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vCore 模型概述 - Azure SQL 数据库和 Azure SQL 托管实例vCore model overview - Azure SQL Database and Azure SQL Managed Instance

适用于: Azure SQL 数据库 Azure SQL 托管实例

Azure SQL 数据库和 Azure SQL 托管实例使用的虚拟核心 (vCore) 购买模型具有下面几个优势:The virtual core (vCore) purchasing model used by Azure SQL Database and Azure SQL Managed Instance provides several benefits:

  • 更高的计算、内存、I/O 和存储限制。Higher compute, memory, I/O, and storage limits.
  • 控制硬件代系,以便更好地符合工作负荷的计算和内存要求。Control over the hardware generation to better match compute and memory requirements of the workload.
  • Azure 混合权益 (AHB) 和预留实例的定价折扣 (RI) Pricing discounts for Azure Hybrid Benefit (AHB) and Reserved Instance (RI).
  • 为驱动计算的硬件细节提供更高的透明度,这有助于规划从本地部署进行的迁移。Greater transparency in the hardware details that power the compute, that facilitates planning for migrations from on-premises deployments.

服务层Service tiers

vCore 模型中的服务层级选项包括“常规用途”、“业务关键”和“超大规模”。Service tier options in the vCore model include General Purpose, Business Critical, and Hyperscale. 服务层级通常定义存储体系结构、空间和 I/O 限制,以及与可用性和灾难恢复相关的业务连续性选项。The service tier generally defines the storage architecture, space and I/O limits, and business continuity options related to availability and disaster recovery.

- 常规用途General Purpose 业务关键Business Critical 超大规模Hyperscale
最适用于Best for 大多数业务工作负荷。Most business workloads. 提供预算导向的、均衡且可缩放的计算和存储选项。Offers budget-oriented, balanced, and scalable compute and storage options. 它使用多个独立副本为商业应用程序提供最高级别的故障恢复能力,为每个数据库副本提供最高的 I/O 性能。Offers business applications the highest resilience to failures by using several isolated replicas, and provides the highest I/O performance per database replica. 具有很高的可缩放存储和读取缩放要求的大多数业务工作负荷。Most business workloads with highly scalable storage and read-scale requirements. 允许配置多个独立的数据库副本,提供更高的故障恢复能力。Offers higher resilience to failures by allowing configuration of more than one isolated database replica.
存储Storage 使用远程存储。Uses remote storage.
SQL 数据库预配计算SQL Database provisioned compute:
5 GB – 4 TB5 GB – 4 TB
无服务器计算Serverless compute:
5 GB - 3 TB5 GB - 3 TB
SQL 托管实例:32 GB - 8 TBSQL Managed Instance: 32 GB - 8 TB
使用本地 SSD 存储。Uses local SSD storage.
SQL 数据库预配计算SQL Database provisioned compute:
5 GB – 4 TB5 GB – 4 TB
SQL 托管实例SQL Managed Instance:
32 GB - 4 TB32 GB - 4 TB
可以根据需要灵活地自动扩展存储。Flexible autogrow of storage as needed. 最多支持 100 TB 存储空间。Supports up to 100 TB of storage. 使用本地 SSD 存储作为本地缓冲池缓存和本地数据存储。Uses local SSD storage for local buffer-pool cache and local data storage. 使用 Azure 远程存储作为最终的长期数据存储。Uses Azure remote storage as final long-term data store.
IOPS 和吞吐量(近似值)IOPS and throughput (approximate) SQL 数据库:请查看 单一数据库弹性池的资源限制。SQL Database: See resource limits for single databases and elastic pools.
SQL 托管实例:请参阅 Azure SQL 托管实例资源限制概述SQL Managed Instance: See Overview Azure SQL Managed Instance resource limits.
请查看单一数据库弹性池的资源限制。See resource limits for single databases and elastic pools. 超大规模是具有多个级别缓存的多层体系结构。Hyperscale is a multi-tiered architecture with caching at multiple levels. 有效的 IOPS 和吞吐量将取决于工作负载。Effective IOPS and throughput will depend on the workload.
可用性Availability 1 个副本,无读取缩放副本1 replica, no read-scale replicas 3个副本,1 个读取缩放副本3 replicas, 1 read-scale replica,
区域冗余高可用性 (HA)zone-redundant high availability (HA)
1 个读写副本加 0-4 个读取缩放副本1 read-write replica, plus 0-4 read-scale replicas
备份Backups 读取访问异地冗余存储 (RA-GRS),7-35 天(默认为 7 天)Read-access geo-redundant storage (RA-GRS), 7-35 days (7 days by default) RA-GRS,7-35 天(默认为 7 天)RA-GRS, 7-35 days (7 days by default) Azure 远程存储中基于快照的备份。Snapshot-based backups in Azure remote storage. 还原使用这些快照进行快速恢复。Restores use these snapshots for fast recovery. 备份瞬间完成,不会影响计算 I/O 性能。Backups are instantaneous and don't impact compute I/O performance. 还原速度很快,不基于数据操作的大小(需要几分钟,而不是几小时或几天)。Restores are fast and aren't a size-of-data operation (taking minutes rather than hours or days).
内存中In-memory 不支持Not supported 支持Supported 不支持Not supported

选择服务层级Choosing a service tier

有关为特定工作负荷选择服务层级的信息,请参阅以下文章:For information on selecting a service tier for your particular workload, see the following articles:

计算层级Compute tiers

vCore 模型中的计算层级选项包括预配计算层级和无服务器计算层级。Compute tier options in the vCore model include the provisioned and serverless compute tiers.

预配计算Provisioned compute

预配计算层级提供特定数量的计算资源,这些资源是独立于工作负荷活动持续预配的,针对预配的计算资源量按固定的小时价格计费。The provisioned compute tier provides a specific amount of compute resources that are continuously provisioned independent of workload activity, and bills for the amount of compute provisioned at a fixed price per hour.

无服务器计算Serverless compute

无服务器计算层级根据工作负荷活动自动缩放计算资源,针对使用的计算资源量按秒计费。The serverless compute tier auto-scales compute resources based on workload activity, and bills for the amount of compute used per second.

硬件代系Hardware generations

VCore 模型中的硬件生成选项包括 Gen 4/5、M 系列、Fsv2 系列和 DC 系列。Hardware generation options in the vCore model include Gen 4/5, M-series, Fsv2-series, and DC-series. 硬件代系通常定义计算和内存限制,以及影响工作负荷性能的其他特征。The hardware generation generally defines the compute and memory limits and other characteristics that impact the performance of the workload.

第 4 代/第 5 代Gen4/Gen5

  • 第 4 代/第 5 代硬件提供均衡的计算和内存资源,适合用于内存和 vCore 要求不太高,或者不需要较快的单一 vCore 的大部分数据库工作负荷,而 Fsv2 系列或 M 系列可以满足这些要求。Gen4/Gen5 hardware provides balanced compute and memory resources, and is suitable for most database workloads that do not have higher memory, higher vCore, or faster single vCore requirements as provided by Fsv2-series or M-series.

有关第 4 代/第 5 代的可用区域,请参阅第 4 代/第 5 代可用性For regions where Gen4/Gen5 is available, see Gen4/Gen5 availability.

Fsv2 系列Fsv2-series

  • Fsv2 系列是一种计算优化硬件选项,可为大多数 CPU 要求的工作负荷提供低 CPU 延迟和较高的时钟速度。Fsv2-series is a compute optimized hardware option delivering low CPU latency and high clock speed for the most CPU demanding workloads.
  • 根据工作负荷的不同,Fsv2 系列可以为每个 vCore 提供比 Gen5 更多的 CPU 性能,72 vCore 大小可提供更多的 CPU 性能,而不是 Vcore 上 80 Gen5。Depending on the workload, Fsv2-series can deliver more CPU performance per vCore than Gen5, and the 72 vCore size can provide more CPU performance for less cost than 80 vCores on Gen5.
  • Fsv2 对每个 vCore 提供的内存和 tempdb 比其他硬件更少,因此,对这些限制敏感的工作负荷可能需要考虑 Gen5 或 M 系列。Fsv2 provides less memory and tempdb per vCore than other hardware so workloads sensitive to those limits may want to consider Gen5 or M-series instead.  

仅常规用途层支持 Fsv2 系列。Fsv2-series in only supported in the General Purpose tier. 对于 Fsv2 系列可用的区域,请参阅 Fsv2 系列的可用性For regions where Fsv2-series is available, see Fsv2-series availability.

M 系列M-series

  • M 系列是内存优化硬件选项,适用于需要更多内存和更高计算限制的工作负荷,而不是由 Gen5 提供。M-series is a memory optimized hardware option for workloads demanding more memory and higher compute limits than provided by Gen5.
  • M 系列提供每个 vCore 29 GB 和最多128个 Vcore,这会将相对于 Gen5 的内存限制增加到将近 4 TB。M-series provides 29 GB per vCore and up to 128 vCores, which increases the memory limit relative to Gen5 by 8x to nearly 4 TB.

M 系列仅在业务关键层中受支持,不支持区域冗余。M-series is only supported in the Business Critical tier and does not support zone redundancy. 对于 M 系列可用的区域,请参阅 m 系列可用性For regions where M-series is available, see M-series availability.

M 系列支持的 Azure 产品/服务类型Azure offer types supported by M-series

若要访问 M 系列,订阅必须是付费产品/服务类型,包括即用即付或企业协议 (EA) 。To access M-series, the subscription must be a paid offer type including Pay-As-You-Go or Enterprise Agreement (EA). 有关 M 系列支持的 Azure 产品/服务类型的完整列表,请参阅 当前优惠,无需支出限制For a complete list of Azure offer types supported by M-series, see current offers without spending limits.

DC 系列DC-series

备注

DC 系列目前为 公共预览版DC-series is currently in public preview.

  • DC 系列硬件使用带有软件防护扩展 (Intel SGX) 技术的 Intel 处理器。DC-series hardware uses Intel processors with Software Guard Extensions (Intel SGX) technology.
  • 对于 具有 secure enclaves 的 Always Encrypted,需要 DC 系列,其他硬件配置不支持此项。DC-series is required for Always Encrypted with secure enclaves, which is not supported with other hardware configurations.
  • DC 系列适用于处理敏感数据和请求机密查询处理功能的工作负荷,Always Encrypted 通过安全 enclaves 提供。DC-series is designed for workloads that process sensitive data and demand confidential query processing capabilities, provided by Always Encrypted with secure enclaves.
  • DC 系列硬件提供均衡的计算和内存资源。DC-series hardware provides balanced compute and memory resources.

DC 系列仅支持预配计算 (无服务器) 不支持无服务器,并且不支持区域冗余。DC-series is only supported for the Provisioned compute (Serverless is not supported) and it does not support zone redundancy. 对于 DC 系列可用的区域,请参阅 dc 系列的可用性For regions where DC-series is available, see DC-series availability.

DC 系列支持的 Azure 产品/服务类型Azure offer types supported by DC-series

若要访问 DC 系列,订阅必须是付费产品/服务类型,包括即用即付或企业协议 (EA) 。To access DC-series, the subscription must be a paid offer type including Pay-As-You-Go or Enterprise Agreement (EA). 有关 DC 系列支持的 Azure 产品/服务类型的完整列表,请参阅 当前产品/服务,无需支出限制For a complete list of Azure offer types supported by DC-series, see current offers without spending limits.

计算和内存规格Compute and memory specifications

硬件代次Hardware generation 计算Compute 内存Memory
Gen4Gen4 - Intel® E5-2673 v3 (Haswell) 2.4 GHz 处理器- Intel® E5-2673 v3 (Haswell) 2.4 GHz processors
- 最多预配 24 个 vCore(1 个 vCore = 1 个物理核心)- Provision up to 24 vCores (1 vCore = 1 physical core)
- 每个 vCore 7 GB- 7 GB per vCore
- 最多预配 168 GB- Provision up to 168 GB
Gen5Gen5 预配计算Provisioned compute
- Intel® E5-2673 v4 (Broadwell) 2.3-GHz、Intel® SP-8160 (Skylake)* 和 Intel® 8272CL (Cascade Lake) 2.5 GHz* 处理器- Intel® E5-2673 v4 (Broadwell) 2.3-GHz, Intel® SP-8160 (Skylake)*, and Intel® 8272CL (Cascade Lake) 2.5 GHz* processors
- 最多预配 80 个 vCore(1 个 vCore = 1 个超线程)- Provision up to 80 vCores (1 vCore = 1 hyper-thread)

无服务器计算Serverless compute
- Intel® E5-2673 v4 (Broadwell) 2.3-GHz 和 Intel® SP-8160 (Skylake)* 处理器- Intel® E5-2673 v4 (Broadwell) 2.3-GHz and Intel® SP-8160 (Skylake)* processors
- 自动扩展为 40 个 vCore(1 个 vCore = 1 个超线程)- Auto-scale up to 40 vCores (1 vCore = 1 hyper-thread)
预配计算Provisioned compute
- 每个 vCore 5.1 GB- 5.1 GB per vCore
- 最多预配 408 GB- Provision up to 408 GB

无服务器计算Serverless compute
- 自动扩展为每个vCore 24 GB- Auto-scale up to 24 GB per vCore
- 自动纵向扩展为最大 120 GB- Auto-scale up to 120 GB max
Fsv2 系列Fsv2-series -Intel® 8168 (Skylake) 处理器- Intel® 8168 (Skylake) processors
-将所有核心 turbo 时钟速度保持为 3.4 GHz,最大单一核心 turbo 时钟速度为 3.7 GHz。- Featuring a sustained all core turbo clock speed of 3.4 GHz and a maximum single core turbo clock speed of 3.7 GHz.
-预配多达 72 Vcore (1 vCore = 1 超线程) - Provision up to 72 vCores (1 vCore = 1 hyper-thread)
-1.9 GB/vCore- 1.9 GB per vCore
-预配高达 136 GB- Provision up to 136 GB
M 系列M-series -Intel® E7-8890 v3 2.5 GHz 和 Intel® 8280M 2.7 GHz (级联 Lake) 处理器- Intel® E7-8890 v3 2.5 GHz and Intel® 8280M 2.7 GHz (Cascade Lake) processors
-预配多达 128 Vcore (1 vCore = 1 超线程) - Provision up to 128 vCores (1 vCore = 1 hyper-thread)
-每个 vCore 29 GB- 29 GB per vCore
-预配高达 3.7 TB- Provision up to 3.7 TB
DC 系列DC-series -Intel 2288G 处理器- Intel XEON E-2288G processors
- (Intel SGX) ) 的 Intel 软件防护扩展- Featuring Intel Software Guard Extension (Intel SGX))
-预配多达8个 Vcore (1 vCore = 1 个物理核心) - Provision up to 8 vCores (1 vCore = 1 physical core)
每 vCore 4.5 GB4.5 GB per vCore

* 在 sys.dm_user_db_resource_governance 动态管理视图中,使用 Intel® SP-8160 (Skylake) 处理器的数据库的硬件代系会显示为 Gen6,而使用 Intel® 8272CL (Cascade Lake) 的数据库的硬件代系会显示为 Gen7。* In the sys.dm_user_db_resource_governance dynamic management view, hardware generation for databases using Intel® SP-8160 (Skylake) processors appears as Gen6, while hardware generation for databases using Intel® 8272CL (Cascade Lake) appears as Gen7. 不管处理器类型如何(Broadwell、Skylake 或 Cascade Lake),所有 Gen5 数据库的资源限制都相同。Resource limits for all Gen5 databases are the same regardless of processor type (Broadwell, Skylake, or Cascade Lake).

有关资源限制的详细信息,请参阅单一数据库的资源限制 (vCore)弹性池的资源限制 (vCore)For more information on resource limits, see Resource limits for single databases (vCore), or Resource limits for elastic pools (vCore).

选择硬件代系Selecting a hardware generation

在 Azure 门户中,可在 SQL 数据库中创建数据库或池时为其选择硬件代系,或者更改现有 SQL 数据库或池的硬件代系。In the Azure portal, you can select the hardware generation for a database or pool in SQL Database at the time of creation, or you can change the hardware generation of an existing database or pool.

创建 SQL 数据库或池时选择硬件代系To select a hardware generation when creating a SQL Database or pool

有关详细信息,请参阅创建 SQL 数据库For detailed information, see Create a SQL Database.

在“基本信息”选项卡上,选择“计算 + 存储”部分中的“配置数据库”链接,然后选择“更改配置”链接: On the Basics tab, select the Configure database link in the Compute + storage section, and then select the Change configuration link:

配置数据库

选择所需的硬件代系:Select the desired hardware generation:

选择硬件

更改现有 SQL 数据库或池的硬件代系To change the hardware generation of an existing SQL Database or pool

对于数据库,请在“概述”页上选择“定价层”链接:For a database, on the Overview page, select the Pricing tier link:

更改硬件

对于池,请在“概述”页上选择“配置”。For a pool, on the Overview page, select Configure.

遵循相应的步骤更改配置,然后根据前面的步骤所述选择硬件代系。Follow the steps to change configuration, and select the hardware generation as described in the previous steps.

创建 SQL 托管实例时选择硬件代系To select a hardware generation when creating a SQL Managed Instance

有关详细信息,请参阅创建 SQL 托管实例For detailed information, see Create a SQL Managed Instance.

在“基本信息”选项卡上,选择“计算 + 存储”部分中的“配置数据库”链接,然后选择所需的硬件代系: On the Basics tab, select the Configure database link in the Compute + storage section, and then select desired hardware generation:

配置 SQL 托管实例

更改现有 SQL 托管实例的硬件代系To change the hardware generation of an existing SQL Managed Instance

在“SQL 托管实例”页面上,选择“设置”部分下的“定价层”链接From the SQL Managed Instance page, select Pricing tier link placed under the Settings section

更改 SQL 托管实例硬件

在“定价层”页上,可以按前面步骤中所述更改硬件代系。On the Pricing tier page, you will be able to change hardware generation as described in the previous steps.

硬件可用性Hardware availability

第 4 代/第 5 代Gen4/Gen5

Gen4 硬件正在 逐步推出 ,在新部署中不再可用。Gen4 hardware is being phased out and is no longer available for new deployments. 所有新的数据库都必须部署在第 5 代硬件上。All new databases must be deployed on Gen5 hardware.

Gen5 在世界各地的所有公共区域中均可用。Gen5 is available in all public regions worldwide.

Fsv2 系列Fsv2-series

Fsv2 系列在以下区域中提供:澳大利亚中部、澳大利亚中部2、澳大利亚东部、澳大利亚东南部、巴西南部、加拿大中部、东亚、美国东部、法国中部、印度中部、韩国中部、韩国南部、北欧、南非北部、东南亚、英国南部、英国西部、西欧、美国西部2。Fsv2-series is available in the following regions: Australia Central, Australia Central 2, Australia East, Australia Southeast, Brazil South, Canada Central, East Asia, East Us, France Central, India Central, Korea Central, Korea South, North Europe, South Africa North, Southeast Asia, UK South, UK West, West Europe, West Us 2.

M 系列M-series

M 系列在以下区域提供:美国东部、北欧、西欧、美国西部2。M-series is available in the following regions: East US, North Europe, West Europe, West US 2.

DC 系列DC-series

备注

DC 系列目前为 公共预览版DC-series is currently in public preview.

DC 系列在以下区域中提供:加拿大中部、加拿大东部、美国东部、北欧、英国南部、西欧、美国西部。DC-series is available in the following regions: Canada Central, Canada East, East US, North Europe, UK South, West Europe, West US.

如果你需要当前不受支持的区域中的 DC 系列,请遵循AZURE SQL 数据库和 SQL 托管实例的请求配额增加中的说明提交支持票证If you need DC-series in a currently unsupported region, submit a support ticket following the instructions in Request quota increases for Azure SQL Database and SQL Managed Instance.

后续步骤Next steps

如要入门,请参阅:To get started, see:

有关定价详细信息,请参阅 Azure SQL 数据库定价页For pricing details, see the Azure SQL Database pricing page.

若要详细了解“常规用途”和“业务关键”服务层级中提供的特定计算大小和存储大小,请参阅:For details about the specific compute and storage sizes available in the general purpose and business critical service tiers, see: