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云管理的业务承诺Business commitment in cloud management

定义 业务承诺 是平衡优先级的一项工作。Defining business commitment is an exercise in balancing priorities. 其目标是将适当级别的操作管理与可接受的操作成本进行对齐。The objective is to align the proper level of operational management at an acceptable operating cost. 查找此余额需要几个数据点和计算,我们在本文中对此进行了介绍。Finding that balance requires a few data points and calculations, which we've outlined in this article.

平衡成本和复原能力

通过技术复原或其他服务级别协议( (SLA) 影响)承诺业务稳定性是一项业务理由。Commitments to business stability, via technical resiliency or other service-level agreement (SLA) impacts, are a business justification decision. 对于环境中的大部分工作负荷,云管理的基线级别已足够。For most workloads in an environment, a baseline level of cloud management is sufficient. 对于其他情况,由于任何业务中断的潜在影响,增加了2到4倍的成本。For others, a 2x to 4x cost increase is easily justified because of the potential impact of any business interruptions.

本系列文章中的以前文章可帮助你了解各种工作负荷的中断分类和影响。The previous articles in this series can help you understand the classification and impact of interruptions to various workloads. 本文将帮助你计算返回的。This article helps you calculate the returns. 如上图中所示,每个云管理级别都有转折点的点,在这种情况下,成本可能比复原增加速度快。As illustrated in the preceding image, each level of cloud management has inflection points where cost can rise faster than increases in resiliency. 这些转折点点将提示详细的业务决策和业务承诺。Those inflection points will prompt detailed business decisions and business commitments.

确定使用业务的适当承诺Determine a proper commitment with the business

对于项目组合中的每个工作负荷,云运营团队和云策略团队应与云运营团队直接提供的管理级别一致。For each workload in the portfolio, the cloud operations team and cloud strategy team should align on the level of management that's provided directly by the cloud operations team.

当你与业务建立承诺时,有几个关键方面要对齐:As you're establishing a commitment with the business, there are a few key aspects to align:

  • IT 操作的先决条件。IT operations prerequisites.
  • 管理责任。Management responsibility.
  • 云租户。Cloud tenancy.
  • 软成本因素。Soft-cost factors.
  • 避免投资回报率。Loss avoidance ROI.
  • 验证管理级别。Validation of management level.

为了帮助您做出决策,本文的剩余部分更详细地介绍了其中的每个方面。To aid in your decision process, the remainder of this article describes each of these aspects in greater detail.

IT 操作先决条件IT operations prerequisites

Azure 管理指南概述了 azure 中可用的管理工具。The Azure Management Guide outlines the management tools that are available in Azure. 在与业务承诺联系之前,应确定适用于所有托管工作负荷的可接受的标准级别管理基线。Before reaching a commitment with the business, IT should determine an acceptable standard-level management baseline to be applied to all managed workloads. 然后,它会根据 CPU 内核数、磁盘空间和其他资产相关变量,计算 IT 组合中每个托管工作负荷的标准管理成本。IT would then calculate a standard management cost for each of the managed workloads in the IT portfolio, based on counts of CPU cores, disk space, and other asset-related variables. 它还会根据体系结构为每个工作负荷估算复合 SLA。IT would also estimate a composite SLA for each workload, based on the architecture.

提示

IT 运营团队通常使用初始复合 SLA 的默认最低99.9% 运行时间。IT operations teams often use a default minimum of 99.9 percent uptime for the initial composite SLA. 它们还可以选择基于平均工作负荷标准化管理成本,尤其是对于具有最小日志记录和存储需求的解决方案。They might also choose to normalize management costs based on the average workload, especially for solutions with minimal logging and storage needs. 对于几个大中型关键工作负荷的成本,可以为初始对话提供起点。Averaging the costs of a few medium criticality workloads can provide a starting point for initial conversations.

提示

如果你使用 operations management 工作簿 来规划云管理,则应更新操作管理字段,以反映这些先决条件。If you're using the operations management workbook to plan for cloud management, the operations management fields should be updated to reflect these prerequisites. 这些字段包括 承诺级别复合 SLA每月成本Those fields include Commitment level, Composite SLA, and Monthly cost. 每月费用应表示每月添加的操作管理工具的成本。Monthly cost should represent the cost of the added operational management tools on a monthly basis.

Operations management 基线作为初始开始点,将在以下各节中进行验证。The operations management baseline serves as an initial starting point to be validated in each of the following sections.

管理责任Management responsibility

在传统的本地环境中,通常会将环境管理成本假定为 IT 运营所拥有的 sunk 成本。In a traditional on-premises environment, the cost of managing the environment is commonly assumed to be a sunk cost that's owned by IT operations. 在云中,管理是对直接预算影响的目的性决策。In the cloud, management is a purposeful decision with direct budgetary impact. 每个管理功能的成本可能更直接地归属于部署到云的每个工作负荷。The costs of each management function can be more directly attributed to each workload that's deployed to the cloud. 此方法允许进行更好的控制,但它确实为云操作团队和云策略团队创建了一种要求,以首先提交到有关责任的协议。This approach allows for greater control, but it does create a requirement for cloud operations teams and cloud strategy teams to first commit to an agreement about responsibilities.

组织还可能选择将 其某些正在进行的管理功能外包给服务提供商Organizations might also choose to outsource some of their ongoing management functions to a service provider. 这些服务提供商可以使用 Azure Lighthouse 为组织提供更精确的控制,以授予对其资源的访问权限,同时更深入地了解服务提供商执行的操作。These service providers can use Azure Lighthouse to give organizations more precise control in granting access to their resources, along with greater visibility into the actions performed by the service providers.

  • 委派责任: 由于不需要集中和承担操作管理开销,因此许多组织的 IT 操作都考虑到了新方法。Delegated responsibility: Because there's no need to centralize and assume operational management overhead, IT operations for many organizations are considering new approaches. 一种常见的方法称为 委托责任One common approach is referred to as delegated responsibility. 在优秀模型的云中心,平台操作和平台自动化提供了自助服务管理工具,这些工具可由业务 led 运营团队使用,与集中式 IT 运营团队无关。In a cloud center of excellence model, platform operations and platform automation provide self-service management tools that can be used by business-led operations teams, independent of a centralized IT operations team. 此方法可让业务利益干系人完全控制与管理相关的预算。This approach gives business stakeholders complete control over management-related budgets. 它还允许) 团队的云中心 (CCoE,以确保已正确实现 guardrails 的最小集。It also allows the cloud center of excellence (CCoE) team to ensure that a minimum set of guardrails has been properly implemented. 在此模型中,它充当经纪人和指南,可帮助业务作出明智的决策。In this model, IT acts as a broker and a guide to help the business make wise decisions. 业务运营监视相关工作负荷的日常操作。Business operations oversee day to day operations of dependent workloads.

  • 集中责任: 合规性要求、技术复杂性和某些共享服务模型可能需要 中心 IT 团队 模型。Centralized responsibility: Compliance requirements, technical complexity, and some shared service models might require a Central IT team model. 在此模型中,它将继续执行其运营管理责任。In this model, IT continues to exercise its operations management responsibilities. 环境设计、管理控件和调控工具可能会集中管理和控制,这会限制业务利益干系人在做出管理承诺方面的角色。Environmental design, management controls, and governance tooling might be centrally managed and controlled, which restricts the role of business stakeholders in making management commitments. 但对云方法的成本和体系结构的了解可使集中式 IT 与每个工作负荷的成本和管理级别的管理变得更加容易。But the visibility into the cost and architecture of cloud approaches makes it much easier for centralized IT to communicate the cost and level of management for each workload.

  • 混合模型: 分类是管理责任 混合模型 的核心。Mixed model: Classification is at the heart of a mixed model of management responsibilities. 在从本地到云的转换过程中,可能需要一段时间才能实现本地-第一种操作模型。Companies that are in the midst of a transformation from on-premises to cloud might require an on-premises-first operating model for a while. 具有严格符合要求的公司或依赖于 IT 外包供应商的长期合同的公司可能需要集中操作模型。Companies with strict compliance requirements, or that depend on long-term contracts with IT outsourcing vendors, might require a centralized operating model.

    如今的企业必须创新,而不考虑其限制。Regardless of their constraints, today's businesses must innovate. 当快速创新必须发展时,在中心 IT、集中式责任模型的中间,混合模型方法可能会提供平衡。When rapid innovation must flourish, in the midst of a central-IT, centralized-responsibility model, a mixed-model approach might provide balance. 在此方法中,中心 IT 团队为所有任务关键型工作负荷或包含敏感信息的工作负荷提供了一个集中的操作模型。In this approach, a central IT team provides a centralized operating model for all workloads that are mission-critical or contain sensitive information. 同时,所有其他工作负荷分类都可能放置在为委托责任设计的云环境中。At the same time, all other workload classifications might be placed in a cloud environment that's designed for delegated responsibilities. 集中的责任方法用作常规操作模型。The centralized responsibility approach serves as the general operating model. 然后,业务可以根据其所需的支持和敏感性级别灵活地采用专用的操作模型。The business then has flexibility to adopt a specialized operating model, based on its required level of support and sensitivity.

第一步是提交责任方法,然后将以下承诺组合在一起。The first step is committing to a responsibility approach, which then shapes the following commitments.

哪些组织将负责此工作负荷的日常操作管理?Which organization will be responsible for day-to-day operations management for this workload?

云租户Cloud tenancy

对于大多数企业而言,当所有资产驻留在单个租户中时,管理就更容易。For most businesses, management is easier when all assets reside in a single tenant. 但是,某些组织可能需要维护多个租户。However, some organizations might need to maintain multiple tenants. 若要了解企业可能需要多租户 Azure 环境的原因,请参阅 使用 Azure Lighthouse 集中管理操作To learn why a business might require a multitenant Azure environment, see Centralize management operations with Azure Lighthouse.

此工作负荷是否位于单个 Azure 租户中,以及所有其他工作负载?Will this workload reside in a single Azure tenant, alongside all other workloads?

软成本因素Soft-cost factors

下一节概述了一种比较返回的方法,该方法与管理过程和工具的级别相关联。The next section outlines an approach to comparative returns that are associated with levels of management processes and tooling. 在该部分结束时,每个分析的工作负荷都将衡量与业务中断的预测影响相关的管理成本。At the end of that section, each analyzed workload measures the cost of management relative to the forecast impact of business disruptions. 这种方法提供了一种相对简单的方法来了解是否保证更丰富的管理方法的投资。That approach provides a relatively easy way to understand whether an investment in richer management approaches is warranted.

在运行数字之前,请务必查看软成本因素。Before you run the numbers, it's important to look at the soft-cost factors. 软成本因素产生了一个回报,但这种回报很难通过直接硬性成本节约来衡量,而这会在损益声明中显示。Soft-cost factors produce a return, but that return is difficult to measure through direct hard-cost savings that would be visible in a profit-and-loss statement. 软成本因素很重要,因为它们可以表示需要投资更高的管理级别,而不是 fiscally。Soft-cost factors are important because they can indicate a need to invest in a higher level of management than is fiscally prudent.

一些软成本因素的示例包括:A few examples of soft-cost factors would include:

  • 板或 CEO 的每日工作负荷使用量。Daily workload usage by the board or CEO.
  • 排名 靠前的客户 使用的工作负荷,导致在其他地方产生更大的收入影响。Workload usage by the top x% of customers that leads to a greater revenue impact elsewhere.
  • 对员工满意度的影响。Impact on employee satisfaction.

做出承诺所需的下一个数据点是软成本因素的列表。The next data point that's required to make a commitment is a list of soft-cost factors. 在此阶段无需记录这些因素,但业务利益干系人应当知道这些因素的重要性,以及它们从以下计算中排除的重要性。These factors don't need to be documented at this stage, but business stakeholders should be aware of the importance of these factors and their exclusion from the following calculations.

计算避免投资回报率Calculate loss avoidance ROI

在计算运营管理成本的相对返回值时,负责云操作的 IT 团队应完成前面提到的先决条件,并承担针对所有工作负荷的最低管理级别。When it's calculating the relative return on operations management costs, the IT team that's responsible for cloud operations should complete the previously mentioned prerequisites and assume a minimum level of management for all workloads.

下一项承诺是由与基线托管产品关联的成本的业务接受的。The next commitment to be made is an acceptance by the business of the costs associated with the baseline-managed offering.

业务是否同意投资于基准产品/服务以满足云操作的最低标准?Does the business agree to invest in the baseline offering to meet minimum standards of cloud operations?

如果业务不同意这一级别的管理,则必须设计一个解决方案,使企业能够继续工作,而不会对其他工作负荷的云操作产生任何影响。If the business does not agree to that level of management, a solution must be devised that allows the business to proceed, without materially affecting the cloud operations of other workloads.

如果业务需要超过标准管理级别,本部分的其余部分将帮助验证该投资和相关的返回 (以规避) 的形式进行。If the business wants more than the standard management level, the remainder of this section will help validate that investment and the associated returns (in the form of loss avoidance).

增强的管理级别:设计原则和服务目录Increased levels of management: Design principles and service catalog

对于托管解决方案,除了管理基线外,还可以应用多个设计原则和模板解决方案。For managed solutions, several design principles and template solutions can be applied in addition to the management baseline. 可靠性和复原的每个设计原则增加了工作负荷的运营成本。Each of the design principles for reliability and resiliency adds operating cost to the workload. 为了使 IT 和业务对这些额外承诺达成共识,了解可能会因投资增加而避免的可能损失。For IT and the business to agree on these additional commitments, it's important to understand potential losses that can be avoided through that increased investment.

以下计算将遍历公式,以帮助你更好地了解损失与增加的管理投资之间的差异。The following calculations will walk through formulas to help you better understand the differences between losses and increased management investments. 有关计算增加管理成本的指导,请参阅 工作负荷自动化平台自动化For guidance on calculating the cost of increased management, see Workload automation and Platform automation.

