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适合云管理的平台专用化Platform specialization for cloud management

平台专用化是标准管理基线的扩展,这一点十分类似于增强型管理基线。Much like the enhanced management baseline, platform specialization is extension beyond the standard management baseline. 请查看下面的图和列表,其中显示了如何通过多种方式来扩展管理基线。See the following image and list that show the ways to expand the management baseline. 本文探讨平台专用化选项。This article addresses the platform specialization options.

云管理基线之外

  • 工作负荷运营: 最大的单工作负荷运营投资和最高的复原度。Workload operations: The largest per-workload operations investment and the highest degree of resiliency. 建议对 20% 左右的可以推动业务价值产生的工作负荷进行工作负荷运营。We suggest workload operations for the approximately 20% of workloads that drive business value. 此专用化通常为重要性很高的工作负荷或关键工作负荷保留。This specialization is usually reserved for high criticality or mission-critical workloads.
  • 平台运营: 运营投资跨多个工作负荷。Platform operations: Operations investment is spread across many workloads. 复原能力的改进影响所有使用已定义平台的工作负荷。Resiliency improvements affect all workloads that use the defined platform. 建议对 20% 左右的重要性最高的平台进行平台运营。We suggest platform operations for the approximately 20% of platforms that have the highest criticality. 此专用化通常为重要性为中到高的工作负荷保留。This specialization is usually reserved for medium to high criticality workloads.
  • 增强型管理基线: 运营投资相对而言最低。Enhanced management baseline: The relatively lowest operations investment. 此专用化使用其他云原生运营工具和流程略微改进了业务承诺。This specialization slightly improves business commitments by using additional cloud-native operations tools and processes.

工作负荷和平台的运营都需要对设计和体系结构原则进行更改。Both workload and platform operations require changes to design and architecture principles. 这些更改可能需要时间,并可能导致运营开销增加。Those changes can take time and might result in increased operating expenses. 若要减少需要此类投资的工作负荷的数目,可以使用能够对业务承诺提供足够改进的增强型管理基线。To reduce the number of workloads requiring such investments, an enhanced management baseline might provide enough of an improvement to the business commitment.

下表概述了在客户的增强型管理基线中常见的一些流程、工具和潜在效果:This table outlines a few common processes, tools, and potential effects common in customers' enhanced management baselines:

进程Process 工具Tool 目的Purpose 建议的管理级别Suggested management level
改进系统设计Improve system design Microsoft Azure 架构良好的框架Microsoft Azure Well-Architected Framework 改进平台的体系结构设计,以便改进运营Improving the architectural design of the platform to improve operations 空值N/A
自动修正Automate remediation Azure 自动化Azure Automation 通过特定于平台的自动化来响应高级平台数据Responding to advanced platform data with platform-specific automation 平台运营Platform operations
服务目录Service catalog 托管应用程序中心Managed applications center 提供一个自助服务目录,其中包含符合组织标准的已审批解决方案Providing a self-service catalog of approved solutions that meet organizational standards 平台运营Platform operations
容器性能Container performance 用于容器的 Azure MonitorAzure Monitor for containers 对容器进行监视和诊断Monitoring and diagnostics of containers 平台运营Platform operations
平台即服务 (PaaS) 数据性能Platform as a service (PaaS) data performance Azure SQL 分析Azure SQL Analytics 针对 PaaS 数据库的监视和诊断Monitoring and diagnostics for PaaS databases 平台运营Platform operations
基础结构即服务 (IaaS) 数据性能Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) data performance SQL Server 运行状况检查SQL Server Health Check 针对 IaaS 数据库的监视和诊断Monitoring and diagnostics for IaaS databases 平台运营Platform operations

概要流程High-level process

平台专用化要求以迭代方式严格执行以下四个流程:Platform specialization consists of a disciplined execution of the following four processes in an iterative approach. 本文后续部分对每个流程进行了更详细的说明。Each process is explained in more detail in later sections of this article.

  • 改进系统设计: 改进常用系统或平台的设计,以有效方式尽量减少中断。Improve system design: Improve the design of common systems or platforms to effectively minimize interruptions.
  • 自动修正: 某些改进没有成本效益。Automate remediation: Some improvements aren't cost effective. 在这种情况下,自动进行修正并降低中断的影响可能更有意义。In such cases, it might make more sense to automate remediation and reduce the effect of interruptions.
  • 扩展解决方案: 改进系统设计和自动修正以后,即可通过服务目录将这些更改扩展到整个环境。Scale the solution: As systems design and automated remediation are improved, those changes can be scaled across the environment through the service catalog.
  • 持续改进: 可以使用不同监视工具来发现增量改进。Continuous improvement: Different monitoring tools can be used to discover incremental improvements. 可以在下一轮系统设计、自动化和扩展过程中实施这些改进。These improvements can be addressed in the next pass of system design, automation, and scale.

改进系统设计Improve system design

若要改进任何常用平台的运营,改进系统设计是最有效的方法。Improving system design is the most effective approach to improving operations of any common platform. 通过改进系统设计,可以提高稳定性,减少业务中断。Through system-design improvements, stability can increase and business interruptions can decrease. 单个系统的设计超出了在整个云采用框架中使用的环境视图的范围。Design of individual systems is beyond the scope of the environment view that's taken throughout the Cloud Adoption Framework.

