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如何:规划混合 Azure Active Directory 加入的实施How To: Plan your hybrid Azure Active Directory join implementation

与用户类似,设备是要保护的,并且随时随时要用来保护资源的另一个核心标识。In a similar way to a user, a device is another core identity you want to protect and use it to protect your resources at any time and from any location. 若要实现此目的,可以使用下述某种方法将设备标识引入 Azure AD 并对其进行管理:You can accomplish this goal by bringing and managing device identities in Azure AD using one of the following methods:

  • Azure AD 加入Azure AD join
  • 混合 Azure AD 加入Hybrid Azure AD join
  • Azure AD 注册Azure AD registration

借助将设备引入 Azure AD,可通过云和本地资源中的单一登录 (SSO) 最大程度地提高用户的工作效率。By bringing your devices to Azure AD, you maximize your users' productivity through single sign-on (SSO) across your cloud and on-premises resources. 同时,可以使用条件访问保护对云和本地资源的访问。At the same time, you can secure access to your cloud and on-premises resources with Conditional Access.

如果你有本地 Active Directory (AD) 环境,并且想要将已加入 AD 域的计算机联接到 Azure AD,则可以通过执行混合 Azure AD 联接来实现此目的。If you have an on-premises Active Directory (AD) environment and you want to join your AD domain-joined computers to Azure AD, you can accomplish this by doing hybrid Azure AD join. 本文提供了在环境中实现混合 Azure AD 加入的相关步骤。This article provides you with the related steps to implement a hybrid Azure AD join in your environment.

先决条件Prerequisites

本文假设读者已阅读 Azure Active Directory 中的设备标识管理简介This article assumes that you are familiar with the Introduction to device identity management in Azure Active Directory.

备注

Windows 10 混合 Azure AD 联接所需的最低域控制器版本为 Windows Server 2008 R2。The minimum required domain controller version for Windows 10 hybrid Azure AD join is Windows Server 2008 R2.

规划实施Plan your implementation

若要规划混合 Azure AD 实现,应做好以下准备:To plan your hybrid Azure AD implementation, you should familiarize yourself with:

  • 查看支持的设备Review supported devices
  • 查看应该知道的事项Review things you should know
  • 查看混合 Azure AD 联接的受控验证Review controlled validation of hybrid Azure AD join
  • 基于标识基础结构选择场景Select your scenario based on your identity infrastructure
  • 查看混合 Azure AD 联接的本地 AD UPN 支持Review on-premises AD UPN support for hybrid Azure AD join

查看支持的设备Review supported devices

混合 Azure AD 加入支持多种 Windows 设备。Hybrid Azure AD join supports a broad range of Windows devices. 由于运行旧版 Windows 的设备的配置需要额外或不同的步骤,支持的设备划分为两个类别:Because the configuration for devices running older versions of Windows requires additional or different steps, the supported devices are grouped into two categories:

Windows 当前设备Windows current devices

  • Windows 10Windows 10
  • Windows Server 2016Windows Server 2016
    • 注意:Azure 国家云客户需要版本 1803Note: Azure National cloud customers require version 1803
  • Windows Server 2019Windows Server 2019

对于运行 Windows 桌面操作系统的设备,Windows 10 版本信息一文中列出了支持的版本。For devices running the Windows desktop operating system, supported version are listed in this article Windows 10 release information. Microsoft 建议的最佳做法是升级到最新版本的 Windows 10。As a best practice, Microsoft recommends you upgrade to the latest version of Windows 10.

Windows 下层设备Windows down-level devices

第一个规划步骤是审查环境,并确定是否需要支持 Windows 下层设备。As a first planning step, you should review your environment and determine whether you need to support Windows down-level devices.

查看应该知道的事项Review things you should know

不支持的方案Unsupported scenarios

  • 如果你的环境中包含将标识数据同步到多个 Azure AD 租户的单个 AD 林,则不支持混合 Azure AD 联接。Hybrid Azure AD join is currently not supported if your environment consists of a single AD forest synchronizing identity data to more than one Azure AD tenant.

  • 运行域控制器 (DC) 角色的 Windows Server 不支持混合 Azure AD 联接。Hybrid Azure AD join is not supported for Windows Server running the Domain Controller (DC) role.

  • 使用凭据漫游或用户配置文件漫游或强制性配置文件时,Windows 下级设备上不支持混合 Azure AD 联接。Hybrid Azure AD join is not supported on Windows down-level devices when using credential roaming or user profile roaming or mandatory profile.

  • Server Core OS 不支持任何类型的设备注册。Server Core OS doesn't support any type of device registration.

  • (USMT) 用户状态迁移工具不能用于设备注册。User State Migration Tool (USMT) doesn't work with device registration.

OS 映像注意事项OS imaging considerations

  • 如果依赖于系统准备工具 (Sysprep),并且使用 Windows 10 1809 以前版本的映像进行安装,请确保该映像不是来自已在 Azure AD 中注册为混合 Azure AD 联接的设备。If you are relying on the System Preparation Tool (Sysprep) and if you are using a pre-Windows 10 1809 image for installation, make sure that image is not from a device that is already registered with Azure AD as Hybrid Azure AD join.

  • 如果依赖于使用虚拟机 (VM) 快照来创建更多的 VM,请确保快照不是来自已在 Azure AD 中注册为混合 Azure AD 联接的 VM。If you are relying on a Virtual Machine (VM) snapshot to create additional VMs, make sure that snapshot is not from a VM that is already registered with Azure AD as Hybrid Azure AD join.

  • 如果使用统一写入筛选器和类似的技术在重新启动时清除对磁盘的更改,那么必须在设备加入混合 Azure AD 后应用它们。If you are using Unified Write Filter and similar technologies that clear changes to the disk at reboot, they must be applied after the device is Hybrid Azure AD joined. 在完成混合 Azure AD 联接之前启用此类技术将导致设备在每次重新启动时都会脱离Enabling such technologies prior to completion of Hybrid Azure AD join will result in the device getting unjoined on every reboot

处理已注册 Azure AD 状态的设备Handling devices with Azure AD registered state

如果已加入 Windows 10 域的设备向租户注册了 Azure AD,则可能会导致已加入混合 Azure AD 和已注册 Azure AD 设备的双重状态。If your Windows 10 domain joined devices are Azure AD registered to your tenant, it could lead to a dual state of Hybrid Azure AD joined and Azure AD registered device. 建议升级到 Windows 10 1803(应用了 KB4489894)或更高版本来自动处理此场景。We recommend upgrading to Windows 10 1803 (with KB4489894 applied) or above to automatically address this scenario. 在 1803 之前的版本中,需要手动删除已注册 Azure AD 状态,然后才能启用混合 Azure AD 联接。In pre-1803 releases, you will need to remove the Azure AD registered state manually before enabling Hybrid Azure AD join. 在 1803 及更高版本中,进行了以下更改来避免此双重状态:In 1803 and above releases, the following changes have been made to avoid this dual state:

  • 在设备已加入混合 Azure AD 且同一用户登录后,系统会自动删除用户的任何现有的已注册 Azure AD 状态Any existing Azure AD registered state for a user would be automatically removed after the device is Hybrid Azure AD joined and the same user logs in. 例如,如果用户 A 在设备上有已注册 Azure AD 的状态,则仅当用户 A 登录到设备时,才会清除用户 A 的双重状态。For example, if User A had an Azure AD registered state on the device, the dual state for User A is cleaned up only when User A logs in to the device. 如果同一设备上有多个用户,则当这些用户登录时,系统会单独清除双重状态。If there are multiple users on the same device, the dual state is cleaned up individually when those users log in. 除了删除已注册 Azure AD 状态外,如果注册是通过自动注册进行的 Azure AD 注册,Windows 10 还会从 Intune 或其他 MDM 取消注册该设备。In addition to removing the Azure AD registered state, Windows 10 will also unenroll the device from Intune or other MDM, if the enrollment happened as part of the Azure AD registration via auto-enrollment.
  • 可以通过将注册表值 "BlockAADWorkplaceJoin"=dword:00000001 添加到 HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WorkplaceJoin阻止将已加入域的设备注册到 Azure AD。You can prevent your domain joined device from being Azure AD registered by adding the following registry value to HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\WorkplaceJoin: "BlockAADWorkplaceJoin"=dword:00000001.
  • 在 Windows 10 1803 中,如果已配置 Windows Hello 企业版,则用户需要在清除双重状态后重新设置 Windows Hello 企业版。此问题已通过 KB4512509 解决In Windows 10 1803, if you have Windows Hello for Business configured, the user needs to re-setup Windows Hello for Business after the dual state clean up.This issue has been addressed with KB4512509

备注

尽管 Windows 10 会在本地自动删除已注册 Azure AD 状态,但如果 Azure AD 中的设备对象由 Intune 管理,则不会立即将其删除。Even though Windows 10 automatically removes the Azure AD registered state locally, the device object in Azure AD is not immediately deleted if it is managed by Intune. 可以通过运行 dsregcmd /status 来验证是否已删除已注册 Azure AD 状态,并基于这一点将设备视为没有注册到 Azure AD。You can validate the removal of Azure AD registered state by running dsregcmd /status and consider the device not to be Azure AD registered based on that.

其他注意事项Additional considerations

  • 如果你的环境使用虚拟桌面基础结构 (VDI),请参阅设备标识和桌面虚拟化If your environment uses virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI), see Device identity and desktop virtualization.

  • 混合 Azure AD 联接受符合 FIPS 的 TPM 2.0 支持,但不受 TPM 1.2 支持。Hybrid Azure AD join is supported for FIPS-compliant TPM 2.0 and not supported for TPM 1.2. 如果设备具有符合 FIPS 的 TPM 1.2,则必须先将其禁用,然后才能继续混合 Azure AD 联接。If your devices have FIPS-compliant TPM 1.2, you must disable them before proceeding with Hybrid Azure AD join. Microsoft 不提供任何工具来禁用 TPM 的 FIPS 模式,因为这依赖于 TPM 制造商。Microsoft does not provide any tools for disabling FIPS mode for TPMs as it is dependent on the TPM manufacturer. 请联系硬件 OEM 获取支持。Please contact your hardware OEM for support.

  • 从 Windows 10 1903 版本开始,TPM 1.2 不再与混合 Azure AD 联接一起使用,具有这些 TPM 的设备将被视为没有 TPM。Starting from Windows 10 1903 release, TPMs 1.2 are not used with hybrid Azure AD join and devices with those TPMs will be considered as if they don't have a TPM.

  • 从 Windows 10 2004 更新开始,才支持 UPN 更改。UPN changes are only supported starting Windows 10 2004 update. 对于 Windows 10 2004 更新之前的设备,用户设备上将出现 SSO 和条件访问问题。For devices prior to Windows 10 2004 update, users would have SSO and Conditional Access issues on their devices. 若要解决此问题,需要从 Azure AD 中分离设备(使用提升的权限运行“dsregcmd /leave”),然后重新联接(自动执行)。To resolve this issue, you need to unjoin the device from Azure AD (run "dsregcmd /leave" with elevated privileges) and rejoin (happens automatically). 但是,使用 Windows Hello 企业版登录的用户不会遇到这个问题。However, users signing in with Windows Hello for Business do not face this issue.

查看混合 Azure AD 联接的受控验证Review controlled validation of hybrid Azure AD join

满足所有先决条件后,Windows 设备将自动注册为 Azure AD 租户中的设备。When all of the pre-requisites are in place, Windows devices will automatically register as devices in your Azure AD tenant. Azure AD 中这些设备标识的状态称为混合 Azure AD 联接。The state of these device identities in Azure AD is referred as hybrid Azure AD join. 有关本文中涉及的概念的详细信息,请参阅 Azure Active Directory 中设备标识管理的简介一文。More information about the concepts covered in this article can be found in the article Introduction to device identity management in Azure Active Directory.

组织可能需要在整个组织中同时启用混合 Azure AD 联接之前对其进行受控验证。Organizations may want to do a controlled validation of hybrid Azure AD join before enabling it across their entire organization all at once. 查看混合 Azure AD 联接的受控验证一文,了解如何实现它。Review the article controlled validation of hybrid Azure AD join to understand how to accomplish it.

基于标识基础结构选择场景Select your scenario based on your identity infrastructure

混合 Azure AD 联接既适用于托管环境,也适用于联合环境,具体取决于 UPN 是否可路由。Hybrid Azure AD join works with both, managed and federated environments depending on whether the UPN is routable or non-routable. 有关受支持场景的表,请查看页面底部。See bottom of the page for table on supported scenarios.

托管环境Managed environment

可使用无缝单一登录通过密码哈希同步 (PHS)直通身份验证 (PTA) 来部署托管环境。A managed environment can be deployed either through Password Hash Sync (PHS) or Pass Through Authentication (PTA) with Seamless Single Sign On.

这些方案不需要配置联合服务器进行身份验证。These scenarios don't require you to configure a federation server for authentication.

备注

仅支持使用分阶段推出的云身份验证启动 Windows 10 1903 更新Cloud authentication using Staged rollout is only supported starting Windows 10 1903 update

联合环境Federated environment

联合环境应具有支持以下要求的标识提供者。A federated environment should have an identity provider that supports the following requirements. 如果已有使用 Active Directory 联合身份验证服务 (AD FS) 的联合环境,则已经支持以下要求。If you have a federated environment using Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS), then the below requirements are already supported.

  • WIAORMULTIAUTHN 声明: 此声明是为 Windows 下层设备执行混合Azure AD 加入所必需的。WIAORMULTIAUTHN claim: This claim is required to do hybrid Azure AD join for Windows down-level devices.
  • WS-Trust 协议: 使用 Azure AD 对当前已加入混合 Azure AD 的 Windows 设备进行身份验证时需要此协议。WS-Trust protocol: This protocol is required to authenticate Windows current hybrid Azure AD joined devices with Azure AD. 使用 AD FS 时,需要启用以下 WS-Trust 终结点:/adfs/services/trust/2005/windowstransportWhen you're using AD FS, you need to enable the following WS-Trust endpoints: /adfs/services/trust/2005/windowstransport
    /adfs/services/trust/13/windowstransport
    /adfs/services/trust/2005/usernamemixed /adfs/services/trust/13/usernamemixed /adfs/services/trust/2005/certificatemixed /adfs/services/trust/13/certificatemixed

警告

adfs/services/trust/2005/windowstransportadfs/services/trust/13/windowstransport 只能作为面向 Intranet 的终结点启用,不能通过 Web 应用程序代理作为面向 Extranet 的终结点公开。Both adfs/services/trust/2005/windowstransport or adfs/services/trust/13/windowstransport should be enabled as intranet facing endpoints only and must NOT be exposed as extranet facing endpoints through the Web Application Proxy. 若要详细了解如何禁用 WS-Trust Windows 终结点,请参阅在代理上禁用 WS-Trust Windows 终结点To learn more on how to disable WS-Trust Windows endpoints, see Disable WS-Trust Windows endpoints on the proxy. 可以通过 AD FS 管理控制台中的“服务” > “终结点”查看已启用哪些终结点。You can see what endpoints are enabled through the AD FS management console under Service > Endpoints.

备注

Azure AD 不支持托管域中的智能卡或证书。Azure AD does not support smartcards or certificates in managed domains.

从版本 1.1.819.0 开始,Azure AD Connect 提供了配置混合 Azure AD 联接的向导。Beginning with version 1.1.819.0, Azure AD Connect provides you with a wizard to configure hybrid Azure AD join. 该向导可让你显著简化配置过程。The wizard enables you to significantly simplify the configuration process. 如果无法安装所需版本的 Azure AD Connect,请参阅如何手动配置设备注册If installing the required version of Azure AD Connect is not an option for you, see how to manually configure device registration.

根据与标识基础结构匹配的场景,请参阅:Based on the scenario that matches your identity infrastructure, see:

查看混合 Azure AD 联接的本地 AD 用户 UPN 支持Review on-premises AD users UPN support for Hybrid Azure AD join

有时,本地 AD 用户 UPN 可能与 Azure AD UPN 不同。Sometimes, your on-premises AD users UPNs could be different from your Azure AD UPNs. 在这种情况下,Windows 10 混合 Azure AD join 根据 身份验证方法、域类型和 Windows 10 版本为本地 AD upn 提供有限的支持。In such cases, Windows 10 Hybrid Azure AD join provides limited support for on-premises AD UPNs based on the authentication method, domain type and Windows 10 version. 环境中可以存在两种类型的本地 AD UPN:There are two types of on-premises AD UPNs that can exist in your environment:

  • 可路由用户 UPN:可路由的 UPN 具有已向域注册机构注册的有效的已验证域。Routable users UPN: A routable UPN has a valid verified domain, that is registered with a domain registrar. 例如,如果 contoso.com 是 Azure AD 中的主域,则 contoso.org 是 Contoso 拥有的且已在 Azure AD 中验证的本地 AD 中的主域For example, if contoso.com is the primary domain in Azure AD, contoso.org is the primary domain in on-premises AD owned by Contoso and verified in Azure AD
  • 不可路由用户 UPN:非可路由的 UPN 没有已验证域。Non-routable users UPN: A non-routable UPN does not have a verified domain. 它仅在组织的专用网络内适用。It is applicable only within your organization's private network. 例如,如果 contoso.com 是 Azure AD 中的主域,则 contoso.local 是本地 AD 中的主域,但在 Internet 中不是可验证的域,且仅可在 Contoso 的网络内使用。For example, if contoso.com is the primary domain in Azure AD, contoso.local is the primary domain in on-premises AD but is not a verifiable domain in the internet and only used within Contoso's network.

备注

本部分中的信息仅适用于本地用户 UPN。The information in this section applies only to an on-premises users UPN. 它不适用于本地计算机域后缀(例如:computer1.contoso.local)。It isn't applicable to an on-premises computer domain suffix (example: computer1.contoso.local).

下表提供了 Windows 10 混合 Azure AD 加入中对这些本地 AD UPN 的支持情况的详细信息The table below provides details on support for these on-premises AD UPNs in Windows 10 Hybrid Azure AD join

本地 AD UPN 类型Type of on-premises AD UPN 域类型Domain type Windows 10 版本Windows 10 version 说明Description
可路由的Routable 联合Federated 从 1703 版本开始From 1703 release 正式发布Generally available
非可路由的Non-routable 联合Federated 从 1803 版本开始From 1803 release 正式发布Generally available
可路由的Routable 托管Managed 从 1803 版本开始From 1803 release 正式发布,不支持 Windows 锁屏上的 Azure AD SSPRGenerally available, Azure AD SSPR on Windows lockscreen is not supported
非可路由的Non-routable 托管Managed 不支持Not supported

后续步骤Next steps