数为邮箱配置限制策略。Each mailbox has a ThrottlingPolicy setting. The default value for this setting is blank ($null). You can use the ThrottlingPolicy parameter on the Set-Mailbox cmdlet to configure a throttling policy for a mailbox.

有关详细信息,请参阅下列主题:For more information, see the following topics: