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Azure 中的清单和可见性Inventory and visibility in Azure

“清单和可见性”是云管理基线中三个规则的第一个。Inventory and visibility is the first of three disciplines in a cloud management baseline.

云管理基线

此规则第一个列出是因为在进行有关运营的决策时,必须收集适当的运营数据。This discipline comes first because collecting proper operational data is vital when you make decisions about operations. 云管理团队必须了解所管理的内容,以及这些资产的运营情况如何。Cloud management teams must understand what is managed and how well those assets are operated. 本文介绍各种不同的工具,这些工具可以提供清单,并允许用户了解清单的运行状态。This article describes the different tools that provide both an inventory and visibility into the inventory's run state.

下表概述了建议用于管理基线的最低设置(适合任何企业级环境)。For any enterprise-grade environment, the following table outlines the suggested minimum for a management baseline.

进程Process 工具Tool 目的Purpose
监视 Azure 服务的运行状况Monitor health of Azure services Azure 服务运行状况Azure Service Health 在 Azure 中运行的服务的运行状况、性能和诊断Health, performance, and diagnostics for services running in Azure
日志集中化Log centralization Log AnalyticsLog Analytics 针对所有可见性用途进行集中记录Central logging for all visibility purposes
监视集中化Monitoring centralization Azure MonitorAzure Monitor 集中监视运营数据和趋势Central monitoring of operational data and trends
虚拟机清单和更改跟踪Virtual machine inventory and change tracking 更改跟踪和库存Change Tracking and Inventory 在来宾 OS 级别监视清单 VM 和所做的更改Inventory VMs and monitor changes for guest OS level
订阅监视Subscription monitoring Azure 活动日志Azure activity log 监视订阅级别的更改Monitoring change at the subscription level
来宾 OS 监视Guest OS monitoring 用于 VM 的 Azure MonitorAzure Monitor for VMs 监视 VM 的更改和性能Monitoring changes and performance of VMs
网络监视Network monitoring Azure 网络观察程序Azure Network Watcher 监视网络更改和性能Monitoring network changes and performance
DNS 监视DNS monitoring DNS AnalyticsDNS Analytics DNS 的安全性、性能和运营Security, performance, and operations of DNS

Azure 服务运行状况Azure Service Health

Azure 服务运行状况提供 Azure 服务和区域的运行状况的个性化视图。Azure Service Health provides a personalized view of the health of your Azure services and regions. 有关现有问题的信息将发布到 Azure 服务运行状况,以便你了解资源受到的影响。Information about active issues is posted to Azure Service Health to help you understand the effect on your resources. 在解决问题的过程中,我们会定期进行更新,让你了解最新情况。Regular updates keep you informed as issues are resolved.

我们还会将计划内维护事件发布到 Azure 服务运行状况,以便你了解可能会影响资源可用性的更改。We also publish planned maintenance events to Azure Service Health so you'll know about changes that can affect resource availability. 设置服务运行状况警报,让系统在服务问题、计划内维护或其他更改可能会影响你的 Azure 服务和区域时通知你。Set up Service Health alerts to notify you when service issues, planned maintenance, or other changes might affect your Azure services and regions.

Azure 服务运行状况包括:Azure Service Health includes:

  • Azure 状态: Azure 服务运行状况的全局视图。Azure status: A global view of the health of Azure services.
  • 服务运行状况: Azure 服务运行状况的个性化视图。Service health: A personalized view of the health of your Azure services.
  • 资源运行状况: 单个资源的运行状况的更深入视图。Resource health: A deeper view of the health of your individual resources.

操作Action

若要设置服务运行状况警报,请执行以下操作:To set up a Service Health alert:

  1. 请转到“服务运行状况”。Go to Service Health.
  2. 选择“运行状况警报”。Select Health alerts.
  3. 创建服务运行状况警报。Create a Service Health alert.

若要设置服务运行状况警报,请转到 Azure 门户To set up Service Health alerts, go to the Azure portal.

了解详细信息Learn more

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 服务运行状况For more information, see Azure Service Health.

Log AnalyticsLog Analytics

Log Analytics 工作区是用于存储 Azure Monitor 日志数据的唯一环境。A Log Analytics workspace is a unique environment for storing Azure Monitor log data. 每个工作区都有其自己的数据存储库和配置。Each workspace has its own data repository and configuration. 数据源和解决方案均配置为将其数据存储在特定工作区中。Data sources and solutions are configured to store their data in particular workspaces. Azure 监视解决方案要求所有服务器都连接到一个工作区,这样就可以存储和访问其日志数据。Azure monitoring solutions require all servers to be connected to a workspace, so that their log data can be stored and accessed.

操作Action

了解详细信息Learn more

若要了解详细信息,请参阅 Log Analytics 工作区创建文档To learn more, see the Log Analytics workspace creation documentation.

Azure MonitorAzure Monitor

Azure Monitor 针对 Azure 中的所有监视和诊断数据提供单个统一的中心,并为你提供跨资源的可见性。Azure Monitor provides a single unified hub for all monitoring and diagnostics data in Azure and gives you visibility across your resources. 借助 Azure Monitor,可以找到并解决问题以及优化性能。With Azure Monitor, you can find and fix problems and optimize performance. 还可以了解客户行为。You can also understand customer behavior.

  • 监视和可视化指标。Monitor and visualize metrics. 指标是 Azure 资源提供的数字值,Metrics are numerical values available from Azure resources. 可帮助你了解系统的运行状况。They help you understand the health of your systems. 自定义仪表板的图表,并使用工作簿进行报告。Customize charts for your dashboards, and use workbooks for reporting.

  • 查询和分析日志。Query and analyze logs. 日志包含 Azure 中的活动日志和诊断日志。Logs include activity logs and diagnostic logs from Azure. 从其他监视和管理解决方案收集云或本地资源的其他日志。Collect additional logs from other monitoring and management solutions for your cloud or on-premises resources. Log Analytics 提供中心存储库来聚合所有这些数据。Log Analytics provides a central repository to aggregate all of this data. 在此处,可以运行查询以帮助排查问题或可视化数据。From there, you can run queries to help troubleshoot issues or to visualize data.

  • 设置警报和操作。Set up alerts and actions. 出现严重情况时,警报会发出通知。Alerts notify you of critical conditions. 可以基于触发器针对指标、日志或服务运行状况问题采取纠正操作。Corrective actions can be taken based on triggers from metrics, logs, or service-health issues. 可以设置不同的通知和操作,还可以将数据发送到 IT 服务管理工具。You can set up different notifications and actions and can also send data to your IT service management tools.

操作Action

开始监视:Start monitoring your:

若要监视其他资源,请在 Azure 市场中查找其他解决方案。To monitor other resources, find additional solutions in Azure Marketplace.

若要浏览 Azure Monitor,请转到 Azure 门户To explore Azure Monitor, go to the Azure portal.

了解详细信息Learn more

若要了解详细信息,请参阅 Azure Monitor 文档To learn more, see Azure Monitor documentation.

装载解决方案Onboard solutions

若要启用解决方案,需配置 Log Analytics 工作区。To enable solutions, you need to configure the Log Analytics workspace. 装载的 Azure VM 和本地服务器从其连接到的 Log Analytics 工作区获取解决方案。Onboarded Azure VMs and on-premises servers get the solutions from the Log Analytics workspaces they're connected to.

可以使用下述两种方法进行装载:There are two approaches to onboarding:

每篇文章都会指导你通过一系列步骤来装载以下解决方案:Each article guides you through a series of steps to onboard these solutions:

  • 更新管理解决方案Update Management solution
  • 更改跟踪和清单解决方案Change Tracking and Inventory solution
  • Azure 活动日志Azure activity log
  • Azure Log Analytics 代理运行状况Azure Log Analytics Agent Health
  • 反恶意软件评估Antimalware assessment
  • 用于 VM 的 Azure MonitorAzure Monitor for VMs
  • Azure 安全中心Azure Security Center

每一个上述步骤都有助于建立清单和可见性。Each of the previous steps helps establish inventory and visibility.