作为该框架的补充,Microsoft Azure 架构良好的框架提供了提高平台或特定工作负载的质量的指导原则。As a complement to this framework, the Microsoft Azure Well-Architected Framework provides guiding tenets for improving the quality of a platform or a specific workload. 该框架侧重于对卓越架构的五大支柱进行改进:The framework focuses on improvement across five pillars of architecture excellence:

  • 成本优化: 管理成本,将提供的价值最大化。Cost optimization: Manage costs to maximize the value delivered.
  • 卓越运营: 遵循操作流程,让系统在生产环境中持续运行。Operational excellence: Follow operational processes that keep a system running in production.
  • 性能效率: 缩放系统,适应负载中的变化。Performance efficiency: Scale systems to adapt to changes in load.
  • 可靠性: 进行系统设计,使其从故障中恢复并继续正常运行。Reliability: Design systems to recover from failures and continue to function.
  • 安全性: 保护应用程序和数据免受威胁。Security: Protect applications and data from threats.

技术债务和体系结构缺陷导致了大多数业务中断。Technical debt and architectural flaws cause most business interruptions. 对于现有部署,系统设计改进可以说是对现有技术债务的清偿。For existing deployments, you can view system-design improvements as payments against existing technical debt. 对于新的部署,这些改进可以说是为了避免技术债务。For new deployments, you can view those improvements as avoidance of technical debt.

接下来的“自动修正”标签介绍了如何通过相关方式来修正无法解决或不应解决的技术债务问题。The following Automated remediation tab shows ways to remediate technical debt that can't or shouldn't be addressed.

要改进系统设计,请详细了解 Microsoft Azure 架构良好的框架Learn more about the Microsoft Azure Well-Architected Framework to improve system design.

在系统设计改进以后,请回过头来阅读此文章,看看是否有新的需要改进并扩展到整个环境的东西。As system design improves, return to this article to find new opportunities to improve and scale those improvements across your environment.

自动修正Automated remediation

某些技术欠债无法解决。Some technical debt can't be addressed. 解决方法可能因过于昂贵而无法纠正,或者可以进行计划,但项目持续时间过长。Resolution might be too expensive to correct or might be planned but have a long project duration. 可能业务中断没有造成明显的业务影响,The business interruption might not have a significant business effect. 也可能从业务角度来看需要优先进行快速恢复,而不是投资于复原能力。Or the business priority might be to recover quickly instead of investing in resiliency.

如果不需解决技术债务,则通常情况下,下一步会进行自动修正。When resolution of technical debt isn't the desired approach, automated remediation is commonly the next step. 使用 Azure 自动化和 Azure Monitor 来检测趋势并提供自动修正是最常用于自动修正的方法。Using Azure Automation and Azure Monitor to detect trends and provide automated remediation is the most common approach to automated remediation.

有关自动修正的指南,请参阅 Azure 自动化和警报For guidance on automated remediation, see Azure Automation and alerts.

通过服务目录扩展解决方案Scale the solution with a service catalog

管理良好的服务目录是平台专用化和平台运营的基石。A well-managed service catalog is the cornerstone of platform specialization and platform operations. 使用目录是改进系统设计并将修正扩展到整个环境的方式。Use of a catalog is how improvements to systems design and remediation are scaled across an environment.

云平台团队和云自动化团队可以合作创建适用于任何环境中的最常用平台的可重复解决方案。The cloud platform team and cloud automation team align to create repeatable solutions to the most common platforms in any environment. 但是,如果这些解决方案的使用方式不一致,则云管理只能提供基线产品/服务。But if those solutions aren't consistently used, cloud management can provide little more than a baseline offering.

对于任何优化的平台,若要在尽量使用它的同时尽量降低其维护开销,则应将该平台添加到 Azure 服务目录。To maximize adoption and minimize maintenance overhead of any optimized platform, you should add the platform to an Azure service catalog. 目录中的每个应用程序在部署后可以通过服务目录供内部使用,也可以以市场产品/服务的形式供外部消费者使用。You can deploy each application in the catalog for internal consumption via the service catalog or as a marketplace offering for external consumers.

若要了解如何发布到服务目录,请参阅有关如何发布到服务目录的系列文章。For instructions on publishing to a service catalog, see the article series on publishing to a service catalog.

从服务目录部署应用程序Deploy applications from the service catalog

  1. 在 Azure 门户中,转到“托管应用程序中心(预览)”。In the Azure portal, go to Managed applications center (preview).
  2. 在“浏览”窗格中,选择“服务目录应用程序”。On the Browse pane, select Service Catalog applications.
  3. 单击“+ 添加”,从公司的服务目录中选择一个应用程序定义。Select + Add to choose an application definition from your company's service catalog.

你维护的任何托管应用程序都会显示。Any managed applications you're servicing are displayed.

管理服务目录应用程序Manage service catalog applications

  1. 在 Azure 门户中,转到“托管应用程序中心(预览)”。In the Azure portal, go to Managed applications center (preview).
  2. 在“服务”窗格中,选择“服务目录应用程序”。On the Service pane, select Service Catalog applications.

你维护的任何托管应用程序都会显示。Any managed applications you're servicing are displayed.

持续改进Continuous improvement

平台专用化和平台运营均依赖于采用、平台、自动化和管理团队之间的强大反馈循环。Platform specialization and platform operations both depend on strong feedback loops among adoption, platform, automation, and management teams. 这些反馈循环基于数据,有助于每个团队进行明智的决策。Grounding those feedback loops in data helps each team make wise decisions. 如果希望平台运营能够实现长期业务承诺,则必须使用特定于中心化平台的见解。For platform operations to achieve long-term business commitments, it's important to use insights specific to the centralized platform.

容器和 SQL Server 是两个最常用的集中管理平台。Containers and SQL Server are the two most common centrally managed platforms. 可参阅以下文章,了解如何在这些平台上开始进行持续改进数据的收集:These articles can help you get started with continuous-improvement data collection on those platforms: