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使用 Resource Manager 模板和 Azure PowerShell 部署资源Deploy resources with Resource Manager templates and Azure PowerShell

本文介绍如何配合使用 Azure PowerShell 与资源管理器模板,以将资源部署到 Azure。This article explains how to use Azure PowerShell with Resource Manager templates to deploy your resources to Azure. 如果不熟悉部署和管理 Azure 解决方案的概念,请参阅 Azure 资源管理器概述If you aren't familiar with the concepts of deploying and managing your Azure solutions, see Azure Resource Manager overview.

部署的资源管理器模板可以是计算机上的本地文件,也可以是位于 GitHub 等存储库中的外部文件。The Resource Manager template you deploy can either be a local file on your machine or an external file that is located in a repository like GitHub. 本文中部署的模板以 GitHub 中的存储帐户模板的形式提供。The template you deploy in this article is available as storage account template in GitHub.

必要时,请使用 Azure PowerShell 指南中的说明安装 Azure PowerShell 模块,然后运行 Connect-AzureRmAccount 创建与 Azure 的连接。If needed, install the Azure PowerShell module using the instructions found in the Azure PowerShell guide, and then run Connect-AzureRmAccount to create a connection with Azure.

从本地计算机部署模板Deploy a template from your local machine

将资源部署到 Azure 时,执行以下操作:When deploying resources to Azure, you:

  1. 登录到 Azure 帐户Sign in to your Azure account
  2. 创建用作已部署资源的容器的资源组。Create a resource group that serves as the container for the deployed resources. 资源组名称只能包含字母数字字符、句点、下划线、连字符和括号。The name of the resource group can only include alphanumeric characters, periods, underscores, hyphens, and parenthesis. 它最多可以包含 90 个字符。It can be up to 90 characters. 它不能以句点结尾。It can't end in a period.
  3. 将定义了要创建的资源的模板部署到资源组Deploy to the resource group the template that defines the resources to create

模板可以包括可用于自定义部署的参数。A template can include parameters that enable you to customize the deployment. 例如,可以提供为特定环境(如开发环境、测试环境和生产环境)定制的值。For example, you can provide values that are tailored for a particular environment (such as dev, test, and production). 示例模板定义了存储帐户 SKU 的参数。The sample template defines a parameter for the storage account SKU.

以下示例将创建一个资源组,并从本地计算机部署模板:The following example creates a resource group, and deploys a template from your local machine:

Connect-AzureRmAccount

Select-AzureRmSubscription -SubscriptionName <yourSubscriptionName>

New-AzureRmResourceGroup -Name ExampleResourceGroup -Location "South Central US"
New-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment -Name ExampleDeployment -ResourceGroupName ExampleResourceGroup `
  -TemplateFile c:\MyTemplates\storage.json -storageAccountType Standard_GRS

部署可能需要几分钟才能完成。The deployment can take a few minutes to complete. 完成后,会看到一条包含结果的消息:When it finishes, you see a message that includes the result:

ProvisioningState       : Succeeded

从外部源部署模板Deploy a template from an external source

可能更愿意将 Resource Manager 模板存储在外部位置,而不是将它们存储在本地计算机上。Instead of storing Resource Manager templates on your local machine, you may prefer to store them in an external location. 可以将模板存储在源控件存储库(例如 GitHub)中。You can store templates in a source control repository (such as GitHub). 另外,还可以将其存储在 Azure 存储帐户中,以便在组织中共享访问。Or, you can store them in an Azure storage account for shared access in your organization.

若要部署外部模板,请使用 TemplateUri 参数。To deploy an external template, use the TemplateUri parameter. 使用示例中的 URI 从 GitHub 部署示例模板。Use the URI in the example to deploy the sample template from GitHub.

New-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment -Name ExampleDeployment -ResourceGroupName ExampleResourceGroup `
  -TemplateUri https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Azure/azure-quickstart-templates/master/101-storage-account-create/azuredeploy.json `
  -storageAccountType Standard_GRS

前面的示例要求模板的 URI 可公开访问,它适用于大多数情况,因为模板应该不会包含敏感数据。The preceding example requires a publicly accessible URI for the template, which works for most scenarios because your template shouldn't include sensitive data. 如果需要指定敏感数据(如管理员密码),请以安全参数的形式传递该值。If you need to specify sensitive data (like an admin password), pass that value as a secure parameter. 但是,如果不希望模板可公开访问,可以通过将其存储在专用存储容器中来保护它。However, if you don't want your template to be publicly accessible, you can protect it by storing it in a private storage container. 有关部署需要共享访问签名 (SAS) 令牌的模板的信息,请参阅部署具有 SAS 令牌的专用模板For information about deploying a template that requires a shared access signature (SAS) token, see Deploy private template with SAS token.

