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使用资源管理器模板创建经典指标警报Create a classic metric alert with a Resource Manager template

警告

本文介绍了如何创建旧式经典指标警报。This article describes how to create older classic metric alerts. Azure Monitor 现在支持较新的近实时指标警报和新的警报体验Azure Monitor now supports newer near-real time metric alerts and a new alerts experience. 公有云用户会 用经典警报,但在 31 年 5 2021 月31日 之前仍处于有限使用状态。Classic alerts are retired for public cloud users, though still in limited use until 31 May 2021. Azure 政府云和 Azure 中国世纪互联的经典警报将于 2024 年2月29日 停用。Classic alerts for Azure Government cloud and Azure China 21Vianet will retire on 29 February 2024.

本文说明如何使用 Azure 资源管理器模板配置 Azure 经典指标警报。This article shows how you can use an Azure Resource Manager template to configure Azure classic metric alerts. 这样,便可以在创建资源时自动对资源设置警报,确保正确监视所有资源。This enables you to automatically set up alerts on your resources when they are created to ensure that all resources are monitored correctly.

基本步骤如下所示:The basic steps are as follows:

  1. 创建一个描述如何创建警报的 JSON 文件作为模板。Create a template as a JSON file that describes how to create the alert.
  2. 使用任意部署方法部署模板Deploy the template using any deployment method.

下面我们先单独针对警报,然后针对创建其他资源期间的警报,描述如何创建 Resource Manager 模板。Below we describe how to create a Resource Manager template first for an alert alone, then for an alert during the creation of another resource.

经典指标警报的资源管理器模板Resource Manager template for a classic metric alert

若要使用 Resource Manager 模板创建警报,需要创建 Microsoft.Insights/alertRules 类型的资源,并填充所有相关属性。To create an alert using a Resource Manager template, you create a resource of type Microsoft.Insights/alertRules and fill in all related properties. 下面是用于创建警报规则的模板。Below is a template that creates an alert rule.

{
    "$schema": "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2015-01-01/deploymentTemplate.json#",
    "contentVersion": "1.0.0.0",
    "parameters": {
        "alertName": {
            "type": "string",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Name of alert"
            }
        },
        "alertDescription": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Description of alert"
            }
        },
        "isEnabled": {
            "type": "bool",
            "defaultValue": true,
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Specifies whether alerts are enabled"
            }
        },
        "resourceId": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Resource ID of the resource emitting the metric that will be used for the comparison."
            }
        },
        "metricName": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Name of the metric used in the comparison to activate the alert."
            }
        },
        "operator": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "GreaterThan",
            "allowedValues": [
                "GreaterThan",
                "GreaterThanOrEqual",
                "LessThan",
                "LessThanOrEqual"
            ],
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Operator comparing the current value with the threshold value."
            }
        },
        "threshold": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "The threshold value at which the alert is activated."
            }
        },
        "aggregation": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "Average",
            "allowedValues": [
                "Average",
                "Last",
                "Maximum",
                "Minimum",
                "Total"
            ],
            "metadata": {
                "description": "How the data that is collected should be combined over time."
            }
        },
        "windowSize": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "PT5M",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Period of time used to monitor alert activity based on the threshold. Must be between five minutes and one day. ISO 8601 duration format."
            }
        },
        "sendToServiceOwners": {
            "type": "bool",
            "defaultValue": true,
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Specifies whether alerts are sent to service owners"
            }
        },
        "customEmailAddresses": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "Comma-delimited email addresses where the alerts are also sent"
            }
        },
        "webhookUrl": {
            "type": "string",
            "defaultValue": "",
            "metadata": {
                "description": "URL of a webhook that will receive an HTTP POST when the alert activates."
            }
        }
    },
    "variables": {
        "customEmails": "[split(parameters('customEmailAddresses'), ',')]"
    },
    "resources": [
        {
            "type": "Microsoft.Insights/alertRules",
            "name": "[parameters('alertName')]",
            "location": "[resourceGroup().location]",
            "apiVersion": "2016-03-01",
            "properties": {
                "name": "[parameters('alertName')]",
                "description": "[parameters('alertDescription')]",
                "isEnabled": "[parameters('isEnabled')]",
                "condition": {
                    "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.ThresholdRuleCondition",
                    "dataSource": {
                        "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.RuleMetricDataSource",
                        "resourceUri": "[parameters('resourceId')]",
                        "metricName": "[parameters('metricName')]"
                    },
                    "operator": "[parameters('operator')]",
                    "threshold": "[parameters('threshold')]",
                    "windowSize": "[parameters('windowSize')]",
                    "timeAggregation": "[parameters('aggregation')]"
                },
                "actions": [
                    {
                        "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.RuleEmailAction",
                        "sendToServiceOwners": "[parameters('sendToServiceOwners')]",
                        "customEmails": "[variables('customEmails')]"
                    },
                    {
                        "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.RuleWebhookAction",
                        "serviceUri": "[parameters('webhookUrl')]",
                        "properties": {}
                    }
                ]
            }
        }
    ]
}

此处提供了警报规则的架构和属性说明。An explanation of the schema and properties for an alert rule is available here.

具有经典指标警报的资源的资源管理器模板Resource Manager template for a resource with a classic metric alert

在创建的资源过程中创建警报时,Resource Manager 模板上的警报通常很有用。An alert on a Resource Manager template is most often useful when creating an alert while creating a resource. 例如,可能想要确保每次部署虚拟机时均设置了“CPU % > 80”规则。For example, you may want to ensure that a “CPU % > 80” rule is set up every time you deploy a Virtual Machine. 为此,请在 VM 模板的资源数组中将警报规则添加为资源,使用 dependsOn 属性将依赖项添加到 VM 资源 ID。To do this, you add the alert rule as a resource in the resource array for your VM template and add a dependency using the dependsOn property to the VM resource ID. 下面是创建 Windows VM 并在 CPU 利用率高于 80% 时添加警报以通知订阅管理员的完整示例。Here’s a full example that creates a Windows VM and adds an alert that notifies subscription admins when the CPU utilization goes above 80%.

{
    "$schema": "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2014-04-01-preview/deploymentTemplate.json#",
    "contentVersion": "1.0.0.0",
    "parameters": {
        "newStorageAccountName": {
            "type": "string",
            "metadata": {
                "Description": "The name of the storage account where the VM disk is stored."
            }
        },
        "adminUsername": {
            "type": "string",
            "metadata": {
                "Description": "The name of the administrator account on the VM."
            }
        },
        "adminPassword": {
            "type": "securestring",
            "metadata": {
                "Description": "The administrator account password on the VM."
            }
        },
        "dnsNameForPublicIP": {
            "type": "string",
            "metadata": {
                "Description": "The name of the public IP address used to access the VM."
            }
        }
    },
    "variables": {
        "location": "Central US",
        "imagePublisher": "MicrosoftWindowsServer",
        "imageOffer": "WindowsServer",
        "windowsOSVersion": "2012-R2-Datacenter",
        "OSDiskName": "osdisk1",
        "nicName": "nc1",
        "addressPrefix": "10.0.0.0/16",
        "subnetName": "sn1",
        "subnetPrefix": "10.0.0.0/24",
        "storageAccountType": "Standard_LRS",
        "publicIPAddressName": "ip1",
        "publicIPAddressType": "Dynamic",
        "vmStorageAccountContainerName": "vhds",
        "vmName": "vm1",
        "vmSize": "Standard_A0",
        "virtualNetworkName": "vn1",
        "vnetID": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks',variables('virtualNetworkName'))]",
        "subnetRef": "[concat(variables('vnetID'),'/subnets/',variables('subnetName'))]",
        "vmID":"[resourceId('Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines',variables('vmName'))]",
        "alertName": "highCPUOnVM",
        "alertDescription":"CPU is over 80%",
        "alertIsEnabled": true,
        "resourceId": "",
        "metricName": "Percentage CPU",
        "operator": "GreaterThan",
        "threshold": "80",
        "windowSize": "PT5M",
        "aggregation": "Average",
        "customEmails": "",
        "sendToServiceOwners": true,
        "webhookUrl": "http://testwebhook.test"
    },
    "resources": [
        {
            "type": "Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts",
            "name": "[parameters('newStorageAccountName')]",
            "apiVersion": "2015-06-15",
            "location": "[variables('location')]",
            "properties": {
                "accountType": "[variables('storageAccountType')]"
            }
        },
        {
            "apiVersion": "2016-03-30",
            "type": "Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses",
            "name": "[variables('publicIPAddressName')]",
            "location": "[variables('location')]",
            "properties": {
                "publicIPAllocationMethod": "[variables('publicIPAddressType')]",
                "dnsSettings": {
                    "domainNameLabel": "[parameters('dnsNameForPublicIP')]"
                }
            }
        },
        {
            "apiVersion": "2016-03-30",
            "type": "Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks",
            "name": "[variables('virtualNetworkName')]",
            "location": "[variables('location')]",
            "properties": {
                "addressSpace": {
                    "addressPrefixes": [
                        "[variables('addressPrefix')]"
                    ]
                },
                "subnets": [
                    {
                        "name": "[variables('subnetName')]",
                        "properties": {
                            "addressPrefix": "[variables('subnetPrefix')]"
                        }
                    }
                ]
            }
        },
        {
            "apiVersion": "2016-03-30",
