云中的 IT 管理和运营IT management and operations in the cloud
当企业迁移到基于云的模型以后，必须特别强调正确管理和运营的重要性。As a business moves to a cloud-based model, the importance of proper management and operations can't be overstated. 遗憾的是，做好转变 IT 管理方式准备的组织不多，而这种转变是成功构建云优先运营模型所必需的。Unfortunately, few organizations are prepared for the IT management shift that's required for success in building a cloud-first operating model. 云采用框架的此部分概述了运营模型、过程，以及已证明能够在云中成功使用的工具。This section of the Cloud Adoption Framework outlines the operating model, processes, and tooling that have proven successful in the cloud. 这些领域中的每一个都代表企业在开始采用云时对 IT 运营和管理的看待方式的微小但基本的变化。Each of these areas represents a minor but fundamental change in the way the business should view IT operations and management as it begins to adopt the cloud.
IT 管理简史Brief history of IT management
在云出现之前，IT 管理是从简单的购置功能成长起来的。Before the cloud, IT management grew from a simple acquisition function. 购置技术设备来支持业务流程需要技术知识以及对特定设备供应商群的深刻体验。Acquisition of technical equipment to support business processes required technical expertise and deep experience with a specific group of equipment vendors. IT 管理合并了对 IT 资产的选择、购置和配置。IT management consolidated the selection, acquisition, and configuration of IT assets. 通常情况下，获取的资产包括存储、计算能力、网络和其他类似资产，这些都是为所需业务职能提供支持所必需的。Generally, the acquired assets included storage, computing power, networking, and other similar assets that are required to power the desired business function. 作为设备方面的主要专项事务专家，IT 人员还有一个任务，那就是操作设备，确保性能最大化和业务中断最小化。As the primary subject matter experts on the equipment, IT was also tasked with operating the equipment to ensure maximum performance and minimal business disruptions.
企业在构建新技术解决方案时会有明确的需求，因此在获取资产或者甚至构建完整的数据中心时，必然会有相关的大笔支出。When the business builds out new technology solutions, it has a clear need that can justify the significant expenses associated with acquiring assets, or even building out full datacenters. 在构建解决方案时，企业会将购置成本视为对未来的投资。When it builds solutions, the business sees the acquisition costs as an investment in the future. 企业需求满足以后，对相同成本的认知会变化。After the business need is met, the perception of the same costs shifts. 与现有解决方案关联的成本会被视为过去需求产生的运营拖累。Costs that are associated with existing solutions are seen as operational drag that's created by past needs. 这种认知解释了为何许多企业将 IT 视为成本中心。That perception is why many businesses view IT as a cost center. 它还解释了为何许多 IT 组织会经常进行成本控制练习，或者会减少 IT 员工。It's also why many IT organizations experience regular cost-control exercises or reductions in IT staff.
历史 IT 运营模型在过去 20 多年来一直适用。The historical IT operating model was sufficient for over 20 years. 但是，该模型现在已过时，与云优先替代方案比缺少吸引力。But that model is now outdated and is less desirable than cloud-first alternatives. IT 管理团队在迁移到云后有机会重新思考该模型，为企业带来更大价值。When IT management teams move to the cloud, they have an opportunity to rethink this model and drive greater value for the business. 此文章系列概述了 IT 管理的现代化模型。This article series outlines a modernized model of IT management.