从 Cloud Shell 部署模板Deploy template from Cloud Shell

可以使用 Cloud Shell 来部署模板。You can use Cloud Shell to deploy your template. 但是,必须先将模板加载到 Cloud Shell 的存储帐户。However, you must first load your template into the storage account for your Cloud Shell. 如果尚未使用过 Cloud Shell,请参阅 Azure Cloud Shell 概述,了解如何设置它。If you have not used Cloud Shell, see Overview of Azure Cloud Shell for information about setting it up.

  1. 登录到 Azure 门户Sign in to the Azure portal.

  2. 选择 Cloud Shell 资源组。Select your Cloud Shell resource group. 名称模式为 cloud-shell-storage-<region>The name pattern is cloud-shell-storage-<region>.

    选择资源组

  3. 选择适用于 Cloud Shell 的存储帐户。Select the storage account for your Cloud Shell.

    选择存储帐户

  4. 选择“Blob”。Select Blobs.

    选择 Blob

  5. 选择“+ 容器”。Select + Container.

    添加容器

  6. 为容器指定名称和访问级别。Give your container a name and an access level. 本文中的示例模板未包含任何敏感信息,因此允许进行匿名读取访问。The sample template in this article contains no sensitive information, so allow anonymous read access. 选择“确定”。Select OK.

    提供容器值

  7. 选择你创建的容器。Select the container you created.

    选择新容器

  8. 选择“上传”。Select Upload.

    上传 blob

  9. 找到并上传模板。Find and upload your template.

    上传文件

  10. 在它上传后,选择模板。After it has uploaded, select the template.

    选择新模板

  11. 复制 URL。Copy the URL.

    复制 URL

  12. 打开提示符。Open the prompt.

    打开 Cloud Shell

在 Cloud Shell 中使用以下命令:In the Cloud Shell, use the following commands:

New-AzureRmResourceGroup -Name ExampleResourceGroup -Location "South Central US"
New-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment -ResourceGroupName ExampleResourceGroup `
  -TemplateUri <copied URL> `
  -storageAccountType Standard_GRS

部署到多个资源组或订阅Deploy to more than one resource group or subscription

通常情况下,将模板中的所有资源部署到单个资源组。Typically, you deploy all the resources in your template to a single resource group. 不过,在某些情况下,你可能希望将一组资源部署在一起但将其放置在不同的资源组或订阅中。However, there are scenarios where you want to deploy a set of resources together but place them in different resource groups or subscriptions. 在单个部署中可以仅部署到五个资源组。You can deploy to only five resource groups in a single deployment. 有关详细信息,将 Azure 资源部署到多个订阅或资源组For more information, see Deploy Azure resources to more than one subscription or resource group.

parametersParameters

若要传递参数值,可以使用内联参数或参数文件。To pass parameter values, you can use either inline parameters or a parameter file. 本文中前面的示例显示了内联参数。The preceding examples in this article show inline parameters.

内联参数Inline parameters

若要传递内联参数,请使用 New-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment 命令提供参数的名称。To pass inline parameters, provide the names of the parameter with the New-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment command. 例如,若要将字符串和数组传递给模板,请使用:For example, to pass a string and array to a template, use:

$arrayParam = "value1", "value2"
New-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment -ResourceGroupName testgroup `
  -TemplateFile c:\MyTemplates\demotemplate.json `
  -exampleString "inline string" `
  -exampleArray $arrayParam

还可以获取文件的内容并将该内容作为内联参数提供。You can also get the contents of file and provide that content as an inline parameter.

$arrayParam = "value1", "value2"
New-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment -ResourceGroupName testgroup `
  -TemplateFile c:\MyTemplates\demotemplate.json `
  -exampleString $(Get-Content -Path c:\MyTemplates\stringcontent.txt -Raw) `
  -exampleArray $arrayParam

当需要提供配置值时,从文件中获取参数值非常有用。Getting a parameter value from a file is helpful when you need to provide configuration values. 例如,可以为 Linux 虚拟机提供 cloud-init 值For example, you can provide cloud-init values for a Linux virtual machine.

参数文件Parameter files

与在脚本中以内联值的形式传递参数相比,可能会发现使用包含参数值的 JSON 文件更为容易。Rather than passing parameters as inline values in your script, you may find it easier to use a JSON file that contains the parameter values. 参数文件可以是本地文件,也可以是具有可访问 URI 的外部文件。The parameter file can be a local file or an external file with an accessible URI.

参数文件必须采用以下格式:The parameter file must be in the following format:

{
  "$schema": "https://schema.management.azure.com/schemas/2015-01-01/deploymentParameters.json#",
  "contentVersion": "1.0.0.0",
  "parameters": {
     "storageAccountType": {
         "value": "Standard_GRS"
     }
  }
}

请注意,parameters 部分包含与模板中定义的参数匹配的参数名称 (storageAccountType)。Notice that the parameters section includes a parameter name that matches the parameter defined in your template (storageAccountType). 参数文件针对该参数包含了一个值。The parameter file contains a value for the parameter. 此值在部署期间自动传递给模板。This value is automatically passed to the template during deployment. 可以创建多个参数文件,然后为方案传入适当的参数文件。You can create more than one parameter file, and then pass in the appropriate parameter file for the scenario.

复制上面的示例,并将其保存为名为 storage.parameters.json 的文件。Copy the preceding example and save it as a file named storage.parameters.json.

若要传递本地参数文件,请使用 TemplateParameterFile 参数:To pass a local parameter file, use the TemplateParameterFile parameter:

New-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment -Name ExampleDeployment -ResourceGroupName ExampleResourceGroup `
  -TemplateFile c:\MyTemplates\storage.json `
  -TemplateParameterFile c:\MyTemplates\storage.parameters.json

若要传递外部参数文件,请使用 TemplateParameterUri 参数:To pass an external parameter file, use the TemplateParameterUri parameter:

New-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment -Name ExampleDeployment -ResourceGroupName ExampleResourceGroup `
  -TemplateUri https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Azure/azure-quickstart-templates/master/101-storage-account-create/azuredeploy.json `
  -TemplateParameterUri https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Azure/azure-quickstart-templates/master/101-storage-account-create/azuredeploy.parameters.json

参数优先级Parameter precedence

可以在同一部署操作中使用内联参数和本地参数文件。You can use inline parameters and a local parameter file in the same deployment operation. 例如,可以在本地参数文件中指定某些值,并在部署期间添加其他内联值。For example, you can specify some values in the local parameter file and add other values inline during deployment. 如果同时为本地参数文件中的参数和内联参数提供值,则内联值优先。If you provide values for a parameter in both the local parameter file and inline, the inline value takes precedence.

但是,使用外部参数文件时,不能传递是内联值或来自本地文件的其他值。However, when you use an external parameter file, you can't pass other values either inline or from a local file. 如果在 TemplateParameterUri 参数中指定参数文件,则将忽略所有内联参数。When you specify a parameter file in the TemplateParameterUri parameter, all inline parameters are ignored. 提供外部文件中的所有参数值。Provide all parameter values in the external file. 如果模板包括参数文件中无法包括的敏感值,可将该值添加到密钥保管库,或者以内联方式动态提供所有参数值。If your template includes a sensitive value that you can't include in the parameter file, either add that value to a key vault, or dynamically provide all parameter values inline.

参数名冲突Parameter name conflicts

如果模板包括的一个参数与 PowerShell 命令中的某个参数同名,PowerShell 使用后缀 FromTemplate 显示模板的参数。If your template includes a parameter with the same name as one of the parameters in the PowerShell command, PowerShell presents the parameter from your template with the postfix FromTemplate. 例如,模板中名为 ResourceGroupName 的参数与 New-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment cmdlet 中的 ResourceGroupName 参数冲突。For example, a parameter named ResourceGroupName in your template conflicts with the ResourceGroupName parameter in the New-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment cmdlet. 系统会提示你提供 ResourceGroupNameFromTemplate 的值。You're prompted to provide a value for ResourceGroupNameFromTemplate. 通常,不应将参数命名为与用于部署操作的参数的名称相同以避免这种混乱。In general, you should avoid this confusion by not naming parameters with the same name as parameters used for deployment operations.

测试模板部署Test a template deployment

若要测试模板和参数值而不实际部署任何资源,请使用 Test-AzureRmResourceGroupDeploymentTo test your template and parameter values without actually deploying any resources, use Test-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment.

Test-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment -ResourceGroupName ExampleResourceGroup `
  -TemplateFile c:\MyTemplates\storage.json -storageAccountType Standard_GRS

如果没有检测到错误,该命令在没有响应的情况下完成。If no errors are detected, the command finishes without a response. 如果检测到错误,则该命令将返回一条错误消息。If an error is detected, the command returns an error message. 例如,如果为存储帐户 SKU 传递不正确的值,将返回以下错误:For example, passing an incorrect value for the storage account SKU, returns the following error:

Test-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment -ResourceGroupName testgroup `
  -TemplateFile c:\MyTemplates\storage.json -storageAccountType badSku

Code    : InvalidTemplate
Message : Deployment template validation failed: 'The provided value 'badSku' for the template parameter 'storageAccountType'
          at line '15' and column '24' is not valid. The parameter value is not part of the allowed value(s):
          'Standard_LRS,Standard_ZRS,Standard_GRS,Standard_RAGRS,Premium_LRS'.'.
Details :

如果模板有语法错误,该命令将返回一个错误,指示它无法分析该模板。If your template has a syntax error, the command returns an error indicating it couldn't parse the template. 该消息会指出分析错误的行号和位置。The message indicates the line number and position of the parsing error.

Test-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment : After parsing a value an unexpected character was encountered: 
  ". Path 'variables', line 31, position 3.

后续步骤Next steps