提示

如果你使用 operations management 工作簿 来规划云管理,请更新操作管理字段,以反映每个会话。If you're using the operations management workbook to plan for cloud management, update the operations management fields to reflect to reflect each conversation. 这些字段包括 承诺级别复合 SLA每月成本Those fields include Commitment level, Composite SLA, and Monthly cost. 每月费用应表示添加的操作管理工具的每月成本。Monthly cost should represent the monthly cost of the added operational management tools. 更新后,这些字段将更新 ROI 公式和以下每个字段。After they're updated, the fields will update the ROI formulas and each of the following fields.

估计每年 (小时的停机时间) Estimate outage (hours per year)

复合 SLA 是基于工作负荷中每个资产的部署的服务级别协议。Composite SLA is the service-level agreement that's based on the deployment of each asset in the workload. 该字段将 (Est.Outage 在工作簿) 中标记的预计中断。That field drives estimated outage (labeled Est.Outage in the workbook). 若要计算每年不使用工作簿时的估计中断数,请应用以下公式:To calculate estimated outage in hours per year without using the workbook, apply the following formula:

估计中断 = (1-复合 SLA 百分比) × 一年中的小时数Estimated outage = (1 - composite SLA percentage) × number of hours in a year

工作簿使用默认值 8760 小时/年The workbook uses the default value of 8,760 hours per year.

标准丢失影响Standard loss impact

(在工作簿中标记的 标准损失影响 Standard Impact) 预测任何中断的财务影响,假定 预计的中断 预测已获得准确的证明。Standard loss impact (labeled Standard Impact in the workbook) forecasts the financial impact of any outage, assuming that the estimated outage prediction proves accurate. 若要在不使用工作簿的情况下计算此预测,请应用以下公式:To calculate this forecast without using the workbook, apply the following formula:

标准影响 = 估计的停机时间为三个9的正常运行时间 × 时间值影响Standard impact = estimated outage @ three 9s of uptime × time-value impact

当业务利益干系人选择投入更高的管理层时,这就是成本的基准。This serves as a baseline for cost, should the business stakeholders choose to invest in a higher level of management.

复合-SLA 影响Composite-SLA impact

(在工作簿中标记的 复合 SLA 影响 Commitment level impact) 根据对运行时间 SLA 的更改提供更新的会计影响。Composite-SLA impact (labeled Commitment level impact in the workbook) provides updated fiscal impact, based on the changes to the uptime SLA. 利用此计算,您可以比较这两个选项的预计财务影响。This calculation allows you to compare the projected financial impact of both options. 若要在不使用电子表格的情况下计算此预测影响,请应用以下公式:To calculate this forecast impact without the spreadsheet, apply the following formula:

复合-SLA 影响 = 预计中断 × 时间值影响Composite-SLA impact = estimated outage × time-value impact

值表示更改的承诺级别和新的复合 SLA 要避免的潜在损失。The value represents the potential losses to be avoided by the changed commitment level and new composite SLA.

比较基础Comparison basis

比较基础 评估标准影响和复合 SLA 影响,以确定哪种最适合返回列。Comparison basis evaluates standard impact and composite SLA impact to determine which is most appropriate in the return column.

避免丢失时返回Return on loss avoidance

如果管理工作负荷的成本超出了可能的损失,则云管理中的建议投资可能不成效。If the cost of managing a workload exceeds the potential losses, the proposed investment in cloud management might not be fruitful. 若要比较 避免丢失 情况,请参阅标签为 * 年投资回报 * * * * 的列。To compare the Return on Loss Avoidance, see the column labeled *Annual ROI*****. 若要自行计算此列,请使用以下公式:To calculate this column on your own, use the following formula:

避免丢失时返回 = (比较基础- (每月成本 × 12) ) ÷ (每月成本 × 12) )Return on loss avoidance = (comparison basis - (monthly cost × 12) ) ÷ (monthly cost × 12) )

除非有其他需要考虑的软成本因素,否则这一比较可以迅速建议是否应该在云操作、复原、可靠性或其他领域中进行更深入的投资。Unless there are other soft-cost factors to consider, this comparison can quickly suggest whether there should be a deeper investment in cloud operations, resiliency, reliability, or other areas.

验证承诺Validate the commitment

在此过程中,已做出了承诺:集中式或委托责任、Azure 租户和承诺级别。By this point in the process, commitments have been made: centralized or delegated responsibility, Azure tenancy, and level of commitment. 每项承诺都应进行验证和记录,以确保云运营团队、云策略团队和业务利益干系人对管理工作负荷的这项承诺进行了调整。Each commitment should be validated and documented to ensure that the cloud operations team, the cloud strategy team, and the business stakeholders are aligned on this commitment to manage the workload.

后续步骤Next steps

做出承诺后,责任运营团队即可开始配置相关工作负荷。After the commitments are made, the responsible operations teams can begin configuring the workload in question. 若要开始,请评估用于 清点和可见性的各种方法。To get started, evaluate various approaches to inventory and visibility.