            "type": "Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces",
            "name": "[variables('nicName')]",
            "location": "[variables('location')]",
            "dependsOn": [
                "[concat('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses/', variables('publicIPAddressName'))]",
                "[concat('Microsoft.Network/virtualNetworks/', variables('virtualNetworkName'))]"
            ],
            "properties": {
                "ipConfigurations": [
                    {
                        "name": "ipconfig1",
                        "properties": {
                            "privateIPAllocationMethod": "Dynamic",
                            "publicIPAddress": {
                                "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/publicIPAddresses',variables('publicIPAddressName'))]"
                            },
                            "subnet": {
                                "id": "[variables('subnetRef')]"
                            }
                        }
                    }
                ]
            }
        },
        {
            "apiVersion": "2016-03-30",
            "type": "Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines",
            "name": "[variables('vmName')]",
            "location": "[variables('location')]",
            "dependsOn": [
                "[concat('Microsoft.Storage/storageAccounts/', parameters('newStorageAccountName'))]",
                "[concat('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces/', variables('nicName'))]"
            ],
            "properties": {
                "hardwareProfile": {
                    "vmSize": "[variables('vmSize')]"
                },
                "osProfile": {
                    "computername": "[variables('vmName')]",
                    "adminUsername": "[parameters('adminUsername')]",
                    "adminPassword": "[parameters('adminPassword')]"
                },
                "storageProfile": {
                    "imageReference": {
                        "publisher": "[variables('imagePublisher')]",
                        "offer": "[variables('imageOffer')]",
                        "sku": "[variables('windowsOSVersion')]",
                        "version": "latest"
                    },
                    "osDisk": {
                        "name": "osdisk",
                        "vhd": {
                            "uri": "[concat('http://',parameters('newStorageAccountName'),'.blob.core.windows.net/',variables('vmStorageAccountContainerName'),'/',variables('OSDiskName'),'.vhd')]"
                        },
                        "caching": "ReadWrite",
                        "createOption": "FromImage"
                    }
                },
                "networkProfile": {
                    "networkInterfaces": [
                        {
                            "id": "[resourceId('Microsoft.Network/networkInterfaces',variables('nicName'))]"
                        }
                    ]
                }
            }
        },
        {
            "type": "Microsoft.Insights/alertRules",
            "name": "[variables('alertName')]",
            "dependsOn": [
                "[variables('vmID')]"
            ],
            "location": "[variables('location')]",
            "apiVersion": "2016-03-01",
            "properties": {
                "name": "[variables('alertName')]",
                "description": "variables('alertDescription')",
                "isEnabled": "[variables('alertIsEnabled')]",
                "condition": {
                    "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.ThresholdRuleCondition",
                    "dataSource": {
                        "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.RuleMetricDataSource",
                        "resourceUri": "[variables('vmID')]",
                        "metricName": "[variables('metricName')]"
                    },
                    "operator": "[variables('operator')]",
                    "threshold": "[variables('threshold')]",
                    "windowSize": "[variables('windowSize')]",
                    "timeAggregation": "[variables('aggregation')]"
                },
                "actions": [
                    {
                        "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.RuleEmailAction",
                        "sendToServiceOwners": "[variables('sendToServiceOwners')]",
                        "customEmails": "[variables('customEmails')]"
                    },
                    {
                        "odata.type": "Microsoft.Azure.Management.Insights.Models.RuleWebhookAction",
                        "serviceUri": "[variables('webhookUrl')]",
                        "properties": {}
                    }
                ]
            }
        }
    ]
}

后续步骤Next Steps