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针对复杂企业的管理指南:提高成本管理学科Governance guide for complex enterprises: Improve the Cost Management discipline

本文通过将成本控件添加到最小可行的产品 (MVP) 调控中来提高叙述性。This article advances the narrative by adding cost controls to the minimum viable product (MVP) governance.

前进叙述Advancing the narrative

采用率已超过治理 MVP 中定义的容差指标。Adoption has grown beyond the tolerance indicator defined in the governance MVP. 支出增加现在会使云治理团队的时间投入时间来监视和控制支出模式。The increases in spending now justifies an investment of time from the cloud governance team to monitor and control spending patterns.

作为创新的驱动力,IT 不再被企业主要作为成本中心来看待。As a clear driver of innovation, IT is no longer seen primarily as a cost center. 随着 IT 组织提供更多价值,首席信息官和 CFO 同意该时间是将它在公司中扮演的角色转移到适当的时间。As the IT organization delivers more value, the CIO and CFO agree that the time is right to shift the role IT plays in the company. 在进行其他更改的情况下,首席财务官希望为某个业务部门的加拿大分支测试直接付费方法,以进行云会计。Among other changes, the CFO wants to test a direct pay approach to cloud accounting for the Canadian branch of one of the business units. 两个已停用的数据中心之一是专门为该业务部门的加拿大运营人员托管的资产。One of the two retired datacenters was exclusively hosted assets for that business unit's Canadian operations. 在此模型中,将直接对业务部门的加拿大子公司计费,以用于与托管资产相关的运营费用。In this model, the business unit's Canadian subsidiary will be billed directly for the operating expenses related to the hosted assets. 此模型可让 IT 更少地关注管理其他人的支出,并增加价值。This model allows IT to focus less on managing someone else's spending and more on creating value. 在此过渡开始之前,需要准备好成本管理工具。Before this transition can begin cost management tooling needs to be in place.

当前状态的更改Changes in the current state

在本说明的上一阶段,IT 团队积极地将带有受保护数据的生产工作负荷迁移到到 Azure 中。In the previous phase of this narrative, the IT team was actively moving production workloads with protected data into Azure.

此后出现了一些将会影响治理的变化:Since then, some things have changed that will affect governance:

  • 已从标记为停用状态的两个数据中心删除了 5,000 项资产。5,000 assets have been removed from the two datacenters flagged for retirement. 采购和 IT 安全部门现在正在取消设置剩余的实物资产。Procurement and IT security are now deprovisioning the remaining physical assets.
  • 应用程序开发团队已经实现了 CI/CD 管道来部署一些云本机应用程序,这会显著影响客户体验。The application development teams have implemented CI/CD pipelines to deploy some cloud-native applications, significantly affecting customer experiences.
  • 商业智能团队创建了聚合、特选、见解和预测流程,为业务运营带来了切实的利益。The BI team has created aggregation, curation, insight, and prediction processes driving tangible benefits for business operations. 现在,这些预测已转化为富有创意的新产品和新服务。Those predictions are now empowering creative new products and services.

增量改进未来状态Incrementally improve the future state

应将成本监视和报告添加到云解决方案。Cost monitoring and reporting should be added to the cloud solution. 报告应将直接运营费用与消耗云成本的函数联系在一起。Reporting should tie direct operating expenses to the functions that are consuming the cloud costs. 额外的报告使 IT 能够监视支出并为成本管理提供技术指导。Additional reporting should allow IT to monitor spending and provide technical guidance on cost management. 将直接对加拿大分支计费。For the Canadian branch, the department will be billed directly.

风险变化Changes in risk

预算控制: 在新平台上,自助服务功能会导致过多的意外成本。Budget control: There is an inherent risk that self-service capabilities will result in excessive and unexpected costs on the new platform. 为了确保继续与计划预算保持一致,必须建立监视成本和缓解持续成本风险的治理流程。Governance processes for monitoring costs and mitigating ongoing cost risks must be in place to ensure continued alignment with the planned budget.

此业务风险可以扩展为几种技术风险:This business risk can be expanded into a few technical risks:

  • 实际成本超出计划之外。There is a risk of actual costs exceeding the plan.
  • 业务条件发生变化。Business conditions change. 如果发生,便会出现业务职能部门需要使用比预期更多的云服务的情况,进而导致支出异常。When they do, there will be cases when a business function needs to consume more cloud services than expected, leading to spending anomalies. 这种额外成本会被视为超额,而不是计划所需的调整。There is a risk that these additional costs will be considered overages as opposed to a required adjustment to the plan. 如果成功,加拿大实验应有助于修正此风险。If successful, the Canadian experiment should help remediate this risk.
  • 系统预配过度,造成超支。There is a risk of systems being overprovisioned, resulting in excess spending.

策略语句的更改Changes to the policy statements

以下策略更改将有助于修正新的风险和指南的实施。The following changes to policy will help remediate the new risks and guide implementation.

  • 云管理团队应每周监视所有云成本。All cloud costs should be monitored against plan on a weekly basis by the cloud governance team. 应每月与 IT 领导层和财务部门共享一次云成本与计划偏差报告。Reporting on deviations between cloud costs and plan is to be shared with IT leadership and finance monthly. IT 领导层和财务部门应每月检查一次所有云成本和计划更新。All cloud costs and plan updates should be reviewed with IT leadership and finance monthly.
  • 为了实现问责,必须将所有成本都分配到业务职能部门。All costs must be allocated to a business function for accountability purposes.
  • 应持续监视云资产,以发现优化机会。Cloud assets should be continually monitored for optimization opportunities.
  • 云管理工具必须将资产大小选项限制为已批准的配置列表。Cloud governance tooling must limit asset sizing options to an approved list of configurations. 此工具必须确保所有资产都是可发现的,并受成本监视解决方案跟踪。The tooling must ensure that all assets are discoverable and tracked by the cost monitoring solution.
  • 在部署计划期间,应记录与托管生产工作负载相关的所有必需的云资源。During deployment planning, any required cloud resources associated with the hosting of production workloads should be documented. 本文档将帮助优化预算并准备更多的自动化工具,以防止使用更昂贵的选项。This documentation will help refine budgets and prepare additional automation tools to prevent the use of more expensive options. 在此过程中,应考虑到云提供商提供的不同折扣工具,如 Azure 保留 VM 实例或许可证成本降低。During this process consideration should be given to different discounting tools offered by the cloud provider, such as Azure Reserved VM Instances or license cost reductions.
  • 为了更好地控制云成本,所有应用程序所有者都必须参加关于优化工作负载的实践培训。All application owners are required to attend trained on practices for optimizing workloads to better control cloud costs.

最佳做法的增量改进Incremental improvement of best practices

本文的此部分将改进调控 MVP 设计,以包含新的 Azure 策略和 Azure 成本管理 + 计费的实现。This section of the article will improve the governance MVP design to include new Azure policies and an implementation of Azure Cost Management + Billing. 这两项设计变更将共同实现新的公司策略语句。Together, these two design changes will fulfill the new corporate policy statements.

  1. 在 Azure EA 门户中进行更改,以将加拿大部署的部门管理员计费。Make changes in the Azure EA portal to bill the Department Administrator for the Canadian deployment.
  2. 实现 Azure 成本管理 + 计费。Implement Azure Cost Management + Billing.
    1. 建立适当级别的访问范围以与订阅模式和资源分组模式保持一致。Establish the right level of access scope to align with the subscription pattern and resource grouping pattern. 假设与之前文章中定义的调控 MVP 保持一致,则这需要对高级报表上执行的云调控团队进行 注册帐户范围 的访问。Assuming alignment with the governance MVP defined in prior articles, this would require enrollment account scope access for the cloud governance team executing on high-level reporting. 政府以外的其他团队(如加拿大采购团队)将需要 资源组范围 的访问权限。Additional teams outside of governance, like the Canadian procurement team, will require resource group scope access.
    2. 在 Azure 成本管理 + 计费中建立预算。Establish a budget in Azure Cost Management + Billing.
    3. 查看并采纳初始建议。Review and act on initial recommendations. 创建一个用于支持报表过程的重复过程。Create a recurring process to support the reporting process.
    4. 配置和执行 Azure 成本管理 + 计费报告,初始和重复。Configure and execute Azure Cost Management + Billing reporting, both initial and recurring.
  3. 更新 Azure Policy。Update Azure Policy.
    1. 审核标记、管理组、订阅和资源组值,以确定是否有任何偏差。Audit tagging, management group, subscription, and resource group values to identify any deviation.
    2. 设定 SKU 大小选项,将部署限制为采用部署计划文档中列出的 SKU。Establish SKU size options to limit deployments to SKUs listed in deployment planning documentation.

结束语Conclusion

添加上述过程和对调控 MVP 的更改有助于修正与成本调控相关的很多风险。Adding the above processes and changes to the governance MVP helps remediate many of the risks associated with cost governance. 它们共同实现了控制成本所需的可见性、问责和优化。Together, they create the visibility, accountability, and optimization needed to control costs.

后续步骤Next steps

随着云采用的发展壮大并提供更多的业务价值,风险和云治理需求也会改变。As cloud adoption grows and delivers additional business value, risks and cloud governance needs will also change. 对于此虚构公司,下一步是使用此管理投资来管理多个云。For this fictional company, the next step is using this governance investment to manage multiple clouds.