针对复杂企业的管理指南：支持的叙述Governance guide for complex enterprises: The supporting narrative
以下叙述为 复杂企业的云采用旅程期间的管理建立了一个用例。The following narrative establishes a use case for governance during complex enterprise's cloud adoption journey. 在操作指南中的建议之前，请务必了解这一叙述中反映的假设和推理。Before acting on the recommendations in the guide, it's important to understand the assumptions and reasoning that are reflected in this narrative. 然后，你可以更好地将监管策略调整到组织的云采用旅程。Then you can better align the governance strategy to your organization's cloud adoption journey.
客户要求提高与此公司互动的体验。Customers are demanding a better experience when interacting with this company. 当前的经验导致了市场 erosion，并导致了) (CDO 雇用首席数字官。The current experience caused market erosion and led to the board to hire a chief digital officer (CDO). CDO 与营销部门合作，推动致力于改善体验的数字化转型。The CDO is working with marketing and sales to drive a digital transformation that will power improved experiences. 此外，一些业务部门最近聘用了数据科学家，通过学习和预测建立数据场并改善许多手动操作体验。Additionally, several business units recently hired data scientists to farm data and improve many of the manual experiences through learning and prediction. IT 尽力为这些工作提供支持。IT is supporting these efforts where it can. 发生了所需的管理和安全控制以外的 "影子 IT" 活动。There are "shadow IT" activities occurring that fall outside of needed governance and security controls.
IT 组织本身也有自己的难题。The IT organization is also facing its own challenges. 财务部门计划在未来五年继续削减 IT 预算，自今年起就开始在支出方面进行一些必要的削减。Finance is planning continued reductions in the IT budget over the next five years, leading to some necessary spending cuts starting this year. 另一方面，GDPR 和其他数据主权需求正迫使 IT 对其他国家/地区的资产投资，以实现数据的本地化。Conversely, GDPR and other data sovereignty requirements are forcing IT to invest in assets in additional countries to localize data. 现有数据中心有两个已过期，无法进行硬件更新，这进一步影响了员工和客户的满意度。Two of the existing datacenters are overdue for hardware refreshes, causing further problems with employee and customer satisfaction. 三个数据中心需要在执行5年计划期间进行硬件刷新。Three more datacenters require hardware refreshes during the execution of the five-year plan. CFO 正催促 CIO 考虑将云作为这些数据中心的替代，以腾出资金。The CFO is pushing the CIO to consider the cloud as an alternative for those datacenters, to free up capital expenses.
CIO 有一些有助于公司发展的创新理念，但她和她的团队却因为需要解决最紧急的问题和控制成本而举步维艰。The CIO has innovative ideas that could help the company, but she and her teams are limited to fighting fires and controlling costs. 在与 CDO 和一位业务部门负责人一起参加午宴的过程中，这两位同事表现出对云迁移话题的关注。At a luncheon with the CDO and one of the business unit leaders, the cloud migration conversation generated interest from the CIO's peers. 这三个领导旨在使用云来实现其业务目标，并开始研究和规划云采用的阶段。The three leaders aim to support each other using the cloud to achieve their business objectives, and they have begun the exploration and planning stages of cloud adoption.
该公司的业务概况如下：The company has the following business profile:
销售和运营分布于多个地理区域，其全球客户遍布多个市场。Sales and operations span multiple geographic areas with global customers in multiple markets.
公司通过收购而逐步发展，基于目标客户群跨三个业务部门运营。The business grew through acquisition and operates across three business units based on the target customer base. 预算涉及许多个业务部门和职能，非常复杂。Budgeting is a complex matrix across business units and functions.
公司将大部分 IT 视作资本流失或成本中心。The business views most of IT as a capital drain or a cost center.
以下是该公司 IT 和云运营的当前状态：Here is the current state of the company's IT and cloud operations:
IT 在全球运营着 20 多个私有数据中心。IT operates more than 20 privately owned datacenters around the globe.
由于有大量增长和多个地理区域，有几个 IT 团队具有独特的数据主权和合规性要求，这些要求会影响在特定地域内运行的单个业务单位。Due to organic growth and multiple geographies, there are a few IT teams that have unique data sovereignty and compliance requirements that impact a single business unit operating within a specific geography.
每个数据中心由一系列区域租用线路连接，形成松散耦合的全局 WAN。Each datacenter is connected by a series of regional leased lines, creating a loosely coupled global WAN.
它通过将所有最终用户电子邮件帐户迁移到 Microsoft 365 进入了云。IT entered the cloud by migrating all end-user email accounts to Microsoft 365. 此迁移已在六个多月前完成。This migration was completed more than six months ago. 从那时起，仅少量 IT 资产已部署到云。Since then, only a few IT assets have been deployed to the cloud.
CDO 的主要开发团队正在使用开发/测试容量来了解云本机功能。The CDO's primary development team is working in a dev/test capacity to learn about cloud-native capabilities.
一个业务部门正在云中试验大数据。One business unit is experimenting with big data in the cloud. IT 内部的 BI 团队正参与这项工作。The BI team inside of IT is participating in that effort.
现有的 IT 治理策略指出，个人客户数据和财务数据必须托管在公司直接拥有的资产上。The existing IT governance policy states that personal customer data and financial data must be hosted on assets owned directly by the company. 此策略阻止将云采用用于任何任务关键型应用程序或受保护的数据。This policy blocks cloud adoption for any mission-critical applications or protected data.
IT 投资主要由资本支出控制。IT investments are controlled largely by capital expense. 这些投资规划每年一次，通常包括对持续维护以及 3 至 5 年（取决于数据中心）的既定刷新周期方面的规划。Those investments are planned yearly and often include plans for ongoing maintenance, as well as established refresh cycles of three to five years depending on the datacenter.
大多数不符合年度规划的技术投资都由影子 IT 工作处理。Most investments in technology that don't align to the annual plan are addressed by shadow IT efforts. 这些工作通常由业务部门管理，其资金来源于业务部门的运营费。Those efforts are usually managed by business units and funded through the business unit's operating expenses.
预计在未来几年会有以下改变：The following changes are anticipated over the next several years:
首席信息官需要努力对个人和财务数据的策略进行现代化，以支持未来的目标。The CIO is leading an effort to modernize the policy on personal and financial data to support future goals. IT 管理团队的两个成员可以查看此工作。Two members of the IT governance team have visibility into this effort.
首席信息官希望将云迁移用作强制功能，以提高跨业务单元和地理位置的一致性和稳定性。The CIO wants to use the cloud migration as a forcing function to improve consistency and stability across business units and geographies. 将来的状态必须遵守任何外部遵从性要求，这些要求将需要特定 IT 团队的标准方法的偏差。The future state must respect any external compliance requirements that would require deviation from standard approaches by specific IT teams.
如果在应用程序开发和 BI 中的早期实验显示了成功的领先指标，则每个用户都可以在接下来的24个月内将小规模的生产解决方案发布到云中。If the early experiments in application development and BI show leading indicators of success, they would each like to release small-scale production solutions to the cloud in the next 24 months.
首席信息官和 CFO 已经分配了结构设计师和基础结构副总裁来创建成本分析和可行性研究。The CIO and CFO have assigned an architect and the vice president of infrastructure to create a cost analysis and feasibility study. 这些努力将确定公司是否可以在接下来的36个月内将5000资产转移到云中。These efforts will determine whether the company can and should move 5,000 assets to the cloud over the next 36 months. 成功的迁移将允许 CIO 消除两个数据中心，并在5年计划内通过超过 $ 100m 美元降低成本。A successful migration would allow the CIO to eliminate two datacenters, reducing costs by over $100m USD during the five-year plan. 如果 3 到 4 个数据中心可以达成类似结果，那么预算将恢复为盈余状态，CIO 便可将预算用于支持更多创新举措。If three to four datacenters can experience similar results, the budget will be back in the black, giving the CIO budget to support more innovative initiatives.
随着这一节约成本，公司计划通过将承诺的资本支出作为其内的运营费用重新定位来更改某些 IT 投资的管理。Along with this cost savings, the company plans to change the management of some IT investments by repositioning the committed capital expense as an operating expense within IT. 此更改将提供更高的成本控制，可用于加速其他计划内工作。This change will provide greater cost control that IT can use to accelerate other planned efforts.
该公司已制定了一个公司策略，用于规范公司治理工作的实施。The company has developed a corporate policy to shape the governance implementation. 该公司策略将推动很多技术决策。The corporate policy drives many of the technical decisions.